Eastern scientists could be the first to boast good selection results. After all, it was there that they learned to do the impossible - to turn existing breeds into improved hybrids. Breeding science does not stand still, and today all over the world they know what to do in order to get new hybrids with improved indicators of productivity and appearance.
But, the quail we are considering was brought out in the east, and more precisely, in China. Scientists from the institute of poultry farming in the city of Shanghai worked on the creation of meat and egg hens. Scientists have set a goal to reduce weight, increase egg productivity and speed of maturation.
The poultry obtained as a result of the breeding was fixed, and it was registered with the Ministry of Agriculture. The famous poultry breeder Nikolay Roshchin from the city of Khabarovsk brought a Chinese laying hen to the territory of Russia.
- The maximum weight of roosters is about 2 kg, and chickens - 1.5 kg.
- There are 3 types of color: black, red and red. The most common black.
- The body is small, with a light bone structure, in the form of a trapezoid.
- The head and neck are of medium size.
- Comb and earrings are well developed, bright scarlet color.
- Paws have a gray-yellow color, a bit short. Hips and legs are small.
The decorative qualities of the breed complements an interesting temper. Chinese women are light, mobile and active. In addition, they are very disciplined and easily adapt to new conditions and mode of life. An unusually willow very neat.
The herd cannot imagine life without walking and attempting to fly - it is worth protecting their walking yard. Chinese leaders rarely show aggression, although they compete with each other at certain stages.
Puberty and egg production
Thanks to the Shanghai scholars, the clubs very quickly mature and enter the path of "labor activity." They begin to be born from 4-4.5 months, but this does not mean that the feathered worker has fully matured. Initially, the weight of the eggs barely reaches 55 grams, but in the second year the hen is able to set aside larger ones - about 60 grams each.
For the year, the quiver lays more than 250 eggs. This is an average value that does not exceed the productivity of many other species. But, Xin Xin Dian is a poultry chickens, which is very much appreciated, and not at all for quantitative indicators.
The fact is that the testicles have a unique composition, appearance, and can even be used as a medicine. To begin with, what is unusual in these eggs is even a shell that is colored turquoise at the time of the start of egg-laying, and then takes on a bluish tint.
Pretty women with red feathers carry brown testicles, but this color of the shell is also sometimes manifested in other colored leaves, if you do not separate them by color for mating. This is not considered a deviation, although experienced poultry farmers recommend separating families by feather color for maximum productivity.
In terms of their composition, the testicles are very similar to the results of the Uhuyilyui hens. They contain a set of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, which helps restore the body.
Thanks to the consumption of such testicles can strengthen the immune system and the nervous system, normalize hormones, get rid of problems with overweight and even cure diabetes.
Today, the use of eggs as a medicine is recognized by the traditional medicine of China, although it is rarely practiced in our latitudes.
We all are accustomed to consider the quail eggs the most beneficial to health, but these contain much more nutrients and are easier for the body to absorb.
In modern poultry farming, the presence of maternal instinct is not a determining factor in the choice of breed, because in each farm there are incubators that sometimes cope with the incubation of offspring much better.
But, the hen from China copes very well with its maternal responsibilities. It is not necessary to resort to the use of an incubator. Although on a large scale it may be more convenient.
Chickens Xin Xin Dian
Dilution of Chinese quills is not a troublesome matter, given that babies are born strong and durable, with a high percentage of preservation. 95-98% of young stock survive, while complying with all traditional guidelines for grooming and feeding.
The color of the shell does not affect the color of the chicken, which he curses out of it. Depending on the color, babies are born black, yellow and red. Chickens grow quickly and fledge if they are well fed. By 2 months, gain weight up to 700-800 grams.
Feeding offspring is also not a problem. Chickens need a traditional diet consisting of boiled eggs, corn grits and greens - in the first 10 days. In the same period, cottage cheese and baker's yeast are given separately.
Further feeding occurs with the help of combined feeds according to age, and boiled vegetables are added to the menu. Do not forget about vitamins and minerals that are necessary for fast-growing organisms - they are added to food separately.
