To obtain a good harvest, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for plants and soil. The earth must contain nutrients and oxygen. To do this, carry out tillage using a plow. In the article we will tell what a plow is and what types of it are used most often.
A plow is an agricultural machine that is used to plow the land. The principle of operation of the device consists in grinding the soil layers and further stalling it to the bottom of the formed depression in the ground.
Important!For plowing stony soil is to choose the unit with a lever mechanism. In case of its absence, the mechanism will run idle. During tillage, weeds and obsolete crop residues fall deep into the ground. Before plowing it is necessary to establish a depth of 18 to 35 cm. This indicator depends on the agronomic terms.
The main parts of the unit include:
- working bodies and mechanisms
- support wheels
- tow hitch.
In this paper, the main impact falls on the frame, the skimmer and the knife plate.
Depending on the purpose of the unit, various types of plows for tractors are distinguished. It is very important to choose the right mechanism for plowing - when using an unsuitable device, the technology of planting and growing plants can be disrupted.
The plow is selected depending on the tractor. The most common tractors in agriculture are: T-25, T-150, MTZ-80, MTZ-82, Kirovets K-700, Kirovets K-9000.
Before choosing a tool for processing it is important to decide what it is necessary for. Based on the objectives pursued, the following types of mechanisms:
- general purpose tool. As a rule, such a device has working bodies with a standard capture width, the size of which is 35 cm. With it, old arable soil is cultivated, which are subsequently sown technical, vegetable and grain crops.
- special purpose tool. This category includes plantation and garden units, the mechanisms by which stony, shrub-bog soils are cultivated, and the plowing of land for vineyards. Aggregates of longline type process chestnut and shale soils.
Different types of mechanisms have certain features in the management and use, so it is important to know exactly what type of unit is needed in a particular case.
By the nature of the applied thrust
Depending on the type of applied thrust emit following devices:
- horse plow. Such mechanisms are most often used in small areas due to the inability to transport the tractor unit to the site,
- tractor plowman. Used in most cases of tillage, is a modern tool for plowing,
- rope thief. Such units are used for the treatment of wetlands in mountainous areas due to the lack of technical ability of the tractor device to operate in such conditions.
For small areas it is very convenient to use a mini-tractor, which can be made by hand.
Improper use of the mechanism necessarily leads to its breakdowns, so it is important to choose the most accurate device for a particular area.
By the hitch principle
Depending from the type of connection to the tractor emit The following types of devices:
- mounted plow. Differs in a simple structure and rather small weight. For the normal functioning of the mechanism, it is necessary to use a headland that has a small width. Being in the transport position, devices of this type transmit a small overturning moment to the tractor,
- semi-mounted plow. It has a small resistivity and a large turning radius. Being in the transport position, some of the mass of the unit falls on its rear wheel,
trailed plow. Includes 3 wheels and a trailer, which are necessary to ensure the stability of movement and high quality plowing. As a rule, the trailed units include garden, longline units, as well as devices designed to handle shrub-bog soils.
More often in agriculture hinged mechanisms are used.
By plow body design
Plow classification depending on the body includes mechanisms of such types:
- plowman. The most common type of unit, which has been used since ancient times,
- disk. With the help of such a tool plowed heavy, dried and overmoistened soils in irrigated areas,
- combined and rotational. Specialized units used in rare cases for processing different types of soil. Before use, a production check of these devices must be carried out.
Did you know?The first plow released for sale was developed in 1730 in England.
- chisel. They are used quite rarely due to the absence of the main feature of plowing - reservoir rotation.
The most commonly used type is plow-headed. It is used on virtually all types of soils intended for the cultivation of sowing crops.
Plow: tips and tricks for using the device
Regardless of what type of plow you are going to use, before starting work it is necessary to set up and adjustment mechanism. It consists in the following points:
- It is important to ensure the integrity of the design, if some components are loose, it is necessary to tighten them. Be sure to lubricate all moving parts and bearings.
Did you know?In ancient times, the plow was a matter of respect. His theft was regarded as a serious crime and the thief carried a serious punishment.
When choosing a mechanism for tillage, it is best to contact an experienced friend or a specialty store. They will help you to make a choice and give advice on the use of the plow.
