To pullet gave healthy eggs, you need a balanced, high-quality food.
They should be:
Lack of vitamins is also the cause.
- Often chickens bring soft-shelled eggs or pour them because of a lack of phosphorus and calcium in the diet. The first sign of deficiency is the pecking of your own clutch. This usually happens in winter and early spring. If the owner does not take action, the body will begin to take the necessary trace elements from its reserves. The chicken will continue to run, but its bones will become thinner and become so fragile that they will break when touched.
- It is necessary to examine the layer's keel: if it bends and moves, urgently correct its diet. To eliminate the deficiency, shell rock, crushed shell, chalk, limestone, as well as supplements containing zinc and vitamin C are added to the feed.
- Vitamin D is necessary for the health of the hen. To replenish it, you need to arrange walking: it is harmful for birds to constantly be in a close dark room. The more chickens are in the sun, the better the eggs they carry. In winter, light should be on in the hen house for at least 8 hours.
Externally, eggs that do not have a shell have the appearance of ordinary eggs, only to the touch they are too soft. So you can find out that your chicken has problems. In the wild, this phenomenon is far from uncommon. Because wild laying eggs lay only for the purpose of breeding. Poultry provide humans with valuable and important food.
The appearance of eggs that are not covered in the shell may be the result of mistakes made by the owner in the preparation of the daily ration of hens - lacking trace elements and vitamins, viruses and infections, hormonal disorders in the body of the bird - either age-related or directly related to the ovulation phenomenon.
Owners of small poultry houses face this problem. Their chicken can be eaten fruit and vegetable peeling, leftovers from the owners table. Normally, an egg has an oval shape, hard to the touch, has a shell with a rough surface.
If you find an egg in a soft film in the poultry house, then the bird’s diet does not have enough phosphorus and calcium.
First, the bird's body will fill up the lack of important elements from its reserves. At this time, the costal, thoracic, and femoral bones will become vulnerable. If the bird's keel when viewed it bends and moves without problems, is soft to the touch - it is necessary to amend the diet and enrich it with necessary dressings.
Chicken should receive calcium, chalk, crushed shell rock, crushed shell. The feed she receives should contain a lot of zinc and vitamin C.
Instead of cleaning from your table, move the bird to the feed. If the appropriate measures are not taken on time, the chicken will receive weakened fragile bones of the legs, which will lead to the fact that it will not be able to walk normally and will eventually die. Poverty of feed, their poor quality, even the replacement of one manufacturer by another can cause an imbalance in the body of the domestic hen.
Birds should be in the open air for a long time to be able to obtain natural and necessary for the normal development of vitamin D. They should not be kept in a small and dark house. It is necessary to provide them with sufficient walking or to add artificial lighting to the house.
Lack of shell can be caused by the following diseases:
- Syndrome of decrease in egg production EYE-76. This disease affects the genital tract and the liver of the layers. Chickens of meat-beating and egg breeds are most susceptible to infection. Birds suffering from EDS '76 carry 30–50% less eggs than healthy ones. Their quality decreases: they acquire an irregular shape, the protein becomes watery, and the shell - rough. Many soft-shelled eggs appear. The disease spreads rapidly among chicken herds, especially when birds are kept on the floor. Often, domestic birds of other breeds, especially geese, become its carriers. To avoid the occurrence of infection, it is necessary to place the hens separately from birds of other breeds, and keep chickens of different ages in separate rooms. Impress EDSB-76 by vaccinating sick chickens. Sanitary treatment and disinfection are carried out in the house. For vaccination, treatment appointments invite a veterinarian.
- If Newcastle disease has appeared among the chickens, the sick birds are destroyed: the infection is too dangerous, which can lead to the death of the entire population.
- If infectious bronchitis was found in the herd, the hen house, together with the hens, is treated with drugs.
- Mycoplasmosis should be treated as soon as it is detected. It is necessary to vaccinate all birds. If the disease is strongly neglected, then sick birds are destroyed.