Eating adult chickens
Considering the moment that the clubs are well carried, it is worthwhile to take care that they receive all the necessary nutrients with food. Chinese women eat a little, and because of this, it is especially important to monitor the balance of nutrients in the food they feed.
Here are some tips on feeding the hens.
- As a grain component in the ration of the klush, there should be a combined feed consisting of half corn and the remaining 50% of the other cereals. In the feed must be present wheat, barley, oats.
- To preserve the health and proper formation of eggs, the klips need many vitamins. Much depends on the ration of the hens. Therefore, it costs 40% of the daily menu to fill with vegetables and herbs. In the summer, they get greens during walking, and in the winter, it is artificially added to wet mashes in the form of grass or pine flour. An important nuance - in addition to greens and vegetables, vitamin mixtures should be served at least 2-3 times a week.
- Animal protein is an indispensable ingredient in chicken diets. His chickens are obtained from meat and fish waste, worms and other insects, which they are happy to find while walking in their yard. Vegetable protein they get by eating oats.
- The beauty of plumage and strong immunity in chickens - is the result of periodic consumption of fish oil, sprouted grains, yeast.
- And of course the minerals. Due to the active laying of eggs and the need for them. Therefore, mineral supplements with high calcium content, salt, shells, ground shells, bone meal - all this should be served in wet mash on a daily basis.
- Chinese Quotes are not able to tolerate low temperatures. They quickly fall ill due to frost, cold and damp. Therefore, it is important to provide them with the most favorable climatic conditions. This is optimum humidity, good ventilation, dry bedding and heating. Below 5-7 degrees of heat, the temperature in the chicken coop should not fall. With subzero temperatures, the birds do not walk on the run.
- But in the warm season, they need to walk as much as possible - they are active and restless. Just prepare the yard for this case in advance - you need to install a fence that nimble birds will not be able to fly. And they fly high enough - well-developed wings and low weight allow them such luxury.
- Important is the proper arrangement of housing for chickens. As mentioned above, they are very disciplined and get used to a certain order of life. Farmers point out that they even occupy the same places on the perches for a night rest. Therefore, it is important to equip their homes in such a way that they can feel comfortable during sleep and during the laying process. At 1 feathery beauty you need at least 40 cm perch.
- Clean and dry bedding is one of the important rules to prevent disease. It is especially important to monitor this in the winter. One of the best materials for litter is peat, as it prevents the growth of pathogens and absorbs moisture well.
Shedding and breaking egg production
The annual autumn molt at the klush is a period when they need increased nutrition and care. Replacing laying feather coat for a while stops laying, as the body's forces are aimed at the speedy recovery. Shedding makes their health vulnerable, so watch the birds, make sure that they eat well and do not overcooled.
An age-related decline in egg production begins to be observed after 3 years. The peak of productivity is considered the 2nd year of egg-laying. Therefore, by the third year it is worth growing a worthy replacement - the generation of young stock.
Care and maintenance
Breed Xin translates as "Chicken Carrying Green Eggs". And this is due to its genetic characteristics.
Content Xin Xin Dian does not differ from the care of other breeds:
- The diet is dominated by mixers from cereals and leguminous crops in various combinations.
- Chickens do not disdain the combined feed produced by industrial enterprises.
- A green top dressing from nettle, carrots, other herbs and vegetables is a favorite additive in all seasons.
The bird tolerates positive temperature better, which is typical for all warm-blooded animals. At the same time, there are cases when chickens raced at temperatures below -10 degrees.
The big lack of feathered - vagrancy. If they decided to take a walk, then a fence two meters high would not hold them.
But this minus to the end of the walk turns into a plus. No matter how far the chickens run away and fly away, in the evening the birds return to their native perches.
Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications
Blue Xin Dian are small chickens, but eggs are considered to be their most valuable property. In purebred layers, they are turquoise or pale blue. The hue varies with the age of the chicken: the older, the darker the shell, while leaving the color. Also, the intensity depends on the usefulness of egg-laying. With daily wear - the eggs lighten.
The people of this feathered acquired extensive love and received the nickname - blue.