Classification of arable units is carried out according to the following criteria:
- To destination:
- General purpose plows, equipped with working bodies that have a standard width (35 cm). They are intended for processing of old arable lands for sowing industrial, vegetable and grain crops.
- Arable units for special purposes. These include plow planters PPN-50 and garden PS-4-30, for processing stony soils PKU-4-35, bush-marsh PBN-75 and PBN-100A, for vineyards PPU-50A, longline PTN-40 and PTN- 3-40 for plowing chestnut and sodic soils.
- By type of connection with the tractor:
- By type of working body:
- Disk drives
- By the number of buildings:
- Single (horse)
- Multicase (PON-2-30, PLN-3-35, PTK-9-35)
- According to the technology of work:
- For smooth (spring) plowing
- For dumping (autumn) plowing
General device (scheme) plowshare plow
The arable unit consists of auxiliary elements and working bodies mounted on a common frame. Auxiliary elements are designed to facilitate the work. These include support wheels (one or two), furrow wheels (on semi-mounted and trailed plows), a depth adjustment control mechanism, a trailing device or a hitch mechanism. The working bodies include a knife, coulter with a subsoiler and the main body.
The knife serves to cut the vertical layer of soil, facilitating the entry of the body into the ground. It contributes to the alignment of the furrow wall. Disk-type knives are installed on general-purpose arable units. Special plows used to handle heavy soils are equipped with cutting-type knives.
The main body of the plow is designed to remove the soil layer, crumbling it, wrapping it and laying it on the bottom of the furrow. His device includes plowshare, blade and field board, mounted on the rack. Ploughshare cuts a layer of soil. On the plows, trapezoidal formwork, chisel-shaped, carved, with a cheek or retractable chisel can be installed. The blade wraps the cut layer and rolls it to the bottom of the groove formed. According to the type of body dump, they are divided into:
- Cultural - for the main processing of old arable land,
- Semi-screw - for plowing up of soil covered with soil,
- Cut-out - for cultivation of land with a small thickness of the fertile horizon,
- With a retractable chisel - for the treatment of heavy clay soils and loams,
- With a cultivator paw - for plowing and simultaneous loosening of the subsoil layer of chestnut and podzolic soils,
- Disk - for the treatment of heavy, littered with roots of trees or wetlands,
- Rotational (rotating) - to prepare the soil for crops, the cultivation of which requires high quality processing.
- Combined - for plowing with intensive grinding of the processed layer of soil,
- Tiller-free - to prepare for planting land destroyed by wind erosion in arid regions. Plows with such a blade are called chisel.
The field board provides evenness of the course of the plow body, preventing it from turning under the reaction of the soil. The hull rack can be low (for tilling heavy, abandoned soils) and high (for soft, domesticated soils). They are made by stamping. Each rack has a special seat for mounting the case.
The skimmer is designed for cutting and grinding the top layer of soil. It is similar to the main body, but has a smaller size. Its width is one third less than that of the main body.
Depending on the type of connection of the arable unit with the tractor, the auxiliary parts have a number of distinctive features.
- In the mounted plow frame is welded from transverse, longitudinal and main hollow beams. Its device includes one basic wheel equipped with the screw mechanism of adjustment. The transverse beam is equipped with the CA-2 automatic coupling, by means of which the arable unit is hung on the tractor.
- The frame of semi-mounted plows consists of hollow beams that are hinged together. Their equipment includes two support wheels, a transport mechanism with a pair of pneumatic wheels (field and furrow) and automatic coupling.
- The device of trailed plows includes a device for connection to the tractor and three pneumatic wheels: furrowed, located in the area of the first hull, field, located in the middle part of the plow and rear.
To attach the trailed plow on the tractor there is a special earring to which the coupling device of the arable unit is attached. Mounted and semi-mounted arable units are connected to the tractor through an automatic coupler consisting of a frame and a lock. The lock, made of two channels tilted at an angle of 65 ° to each other, is securely fixed with a bolt on the brace welded to the plow frame. The frame is fixed by means of a finger to the lower arms of the tractor linkage mechanism and with the help of the cheek to the upper link. The lock and the frame are supported by a special dog connected to the cabin with a cable. This allows you to unhook the plow without leaving the cab. Connection of mounted plows with a tractor is usually carried out according to a two-point scheme. Semi-mounted, wide-range multi-body plows are hung in a three-point design.
