Ariezema Amur (Amur cob) - the name itself speaks of the plant’s homeland. The species got its name from the name of the river - the place where it was first discovered. For Russia, this is a rather rare plant, there are 150 species all over the world, in Russia there are six in total, which are found in nature in the Kuriles, Primorye, Khabarovsk Krai and Sakhalin.
Ariezema Amurskaya View description and photo
Amur Arizema is a plant with a rare tuberous rhizome species. The plant forms several leaves (usually no more than 4). Among these leaves, one leaf is twisted, forming a leafy false stalk.
The leaves sit on succulent petioles, grow large, reaching a height of 40-50 cm. In natural or ideal conditions for growing, they can reach about 85 cm. The leaves are often pinnate or palmate - dissected. False stem - a leaf on which a flower will later develop, grows into a height of 20 - 25 cm.
The most interesting thing in the plant is that Arizema has not a single flower, but a whole inflorescence, which is very similar to the ear of corn, overgrown with small flowers. Arizema is a dioecious plant, that is, on one plant there can be either male flowers or female ones.
Gender of the plant can be determined by several characteristics:
- female plants grow taller than male
- Although at first glance the flowers look the same, but if you slightly raise the film covering the cob, you can see that the female flower is greenish, and the male flower is reddish-purple.
Of great interest is the film, which closes the cob (some believe that this is the flower), carefully covering the flower from the environment. The curled end of this film, curving, can take on various shapes, one of the most common is the posture of the attacking cobra. When it rains, the pollen on the flowers remains dry, the same with female inflorescences - they remain dry and are always available for pollination.
The underground part of the plant is represented by a small tuber located almost at the very surface of the soil at a depth of 20 cm, from which not too thick roots grow. In the fall, small tubers, called babies, are formed from some regrown roots, from which an adult plant can be grown if certain agricultural practices are observed. The color of the flower is light, dark or in mixed colors.
Another thing that amazes in a plant is that with time, or within two years, a plant can change its gender. The fruits have the appearance of a red berry of a round or slightly elongated appearance, similar to a small tennis ball.
Arizema Amur planting and care
It is not easy to buy Arysima tubers on the free market - they are available for sale only in specialized stores. But there are Internet sites that specialize in selling rare plants. If you managed to get planting material, then you need to prepare for growing this thermophilic plant:
- prepare the ground for planting,
- choose a place where Arizema Amurskaya will grow for several years,
- pretreatment treatment of tubers with a special solution.
If everything is done correctly, the look of a very beautiful outlandish plant will delight you for many years.
Planting of tubers is carried out in shaded areas, which do not fall on the rays of the midday sun. The ground should be soft, preferably sandy or sandy loam with paved drainage, well fertilized with organic fertilizer.
Arizema likes moist soil, but waterlogging is not advisable, since rotten disease of tuber or roots is possible. In winter, it is advisable to cover the plants with fallen leaves or covering material in order to prevent the soil from freezing before the tuber.
During the period of prolonged rains, it is necessary to cover the ground near the trunk before the formation of a ridge, so that the water rolls down without over-wetting the ground near the tuber. But it is best to be safe that the tubers overwinter without loss. They can be dug and stored in dry peat in the basement at a low above-zero temperature, in the spring, when the ground warms up, plant tubers in the same place.
Propagation of Amur Arizema
Photo of the fruits of Amice Arizema in the forest
Arizema, like many tuberous plants, can multiply in two ways: by seed and vegetatively. Vegetative method is to separate the newly formed tubers, and then to plant them. For growing seedlings from seeds it is necessary to tinker with the seeds. Planting seeds is justified in the case when you need a large number of plants, for example, for sale.
Ripe seeds are collected in paper bags for storage until next summer. Planting is made in August, or under the "winter": for this you need to cover the garden bed with planted seeds with rotten leaves, which must be removed in spring. As sprouts grow, they must be thinned. The beginning of flowering of such seedlings for 4 - 5 years.
It is necessary to separate the tuberous processes from the maternal roots as long as possible, keeping them in the ground, for example, when digging out the tubers in autumn, or when digging up the ground for planting in spring.
Arizema in landscape design
This plant is peculiar for its unusual colors, fascinates the eyes with intricately twisted ends of protective "covers" at the ends of flower ears. In combination with a low shrub, they perfectly decorate the place in shaded rockeries, near water bodies, alpine hills. Almost perfect neighborhood is made up of various ferns and Manchurian stone saber.
Planting in the open field and care for all varieties of arizema, including the most common species - Amur arizema, is similar. When growing plants have a few years to wait for flowering, but expectations are met - the site will take a completely different look.
This perennial grass is unusual by the fact that most often it has only one leaf. There are several of them, but never more than four. And the petiole of this usually single leaf blows up to half a meter in height, and under favorable conditions - even for all 70 centimeters.