- Often, the absence of shell causes worms, especially flat squibs. It is carried by snails, wild birds, dragonflies. It causes prostagonymose - a disease of the cloaca, rectum, genital tract. If you have noticed signs of damage by helminths in chickens, you must urgently attribute the bird droppings to a veterinarian for analysis, and after making a diagnosis, begin treatment.
At the hormonal level
When eggs in the ovary develop in the follicle, they leave the oviduct when ripe and move into the oviduct. More than 20 hours the eggs pass through the genital tract. Fertilization occurs during the movement, protein and membranes are formed. Half an hour after the release of the first egg, the second enters the oviduct and everything happens anew.
In the normal process sometimes fails occur. Sometimes two ovules enter the oviduct at once. The result is the release of eggs with two yolks. The second does not have time to fully take shape and remains without shell. This clutch is not considered pathological. The process takes place under the influence of hormones, the nervous system controls it. The maturation of the egg can be broken if the bird is nervous.
Often, the light fat egg appears. Such an anomaly implies obtaining a product in a hard shell, but with a small size and without yolk. A fatty egg becomes the result of a clump of protein in the oviduct that is wrapped in a shell when it moves inside the genital tract.
How to solve a problem
Causes of eggs without shell can be a surplus of salts in the body of the hen, a rough surface appears with an excess of calcium and a lack of fluid, dents - in the presence of a young reproductive system. The form may be abnormal due to viral diseases if the oviduct is born from birth.
If the cause becomes malnutrition, it should be adjusted. Purchase mixtures, bone meal, baked ash, shell rock, chalk - as sources of calcium and phosphorus are added to the usual ration of hens. If the body of poultry is low in vitamin D, it will require fish oil. If dangerous infectious diseases have become the cause of the appearance of eggs without the upper protective sheath, it is necessary to examine adult individuals. The specialist will be able to assign them the appropriate treatment.
In order for the hens to start bringing eggs normally, you need to balance the daily diet, add calcium supplements to it, avoid feeding poultry with leftovers from the table, fix the hormonal state of the birds, and deal with timely and proper treatment of viral diseases.
A common mistake of poultry farmers is that when feeding chickens they use purely grain, boiled fruit and vegetable peelings, and leftover food.
This diet does not contain the necessary vitamins and trace elements. The chicken's body is not saturated with calcium, which is necessary for the formation of a strong shell.
It is necessary to look at the appearance of the chicken. If during the inspection it is established that her keel is soft to the touch, there is a precariousness, then you can be sure of the reason for this phenomenon. Lacking trace elements, the chicken is trying to fill them from the reserves of his body. Suffer her bones. As a result, if you ignore these facts, the hen will stop walking, it may die.
This problem is easily fixed. Enough to diversify the feed of birds, to enrich them with all the necessary nutrients and biologically active substances. The food should include chopped greens, grass and meat and bone meal, roots, boiled potatoes, germinated grain, yeast, bran.
Attention should be paid to providing chickens with a sufficient amount of mineral feed. In the diet include crushed eggshells, shells, chalk, fine gravel, aged wood ash. Ash grass plants do not need to give. Sand to replace the gravel is not recommended. It quickly enters the intestine from the stomach and causes inflammatory processes in it.
Several times a week it is recommended to give the layers dried, chopped egg shells. However, we should not forget that an excess of calcium leads to a decrease in appetite and chicken egg production.
For the normal course of all life processes, the bird needs salt to be added (at most 0.5 g per day per chicken).
There are three types of feeding:
- In the case of a wet type of feeding, mixtures are prepared in the form of cooked mash consisting of cakes, ground grain, root crops, chopped greens, and animal feed. Humidity is achieved with succulent fodder, skewer, broth from bone boiling.
- The basis of the diet of the combined type - dry flour mixtures with the addition of agan, consisting of food waste, boiled chopped potatoes, finely chopped vegetables, cereals, bran, vitamin and mineral supplements.