Features of the device for special-purpose plows
Special-purpose plows are equipped with special design working bodies, which allow tillage in specific conditions.
- Plow shrub-marsh PBN-75 / PBN-100A. Its device includes one body with a width of 75 or 100 cm, a disk, flat, equipped with a supporting ski, or a cutting knife, a linkage mechanism and a supporting wheel. It is used for plowing drained mineral soils and peatlands, previously cleared of small shrub overgrown pastures and meadows.
- Reinforced plows to prepare for sowing stony soils. They are equipped with automatic (PKU-4-35) or hydropneumatic (PGP-7-40, PKG-5-40) fuses. When a tree root or stone is left in the ground, a fuse is triggered and the hull is pulled out of the soil. Passing it, under the action of the traction force of the tractor, the hull is again recessed into the ground.
- PTN-40 and PTN-3-40 longline plows. They are used when it is necessary to increase the depth of the subsoil horizon when processing depleted soils (podzolic and sodic), as well as for preparing the land for planting garden trees, vineyards and cotton. With a three-tiered plowing, the first hull cuts the top layer and dumps it to the bottom. The second body raises the lower layer together with the upper layer laid on it, but does not wrap it, but shifts it to the side, forming a furrow. The second layer of soil, removed by the rear case, is dumped onto it. Two-tiered plowing can be done in two ways. In the first case, the upper layer falls onto the surface of the plowed-up area, and the lower and middle ones are loosened and mixed. In the second case, the middle and lower horizons are brought to the surface, and the upper one is embedded at a predetermined depth.
- Single body plow. Used for the treatment of light fertile soils on the backyards.
The most common are general purpose plows. The structural elements of the plow are divided into working and auxiliary.
The main working bodies of the plow include the body, the coulter and the knife, the auxiliary ones: the frame, the support wheel and the mechanism for its regulation, as well as the hinged device. All working and auxiliary bodies of the plow are mounted on a frame that consists of longitudinal bars, stiffness beams and transverse struts.
General purpose plows are used for tillage to a depth of 18 - 35 cm in the cultivation of cereals, legumes, industrial crops and grasses.
Plowing plow plows can be dumping or smooth. On plows for dumping plowing, right-side shells are installed, the layout of which is the same for mounted, semi-mounted, trailed plows and plowshares.
The difference between the plowing plowers and the plows lies in the fact that they can tillage the soil to a depth of 16 cm, and they also have no skimmers and knives.
Smooth plowing can be performed by plows that are capable of producing a complete (at an angle of 180 degrees) turnover of the formation in its own furrow. There are designs of such plows with an asymmetrical and symmetrical arrangement of the working bodies, characterized by a frontal arrangement of the working bodies, therefore their length does not depend on the width of the grip.
Front plows can consist of one or several technological modules (sections), each of which is able to work independently. The main working bodies of each module are a mirror image of the organs of another module.
Unlike working bodies of reversible plows, functioning alternately, all working bodies of the front plow module work simultaneously. The width of the front plow can be equal to the width of one or more modules, depending on the type and traction capabilities of the tractor.
The plow works as follows.
The skimmer cuts off the upper (blackened) part of the reservoir, then turns it over and lays it on the bottom of the open furrow. The main body of the plow cuts the reservoir from the side of the furrow, loosens and, to a certain extent, wraps it with its working surface, and then lays it on the sod grained part, which the coulter had previously laid.
In order to form a smooth wall of the furrow, a knife is placed in front of the rear body of the plow.
Plow Design Elements
The structure of the plow body includes - stand, plowshare, blade and field board. The working surface of the hull is formed by the plowshare and the heap: from the side of the field it is bounded by a field crop, from the side of arable land by a furrow crop, and from the top by a top crop.
The quality and type of plowing determines the geometric shape of the plow-pile body surface.
Ploughshare cuts a layer from below, lifts it and directs it to the dump. The blade shifts the layer raised by the plowshare, crumbles, turns it over and drops it into the furrow. A field board is attached to the bottom of the case. It serves as a support for the hull and prevents its displacement towards the unplowed field under the action of soil resistance.
Plow body характеризуется следующими параметрами: шириной захвата, глубиной пахоты, углами установки лемеха к дну и стенке борозды и формой рабочей поверхности. Плуги общего назначения снабжены корпусами шириной захвата 25, 30, 35 и 40 см, специальные - 45, 50, 60, 70 и 100 см.