Advantages and disadvantages
In the Russian market, the Chinese breed not so long ago, in a short time, it was able to win the sympathy of many farmers. Of the indisputable advantages emit:
- high egg laying rates,
- tender, rich to taste meat,
- unconventional color of eggs and a rich composition of trace elements,
- unpretentious care,
- strong innate immunity,
- calm and friendly nature.
The precocity of the hens is noted, the first clutch is already carried out at 4-5 months, a good and rapid weight gain of the young. For the first 2 months, chickens add up to 800 grams.
Despite the extensive list of advantages, Xin Xin Dian have a number of negative features:
- low frost resistance
- high sensitivity to damp
- short period of reproductive function
- susceptibility to parasitic diseases.
The temptation of a blue and a blue dyan is balanced, not disturbing. Chickens are light, active and mobile. At the same time in the team developed discipline and love for accuracy, order. Individuals quickly adapt to new living conditions and other poultry houses.
Representatives of the breed love to walk in the fresh air. Therefore, they are required to enclosure free grazing.
The outer courtyard is surrounded by high fences, as Chinese hens fly quite well.
Egg production rates
Laying eggs are large, but an increase in size is achieved only in the second year of egg-laying and reaches 60 grams. Up to this point, rates range from 50 to 55 grams each.
The average number of eggs per year is about 250 pieces. This is a low, but not a low indicator, but at the same time, blue and blue dian are considered to be just like an egg breed. This happens because of certain features:
- unusual product color from turquoise to blue,
- exclusive composition, rich in microelements and vitamin components.
Eating eggs Xin Xin Dian promotes faster recovery of the body and the formation of a strong immune system. Their components also have a beneficial effect on the nervous and hormonal systems. Doctors recommend their use to overweight people and diabetics.
In China, the treatment of eggs Xin Xin Dian is recognized as the official method of traditional medicine. In Russia, such methods are not common.
The maternal instinct in this breed is highly developed, so many poultry farmers choose a mixed method of incubation: the natural one and the incubator.
Up to 70% of laying hens have a hatching instinct and are very keen on offspring. At the same time, poultry farmers of large farms prefer to place eggs in an incubator. Thereby achieve a higher% of hatching chicks.
Chickens can leave the perch rather than cooling eggs. Accordingly, the% productivity decreases significantly.
Artificial cultivation ensures that the temperature is stable, the room is free from drafts and the number of future chickens can be predicted.
Puberty in blue and blue dianes occurs early, by 4–4.5 months they are ready for fertilization. At the same time, farmers bring pets to egg production closer to 5-6 months, when hormones finally formed.
Despite the early maturity, the period of bearing is short, in the third year the productivity drops significantly.
The history of the appearance of the Chinese breed
The Chinese are a secretive people and are not in a hurry to share the details of their achievements. The only thing known about the breed is that it is a cross (hybrid), which is the result of the painstaking work of the breeders of the Shanghai Poultry Institute, who tried to achieve the solution of three tasks at once:
- increase egg production rates
- increase the size of the egg, not enlarging the chicken itself, but, on the contrary, reducing its weight,
- accelerate the ripening process (get the earliest onset of egg production as early as possible).
In the 80s of the last century, the chickens that met the stated requirements were finally obtained, and the initial characteristics in the breed were consolidated, thanks to which it was officially registered with the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, received its own trademark and was recommended for breeding “In itself,” that is, to maintain cross-breeding, it is not necessary to carry out interbreed crossings every time, mating the birds of this breed with each other is sufficient.
A new Chinese breed has entered the territory of Russia relatively recently. In 2012, it was brought in eggs by amateur enthusiast Nikolai Roshchin, a resident of the Black River (a small village near Khabarovsk), who owns today more than a thousand chickens of the rarest breeds.
Since then, the Chinese hen has managed to settle down and be loved by the people of Russia and nearby countries, and even get affectionate nickname "blue".
Video: description of the breed of chickens Xin Xin Dian
In hens of the egg direction, very often there is no incubation instinct; for this, such birds are too active. But Chinese blueprints are rare exceptions. Poultry farmers note that 60–70% of Xin Xin Dian layers are excellent hens, and therefore, the breed can be used by those who have neither an incubator nor other alternative options (often eggs of irresponsible “cuckoos” are simply placed on other breeds, with more developed maternal instinct).