But even more interesting is the flower, which, in fact, is a mass of flowers collected in the form of a corn cob and covered with an original coverlet. On the one hand, it serves to protect the pestles and pollen from the rain, and on the other hand, by coloring it from the inside, it confuses the insects that have flown in, forcing them to stay inside longer and thereby collecting pollen or pollinating better.
No less interesting are the vertices of the same maculae. They are presented in the form of a round tuber, reaching six centimeters in diameter.
Distribution and ecology
Arizema is represented by 150 species that grow in their natural state all over the planet, with the exception of Europe, South America and Australia. Representatives of this plant with the same success can grow in tropical forests and alpine meadows, and even on limestone rocks. However, some species, mainly those that grow in the Far East, are listed in the local Red Books. This, first of all, concerns arizem Japanese, Sakhalin and three leaflets. Being relict plants, one-mate very painfully tolerate changes in the conditions of existence to which a person leads by their actions. In addition, medicinal and decorative properties, for example, three-leaf arizema growing only in Japan, lead to its enhanced collection. The active digging of tubers of the Japanese arizema for medicinal purposes led to the inclusion of this plant in the Red Book of Primorsky Krai and Sakhalin Oblast.
Amurskaya (Komarova, powerful)
The Amur monolith, which is also called Komarov arizema, grows in woodlands of the Far East. It blooms for two weeks in May, has one or a maximum of two leaves, the stem of which reaches a length of 40 centimeters, the veil over the flowers of this plant is striped: white stripes alternate with pale green. Aryzema powerful is very similar to Amur, but it looks more powerful, from which its name came. It grows in the wooded parts of Sakhalin and, thanks to the originally curved striped veil, looks very peculiar.
A characteristic feature of this plant are the petioles, painted by nature under snake skin. Their length can exceed half a meter, and the light green cover above the flowers contrasts with the brown petioles. This plant is more demanding to heat than the Amur odnokoprovnitsa.
This is a pure North American plant that lives in the wet forests there. From the title it is clear that she often has three leaves that are held on half-meter petioles. Unlike the Amur and Japanese female relatives, who bloom an average of two weeks, the three leaf leaves bloom for a month in June. It differs from their pale green color schemes and its purple cover over the flowers, decorated with white narrow stripes.
Despite this name, the veil of the plant is not snow-white, but pale green or white, but with green or light purple stripes. This same land in China grows mainly in oak forests at a height of over two kilometers.
Judging by the fact that traditional healers use in their activities mainly arizema tubers, this is where all the plant substances with any healing properties are collected to the maximum.
Unfortunately, the official science has not yet attended to a serious study of the contents of the parts of this plant, therefore, information about their chemical composition is clearly not enough. However, on the basis of what is already known, we can say that arizema has many useful substances for human health.
Saponins, alkaloids and starch are found in its tubers, and the same saponins and alkaloids, as well as phenols, organic acids and steroids are found in the aerial parts.
Substances that are in the juice from the tubers of the plant, from the point of view of traditional medicine, have disinfecting and antirheumatic properties, as well as properties that facilitate the fight against anemia, cramps and boils. A decoction of rhizomes of arizema has well-pronounced wound-healing, sedative and hypotensive properties.
Healers from the people actively use the juice of one-sided in the treatment of various gastric and intestinal problems.
The extract from the same-blooded tubers has a pronounced irritating property, which makes it possible to use it as a distracting tool, like mustard plaster, for colds and infectious diseases. For the same purpose it is used against rheumatic pains in the joints and muscles, as well as against pleurisy.
Healers also use this plant to improve blood clotting and quite successfully - against hemorrhoids and as a diuretic.
In ointments, combating inflammations on the skin, folk healers willingly inject arizemic juice, extracted from tubers, and also use it in pneumonia and bronchitis as an effective expectorant. And coughing is fought with the help of the aerial parts of the grass. In India, local healers believe that all parts of the plant are suitable as a blood purifier.
Folk healers of Korea and China decoction and powder from the root of the same mate are successfully used to eliminate the effects of stroke, headaches, dizziness, radiculitis, and also used to treat fractures and bruises. The diabetic and laxative qualities of the herb are also used.
Traditional healers use the root system of Japanese arizema to eliminate seizures and pain. Asian healers use this plant even in the treatment of skin cancer problems.
Use in cooking
Most of the highlanders take food for Arazema, for example, in the Caucasus and in the mountainous regions of China. To do this, use the aboveground part of the same land, which is harvested before it blooms. In India, its seeds are dried and they make flour from them, which is used for baking cakes. Also, the seeds are fried and used as a minced meat for boiled eggs.
Since both the aboveground and underground parts of the grass are poisonous, it should be treated very carefully. Otherwise, a strong inflammatory reaction in the form of blisters may occur on the skin.With the medical use of drugs on the basis of arizema in the first place, as with any other means, people with individual intolerance to the constituent parts of the herb may suffer. Extremely cautious should be and people prone to allergic reactions to various products.