Structurally, the plow bodies are subdivided into dumps, tillers, discs, cut-outs and combined ones. Depending on the type of plowshare surface, there are semi-spiral, screw and cultural buildings.
The cultural building crumbles well and also wraps the soil layer satisfactorily, so it is used together with a skimmer when processing old-tilled soils.
The semi-screw body wraps well and also crumbles the soil layer satisfactorily, therefore plows with such bodies are recommended to be used in the treatment of fallow and heavily sown soils. For a full turn of the seam, semi-screw heaps are often provided with an extension pen.
Screw shells are characterized by a large turning ability, so they are recommended for perepashki perennial grasses and processing of virgin lands.
Special hull structures are directly related to the specifics of plowing. So, for plowing heavy soils with intensive crumbling of the reservoir (for example, under the root crops), plows with combined shells are used. The body of this type, in addition to the shortened blade and plowshare, is equipped with a rotor in the form of a truncated cone, which is turned with a large base upwards, with blades attached to the forming blades.
During operation, the rotor receiving the drive from the PTO (power take-off shaft) of the tractor, by striking the blades, intensively crumbling the formation, which comes from the blade. As a result, the degree of soil crumbling increases by 10-20%, and the plow's tractive resistance decreases by 25-30%, however, the total energy consumption for plowing increases by 13-26%.
Ploughshare, depending on the geometric shape, it is trapezoidal, chisel-shaped, toothed and with a retractable chisel.
Trapezoidal plowshare is simple to manufacture and forms a flat bottom of the furrow, but at the same time it deepens worse and wears out more intensively. As a result, it is used in the processing of light old-cultivated soils. The stock of metal on the back side of the plowshare ("store") is used to pull the plowshare in the forge after wear.
The chisel-shaped plowshare has an elongated (in the form of chisels) toe, which is bent down 10 mm (depth fence) and 5 mm to the field side (width fence), as a result of which it is better buried and more stable in operation.
Toothed plowshares and plowshares with a retractable chisel are used in the treatment of very heavy soils.
To increase the service life, coulters sometimes perform self-sharpening (double layer). The upper soft layer wears out faster, exposing the lower layer made of high-alloyed steel or 1.7 mm thick smite, so that the blade remains sharp for a long time, and the service life of the sharecloth increases 10-12 times.
Blade is the main working element of the plow body. On its geometric shape determines the type of working surface of the housing. Dumps are made from mild or three-layer steel. Their working surface is cemented to a depth of 1.5-2.2 mm, as a result of which it becomes hard and wear-resistant, and the blade is elastic and durable. The breast of the blade wears out faster than the wing, so for shells that work on heavy soils, they make it interchangeable.
The working surface of the blade is polished, which reduces the friction force of the soil and facilitates the sliding of the formation. The working surface should be free of dents, burrs, cracks, and corrosive areas, since such a place can become a sticking point, disrupt the plowing process, and increase the tractive resistance of the plow.
Ploughshare and blade attached to the rack with bolts with hidden heads that should not protrude above the surface. Drowning heads is allowed up to 1 mm. The blade should fit snugly around the plowshare along the joint line and not protrude above the surface of the plowshare. Allowed local clearance between them is not more than 1 mm, and the protruding of the plowshare over the blade by 2 mm.
Field board usually fixed at an angle of 2-3 degrees to the wall and the bottom of the furrow. In multicase plows, the field board of the rear hull is longer than usual, sometimes it is even provided with a replaceable heel made of wear-resistant bleached cast iron.
Rack is a supporting element of the body. All main parts are mounted on it. There are low (on hooks with a hooked frame for working on stony and other soils) and high (on general purpose plows with a flat frame).
Coulter cuts the soil in a vertical plane along the line of separation of the reservoir from the array to obtain an even wall of the furrow. The knife improves the turnover of the reservoir, sealing plant residues, provides a steady plow stroke and uniform plowing depth.
There are knives disc, cuttings and flat with a supporting ski. Disc pits are used for general purpose plows, cuttings - for plantazhnye and forest plows, flat with supporting skis - for bush-marsh plows.