However, some farmers, especially owners of large farms, still prefer to use an incubator, since natural incubation There are disadvantages:
- the hen “owes nothing to anyone”: she sits on the eggs when she wants, and does not give any guarantees for the fulfillment of her mother's duties
- in the cold season, newly hatched chickens may die from the cold, left unattended (in the incubator, where the desired temperature is set, this is excluded),
- It is difficult to predict the number of chickens, when it is unknown how many eggs are currently hatching,
- the constant laying of fresh eggs in the nest minimizes the “exit” of the chickens: only a small part of the total number hatches, the rest perish,
- the forced removal from the nest of the well-fed “mommy” becomes a serious stress for the chicks.
In order for the chickens to be well carried, they need a lot of light. In winter, egg production decreases sharply, not only because it becomes cold in the hen house, but also due to a significant reduction in daylight hours. Therefore, when growing egg breeds, such as Xin Xin Dian, it is especially important to organize additional lighting in the hen house.
А для того чтобы минимизировать расходы на электроэнергию, при строительстве птичника следует уделить особое внимание размерам окон: если их площадь будет составлять хотя бы 10 % от площади пола, естественное освещение будет использоваться наиболее полно.
Other features of the arrangement of the house are also associated with the egg orientation of the Chinese chickens. In addition to the standard requirements for cleanliness, dryness, the absence of drafts and at the same time good ventilation, The following indicators are also important for Xin Xin Dian:
- good thermal insulation, especially for cold climatic zones - “blue” do not tolerate frosts, so in winter the air temperature in the house should not even approach zero level - the permissible minimum is from +5 to + 7 ° С,
- if necessary, in the winter time, heaters should be installed in the house,
Shedding and a break in egg production
The peculiarity of the Chinese chickens is that their egg production is not preserved throughout the season, even if the temperature and light conditions are perfectly organized. Every autumn, the birds start shedding, replacing the "summer" plumage to a more dense and dense.
At this time, the laying hens are completely focused on warming, and taking care of the egg-laying and offspring is completely useless to chickens. Seasonal moulting is a natural process, and you should not panic and be upset about it.
It can last 1.5–2 months. During this period, the bird is most vulnerable to various diseases, therefore, the breeder at this time should pay special attention to its feathered herd: make sure that the house is dry, clean and warm, and also provide the klush with an enhanced diet enriched with vitamins, first of all A, D, B1 and B3.
Diseases and methods of dealing with them
The main problem for Xin Xin Dian is parasitic infections. Possessing a fairly good immunity, Chinese chickens are still very susceptible to diseases such as trichomoniasis, histomoniasis and coccidiosis, especially with improper care. In order not to lose the herd, any beginner house should know the main symptoms of these parasitic infections and ways to combat them (although it would be better if the veterinarian does the diagnosis and prescription of treatment):
The diet of adults and chicks
Some rules for feeding adults:
- Cereals, including maize, barley, wheat, oats, make up 50-60% of the total volume of the mash.
- 40% of the diet is greens, vegetables.
- Vitamin nutrition is given at least 2 times a week.
- About 5% is animal protein. In the warm season, this layer is compensated by the use of worms and bugs while walking.
- Fish oil, wheat germ, yeast give a spectacular, healthy and brilliant plumage.
- For the strength of the shell, a natural source of calcium is mixed with food: shell rock, bone meal, salt.
Xin Xin Jian have a small stomach, so they need to give less food than other chickens, so you won’t let the animals recover.
Feeding chicks is like feeding other pets:
- 1-5 day Eggs about 2 g are eaten, grains up to 2 g, dairy products - 1 g, greens - 1 g.
- From 6 to 10 day the norm is increased by 1.5 times and mineral supplements are administered in a dosage of 0.5 g per 1 representative.
- 11-20 day. From this point on, chickens are considered to be fully grown, and farmers can transfer them to balanced feeds or continue feeding them with mash, removing eggs and adding boiled root vegetables, about 5 g per unit.
- 21-40 day in the mash they increase the rate of ingredients to indicators: dairy component - 6 g, greens - 12 g, boiled root crops - 15 n, grain complex - 15 g, mineral additive 1.5 g.