- Dry type of feeding eliminates the distribution of mash, consists of high-grade dry mixes (compound feed). In the household is rarely used.
Overeating leads to a deterioration in the quality of the shell.
A source of substances necessary for the formation of a strong rind are bunches of hay suspended in the hen house.
The link between the hormonal system and the appearance of problems with the shell
The process of egg formation consists of the following points:
- Chicken eggs (yolks), having their own shell, begin to develop in the ovary,
- After maturation, the yolk leaves the ovary and moves to the oviduct during the day,
- During this period, fertilization is possible and the formation of protein and shell.
After the process is completed, another yolk enters the oviduct. Certain circumstances affect the appearance of failures. An example of a violation is an egg with the presence of two yolks. This happened due to the fact that two ovules matured simultaneously, and not at a certain interval, and together they fell into the oviduct. There are cases of the formation of protein and shell in one yolk. This is an example of a small glitch.
The formation and growth of an egg is directly dependent on the level of hormones controlled by the central nervous system. The maturation of the egg is disturbed in cases of prolonged exposure to stress. As a result, eggs without shell.
If it is established that the diet of the bird is carefully formed, no violations in the development of its bone skeleton are found, then it can be assumed that the cause of the appearance of eggs in the soft shell is hormonal failure. In this case, it is necessary to consult a specialist who will propose the correct treatment regimen with the necessary drugs.
Necessary conditions of detention
One of the reasons for the formation of eggs in the membrane - a deficiency of vitamin D3, through which the absorption of calcium from food. This phenomenon is observed when chickens are kept in closed chicken houses.
Being outdoors is necessary for chickens to be able to obtain natural vitamin D3.
In winter, to increase egg production, it is of great importance to increase the length of daylight using additional lighting. In clear sunny weather, walking on the street is desirable.
Problems associated with the proper functioning of the body of a bird appear when a viral infection enters it. To eliminate them requires additional time and financial costs.
There are a number of diseases that cause the appearance of soft-skinned eggs. Let us consider the main diseases.
Syndrome falling egg production
This disease is characterized by:
- Drop in productivity
- The appearance of eggs of irregular shape, their gradual discoloration,
- Reducing their number
- Skin softening.
Free-range poultry birds are most susceptible to infection. The virus spreads while eating food, with which infected mucus and feces enter the body of chickens.
Chickens affect the respiratory system. If the infection occurs in the initial period of egg production, then further low productivity, underdevelopment of the ovary and oviduct is observed. The consequence is the laying of eggs without shell.
- The beak does not close, the bird breathes with noise,
- Apathy, clumsiness,
- Pursuit of heat sources
- Decreased appetite
- Discharge of pus from the eyes.
The presence of parasites in the body can cause violations in the period of egg production.
What to do - solution methods
This issue arises in every poultry farmer immediately after a problem is discovered. Possible causes should be considered and action taken accordingly. The roughness of the egg indicates an excess calcium, an egg with dents - defects oviduct, its wrong form - the presence of a viral infection.
Recommendations for removing obstacles:
- Correction of nutrition is required when detecting problems in the diet. It is necessary to enrich the feed with various additives, fish oil. For example: add boiled eggs, chalk powder, mixture of cereals to boiled vegetable waste, steam.
- If the cause is an infectious disease, then a specialist consultation is required.
- Keep chickens separately from ducks and geese.
- Organize laying hens outdoors.
Eliminating the causes of stress
Why chickens lay eggs without shell:
- Hormonal disruptions caused by stress. Birds may experience it when moving, attacking stray dogs or other predators.
- Temperature changes, too bright lighting or lack thereof, tightness in the house. In this case, you need to protect the birds from the source of stress.
The most effective way to eliminate the problem is rejuvenation. The cause of hormonal disruption may be the age of the hen.