Choosing a place
These plants almost always settle in places with heavy rainfall and not hot sun. Therefore, in the area for arizema one should choose shaded places where the hot rays of the summer sun would not reach. The plant does not tolerate drought, but overwetting is not useful for it. Therefore, the soil under the grass should choose moisturized, drained and nourishing.
The best neighbors on the site, in the company with which the same mate feels well, are considered to be ferns, lysiquiton, Manchurian saxifrage and symplocarpus.
It is possible to plant arisomem both with seeds and vegetatively through the dissection of a tuber or children.
Seeds of this herb are recommended for storage in moistened moss and, wrapped in film, left in the refrigerator. The seeds of Japanese arizema. To sow the seeds is best in August - during the period of their maximum germination in well loosened, drained and moist soil at a distance of 15 centimeters from each other. And the seeds will rise only in the spring. Flowering will begin approximately four years later.
Vegetative reproduction makes the waiting process when planted arizema blooms, in short. For planting, they use whole tubers, their parts or children, which are separated after the growing season stops, that is, in the fall or spring before the start of the growing season. In the autumn before planting the tubers need a little dry. Plant tubers should be at a depth of 15-20 centimeters and at a distance of 15 centimeters from each other.
This is a moisture-loving plant, so in the dry season it is mandatory to water it regularly. However, an excess of moisture is harmful for odnokopronnitsy. In the rainy season, the soil around the plant should be spud more often, so that water does not accumulate there, which can cause tuber rot.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
If the seeds are stored, shrouded in moss, in the refrigerator, it is best to dig up the tubers after the end of the growing season and keep in the cellar, where the temperature does not exceed six degrees, in a box with dry peat moss sphagnum. You can store the tubers and in the refrigerator, wrapping them with moist sphagnum and placing in a plastic bag.Collecting arizema seeds
Role in gardening
An unusual type of veil over the inflorescence and bright orange fruits give arizeme a very original look, which in landscape design claims the dominant role. Therefore, it is customary to plant low and creeping plants with a contrasting color in relation to the same mantle.
Often, arizem is planted in groups on the shore of a reservoir or near stone boulders, in the vicinity of which the plants look very advantageous.
This plant is original in everything: in the minimum number of leaves, and in the mass of flowers collected in one place, and in a kind of bedspread that protects flowers from the weather, and in its relic antiquity. Today more and more gardeners take pride of place in their possessions.
- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
Arizema is a long-term representative of the Aroid family. The genus grows on many continents and is represented by an extensive, about 180, number of species. It includes herbaceous tuberous plants from small, about 40 cm, to almost giants, reaching two meters in nature.
Arizema has large feathery or dissected leaves, which are highly decorative. However, the plant is especially beautiful during the flowering period, when a powerful inflorescence is formed on a powerful peduncle, the length of which corresponds to the size of the leaf petiole or slightly exceeds it. It resembles an ear and would not be attractive if not for the hood covering it. This veil, represented by a huge variety of colors, has an elegant cylindrical shape with a falling or elongated tip, sometimes it is decorated with a long, coiling tail.
Arizema has another stage of development, when the plant looks very interesting. The inflorescence cob is covered with small berries, which, as they mature, turn bright red or orange. What in combination with the juicy green leaves creates an unforgettable picture.
В основном растение культивируется как садовое, используется для украшения клумб и рабаток, служит прекрасным декором для искусственных водоемов. Некоторые виды выращивают в качестве комнатного или балконного растения. In the first case, the evergreen representatives of the genus, in the second - the species, which are characterized by a state of rest in the cold season.
Capacity for growing Arizema must match the size of the plant, that is, ensure its stability. This is especially important when maintaining large specimens. Frequent transplantation of Arizema does not require. Usually this procedure is carried out as the roots fill the entire container. Pruning evergreen species do not produce. In specimens with a pronounced state of rest, the dying aerial part is removed.
Arizema responds positively to the application of mineral fertilizers. Once a month they are recommended to be used during watering.
First steps after purchase
Buy Arizona can be in the form of an adult plant or a tuber, which can be grown independently. Regardless of the choice, planting material or plant must be carefully checked. With the smallest suspicions about the presence of rot on the tuber, pests or traces of their activity on the leaves, it is better to refuse to buy. A new plant is recommended not to immediately place to the rest of the inhabitants of the home collection. Two or three weeks of observations will make sure that the acquired Arizema is completely healthy.
Secrets of success
Arizema is a light-loving plant, but easily tolerates partial shade. Some of the species require fairly warm conditions, approximately + 22–25 ° С, throughout the year. For the inhabitants of a temperate climate, it is recommended to find a cool winter with air temperature up to + 15 ° С, a room.
Arizona is plentifully watered throughout the growing season, for certain species it is recommended to reduce the amount of moisture to moderate during the cold season. The plant is demanding of air humidity, it is recommended to spray it daily, especially in hot weather.