Circular knives are used on general-purpose and shrub-plow plows for plowing soils that are not clogged with tree roots and stones. The disk knife is usually installed in front of the last plow body so that the center of the disk is located above the toe of the skimmer, the lower edge of the hub is 1–2 cm above the field surface, and the plane of rotation of the disk is shifted towards the field from the field edge of the body 1–3 cm
When plowing hard-colored lands, circular knives are placed in front of each hull. This reduces the plow's drag, improves the quality of plowing and reduces wear on the plowshare and the blade.
The cutting knife has a straight cutting, turning into a knife. The knife is a dihedral wedge and is attached to the plow frame with a lining and clamp. Rack knife with a curved blade have a vertical position. By the end of the knife blade, the chisel is welded with a hole with which it is placed on the cylindrical toe of the plowshare. Based on the plowshare, the knife is less bent when working on heavy soils.
The knife rack with a straight blade is installed with the blade tilted to the bottom of the furrow at an angle of 70-75 °, the knife cuts the soil and small roots easily, and the large ones turn it to the surface. The left side of the knife is placed parallel to the furrow wall at a distance of 5 - 10 mm from the field edge of the plow body.
Knife with a straight blade can be moved in height.
On sod soils, the sock of the knife is placed on the same level as the blade of the plowshare. Curved knife height is not rearranged. Cutting knives are used when plowing solid soil with unrooted roots littered with stones, they are installed on shrub-marsh, forest and other special plows.
A flat knife with a supporting ski is installed on a bush-marsh plow for plowing the soil overgrown with shrubs up to 2 m high. On the sides of the knife are skis, which can be changed in height relative to the lower edge of the knife. Skis press the branches of a bush, a knife cuts them.
As the blade wears, the knife is turned 180 °. For this, the knife is equipped with two blades.
Coulter removes the top grained layer of soil from the field edge of the hull with a thickness of 8–12 cm and a width equal to 2/3 of the hull width, and dumps it to the bottom of the furrow, where it is then covered with loose soil. Such conditions contribute to the death in this layer of the majority of insect larvae and weed seeds, and the decomposition of roots and plant residues leads to the accumulation of humus.
The coulter consists of a plowshare and a cultural-type heap, which are bolted to the stand, fixed with a yoke to the plow frame in front of the main body. The depth of stroke of the skimmer is adjusted by moving the rack in a vertical plane, taking into account the depth of the stroke of the main body.
The width of the skimmer should not be greater than the width of the open groove in order to avoid stalling. In the horizontal plane, the skimmers are arranged in such a way that a layer freely passes between the skimmer and the front hull, and the layer, which is rolled off by the next hull, does not touch the skimmers.
According to instead of the skimmer, they are used on hulls intended for treating stony soils. It is a small blade attached with a bracket to the stand of the body or to the frame of the plow. Ugolosnim cuts and drops to the bottom of the furrow, only part of the reservoir, when he is in a raised position.
Subsoiler intended for loosening the subsurface layer without its removal to the surface.
Scheme plow. Schemes of various plows and their destination
A standard plow is capable of plowing the ground to a depth of 18-35 cm. There is a smooth way of plowing with plow plows, but for better cutting and crushing of the formation, the right pushes can be attached to the plow, forming a dumping type of plowing.
Then, at the slightest deviation from the given direction, the blade crushes the earth into small pieces.
A standard plow (a plow scheme) consists of a frame, a knife, a skimmer, a coupling mechanism with a tractor, as well as a casing. The plow may have support wheels. There may be several, or one. It depends on the design of a particular plow. The hull, in turn, is a collection of plowshares, a blade and a field wheel. You can see the diagram of the standard plow below:
So before you the full scheme of the plow:
- - skimmer
- - plow body,
- - frame,
- - plow knife,
- - support wheel
- - screw adjusting the wheel,
- - the mechanism of coupling with the tractor.
Define the principle of coupling the plow to the tractor. According to this criterion, mounted, semi-mounted and trailed plows can be distributed.
Mounted plows are characterized by the fact that the plow is attached to the tractor by attaching the plow attachment mechanism to the same mechanism on the tractor.
Trailed plows are attached to the tractor through trailed earrings.
The plow's autocoupling with the tractor is formed due to the work of the lock and frame. The lock is securely fastened, and the frame is fixed with a finger to the lower arms of the tractor shed, and the cheek to the upper thrust.