Chickens can vigorously nest for two to three years, after which egg production decreases and the number of eggs with defects increases. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly produce rejuvenation of the herd. If individual eggs are carried by eggshells, this is caused by developmental defects. Then the birds are simply rejected - it makes no sense to spend expensive treatment and preventive measures for them.
Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications
Low quality dry feeds may not contain elements that are necessary for productivity. In the case of the absence of shell you can talk about lack of calcium, protein and phosphorus.
You can rectify the situation by purchasing a special feed for layers, produced by the small fraction. This contributes to the exact calculation of the dosage, so as not to cause overeating and obesity, which often suffer from hens. And obesity may well cause changes in the structure of the egg. It also takes into account all the needs for effective productivity, takes into account the optimal balance of minerals and vitamins, BZHU. The dosage per day for one individual is 130 g.
When fed with mixed foods, the rate of dry and the rate of wet food are not always accurately calculated. The amendment for the season is not taken into account: it is especially important to add vitamins in the winter time, since there is no walking, no greens, and the basis is mainly mixed feed.
In this situation, you need to consider that a mixed diet consists of mixed feed and grain with additives in equal parts. In winter, the proportion of vitamins and cereals increases. Bird give vegetables - carrots, pumpkin, cabbage, steamed bread.
This bird's dish includes such products:
- boiled potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, zucchini and others,
- wheat bran,
- Meal or cake,
- chalk or other calcium supplements.
Knead food based on cottage cheese or whey, boiled water. Prepare one serving so that the food does not remain for later, it should be eaten fresh.
The bird organism for some time compensates for the loss of vitamins with its internal reserves, which naturally affects the general state of health. You can find out that pets lack calcium. normal palpation. Their bones (keel) will be soft, highly mobile and flexible. In order to prevent such a situation, various vitamin-mineral complexes are given to the layers. In the feed add crushed shell, eggshells, chalk. However, it is also important not to overdo it: hypervitaminosis is a painful condition. Additives are mixed into the feed no more than three times a week.
Video: sources of calcium for laying hens
The disease of Newcastle, or pseudo-podium, is developing rapidly: within two or three days, all livestock can be infected.
Symptoms of the disease:
- labored breathing,
- beak mucus
- head lowered
All processes from formation to release are controlled by the nervous system and regulated by hormones. If one of the systems fails, it automatically occurs in the process:
- two eggs are formed instead of one,
- reduced time of maturation and passage through the genital tract,
- the shell formation process is strayed.
Hormonal background may change under the influence of stress, illness, lack of nutrition. It is impossible to determine by eye, it is only a veterinarian who can diagnose this particular problem.
Conditions of detention
For high productivity, birds should be provided with the right conditions. Due to crowding, for example, rare walking, lack of sun, birds suffer from stress, therefore pets need the following conditions:
- cleanliness in the hen house (bedding, perches, feeders),
- enough space in the room for each bird (per 1 sq. m),
- nests should not be lit
- the water is fresh
- free walking area, closed to wild birds and animals, with a shed, under which you can hide from the rain or the scorching sun,
- diet at the same time.
Problem solving methods
Problems of a non-painful nature are easier to solve:
- purity is induced in the house,
- expands the space if necessary
- revised diet.
If an infection is suspected, a veterinarian will also need to be examined, materials for analysis will be collected and the treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor will follow.
In case of any disease, one of the following must be disinfected. the following solutions:
- 3% hot soda,
- iodine preparations
- 6% chlorine-containing lime,
- Lugol solution.
Birds are treated with veterinary drugs: "Anfluron", blue iodine. The dosage and course of treatment will be determined by the doctor according to the form of the disease.
When Newcastle is detected, the bird is not treated, because the virus is spreading too quickly, and the risks of losing all the livestock are high. Sick birds are disposed of, healthy vaccinated, the room is subjected to disinfection (phenol, ethyleneimine). In the case of egg drop syndrome, disinfecting cleaning is also carried out (with chloroform, beta-propiolactone), treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian, based on the results of tests. The specialist also conducts culling of birds from the herd and vaccination.