Mount the plow to the tractor
During operation, both the frame and the lock are supported by a dog that is connected to the driver’s cabin through a cable. In this way, the operator can disconnect the clutch directly from the cab. The hinge includes two counter racks and brace. They are interconnected by a single bolt.
Racks are attached to the brackets. The brackets are bolted to the plow frame. Trailed plows are characterized by the presence of three wheels in their design.
1. The furrow wheel - front, is located closer to the front body at a distance of 3-4 cm from the furrow wall. At the same time the wheel should not interfere with the dumping of the soil.
2. Field - the second wheel, it follows the furrow. Rear - the last. Each wheel accounts for about 30% of the total plow weight. Semi-mounted plows have two wheels. This field wheel and furrow, which is located behind.
Plow attachment scheme
- - Castle,
- - bracing
- - plow handle,
- - neck,
- - finger,
- - frame,
- - dog mount,
- - finger,
- - plow stand,
- - bolt
- - bracing plow,
- - bracket
So, let's talk about three-tiered plows. They are the most popular among the people, because if desired, you can easily adjust the three-tiered plow for two-tiered plowing. When we want to leave the top layer of the soil processed by us from above, and mix the second and third layers together, we need to remove the rear case, install an elongated blade on the front one, and put the middle case on the main beam behind the first case.
When the top layer of soil is littered, we transfer it to the bottom of the furrow: we put the front case with the cultural blade instead of the rear one, and put the middle case in place of the extension beam. Below you can see the three-body plow diagram. For you, as an option, the plow 40 is shown:
Plow scheme with hydropneumatic safety device
Earlier we considered standard plows for working soft soil. The plow for stony soil treatment is equipped with a hydropneumatic safety device.
- - hydraulic cylinder,
- - oil pipeline,
- - manometer,
- - hydropneumatic accumulator,
- - gas chamber,
- - fuse piston
- - valve, 8 - check valve,
- - plow frame,
- - plow support wheel,
- - plow body
This increased resistance to stubborn soils is due to the active interaction of the hydropneumatic accumulator of the plow with the hydraulic system of the tractor.
When a plow pushes against a stone, the plow body rises, moving the cylinder plunger, and the cylinder pushes the oil into the battery while moving, supplying it with energy. Then the body returns to its normal state, and its ridge again rests on the frame.
Also, for light land suitable technical bells and whistles - horse plow. You are shown the plow brand PV-23. It is a hanging plow, which means it has only one insignificant support wheel. It practically does not rely on it, therefore the operator needs to be supported by his hands.
- - cutting knife,
- - ploughshare,
- - blade,
- - field board,
- - handle
- - kryadil,
- - regulator of plowing depth,
- - span width control,
- - harness hook
- - wheel and support rack of the plow.
Plow stand: purpose and design
As mentioned earlier, the plow consists of a frame, hulls on which the working parts of the plowing unit are placed, a support wheel and a knife. The rack of the plow is considered as an auxiliary part.
The rack is the carrying part of the body. Depending on the land on which the plows are used, racks are of two types.
For example, we take a difficult land, for which no one has followed for years.
We use a plow with a combined hull, a curved frame and a rotary blade, and on this plow there is a low stand that will cope with such soil.
On the other hand, when we plow on soft ground, we use a high-stand plow, which is placed on standard plows with a flat frame.
Rack hull or cast or stamped. But most modern plows are made with stamped pillars. A saddle is attached to its lower part, to which the body is attached.
Plow Knife Description and Views
The plow knife removes the soil in a vertical plane. The knife refers to the working details of the plow. Removing the soil, he makes the bottom of a new furrow and thus creates the necessary depth for the plowman, because the plow and tractor wheels follow the knife along the bottom of the furrow. Depending on the cultivated land, plow knives are divided into cuttings, which are designed to work with forest and plantazhnyh plows, disk - they are used in plows with cultural buildings, and flat with supporting skis.
The latter are used in the marshland, but mainly use the first two options, since the cuttings work well with soil littered with stones.
Plow plow: device, working bodies and auxiliary parts of plowshare plow
All plow plows are arranged almost the same, so it will be enough for us to describe the device of a conventional mounted plow plow for general use. So, among the working bodies of the plow man there is a body, a knife, a subsoiler and a skimmer.
The auxiliary parts include a hinged mechanism, a support wheel with a screw mechanism and a frame.
The principle of the plow plow
The basic principle of the plowshare plow is to cut off the land with a "plowshare" - this is the part of the plow that is on the body (bottom). Ploughshare cuts off a layer of earth, which then turns over and discards the blade.
Today in everyday life trapezoidal, serrated, chisel-shaped and plowshares with a retractable chisel.
Trapezoidal - the easiest to manufacture plowshares. True, they also quickly wear out, so they are used on soft old tillage soil.
Chisel stones are not so weak - they are used on more difficult lands. The chisel plowshare has an elongated, curved down 10 mm sock, which sets a deeper plowing, and also has an extension to the sides - 5 mm, which sets a wider arable land.
Serrated plowshares are used where others are powerless.
Wheel plow device and application
So, the plows are divided into two categories on the presence of wheels as such. It is a wheeled plow and without a wheeled plow. The second option is also called hanging. The principle of work with such a plow in the constant support of the plow with the hands of a plowman.
What about the wheel, then their history goes back 13 centuries in Europe. And previously used in Asia. “Wheeled” means that when the plow is working, one or several wheels take over the weight of the unit, therefore they are called support wheels. Different devices have different numbers.
Depends on the mounted type of plow or trailed. As a rule, mounted plows have only one field wheel. In trailers, which are connected to the tractor through a trailer earring, usually three wheels - furrowed, medium (field) which takes the load created by the ploughshare and the blade when dropping the ground, and the rear wheel. There is also a semi-mounted type of plows, which have two wheels.
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General device and workflow mounted plow
General device and workflow mounted plow. Figure 1a shows a five-body mounted PLN-5-35 general-purpose plow. It is aggregated with tractors of class 30 kN. The main working bodies of the plow include: body, skimmer, knife and subsoiler (set to deepen the arable horizon).
The body consists of a plowshare, a blade and a field board (not visible in the figure). All of these housing parts are attached to the rack.
The coulter, like the hull, is a plowshare and a blade, mounted on the rack.
Knife - disk, designed for cutting stubble and leveling the edge of the furrow. On this plow, the knife is mounted before the last hull.
The auxiliary parts of the plow include: a suspension frame and a support wheel with a device for adjusting the plow depth.
Suspension mounted plow consists of two pillars and bracing. The upper ends of the uprights and bracing are connected by a common bolt. Two fingers are welded to the brackets in the front of the frame. These fingers put on the rear hinges of the lower hitch of the tractor, the upper link is connected with a bolt to the upper end of the suspension. Thus, the plow is connected to the tractor at three points.
The support wheel is located on the left side of the plow, while working it rolls over an un-plowed field and limits the depth of the bodies. Screw it can be installed at different heights relative to the reference plane of the housing.
The plowing process proceeds as follows. When the plow is moving, the knife cuts the layer in the direction of the plow movement, and the skimmer removes the upper non-structured and clogged layer of the layer and dumps it into the furrow opened by the previous body. Ploughshare 8 of the body cuts the formation from the bottom, lifts it a little and transfers it to the dump. The blade wraps and crumbles the bed. As the formation turns to the right, the soil reaction tends to turn the plow to the left. To prevent this rotation, a field board is installed on the body, which rests against the furrow wall.
Features of the device semi-mounted and trailed plows consider the example of the following tools.
The semi-mounted plow PLP-6-35 (Fig. 1, b) is connected to the tractor in the same way as the mounted one - with fingers and suspension. When transporting it rests on the rear wheel. When plowing, the rear wheel goes in an open groove, and the front support wheel goes through the tilled area. Four wheel gear rear wheel is connected to the plow frame and the hydraulic cylinder rod. PLP-6-35 plow can be converted into five-body or four-body.
Trailed plow "Worker" (Fig. 1, c) is attached to the tractor (class 30 kN) trailer. During operation and transportation, it relies on three wheels: field, furrow and back. The transfer of the plow from the working position to the transport position and back, as well as the installation of the wheels relative to the frame in accordance with the depth of the plowing is achieved by the lifting and adjusting mechanisms.
The working bodies of semi-mounted and trailed plows are interchangeable with the working bodies of mounted plows that have the same grip.