Productivity is one of the main characteristics of the variety and, of course, interests every grower. Often, beginners ask - how many kilograms of grapes can be obtained from one bush? It mainly depends on the variety, there are such champions, giving 200-300 kilograms from a bush. The literature describes a plant that, at 170 years of age, occupied an area of 0.5 hectares, had a trunk with a perimeter of 210 cm and provided a yield of up to 10 tons.
For industrial viticulture yield of 1 kg per 1 square meter. (100 kg / ha) is already considered high, and for amateur it is very little. Amateur vineyard with good care is able to provide 3-5 kg per 1 square. It should be borne in mind that high-yielding bushes can produce high yields. On the weak even with the observance of technology to get a big harvest is impossible. For large formations, it is better to take strong-growing varieties that will produce at least 25 kg of bunches from a bush.
Yes, the variety decides everything, and it happens that the beginner has also purchased good-quality seedlings, he even saw his hands, but he does not give the expected results in the garden. The reasons here can be many. Let's try to understand them.
When there is insufficient light and heat (plantations are located in lowlands, on the slopes of northern exposure, in partial shade or in the shade of buildings), the yield decreases almost in proportion to the decrease in illumination, but depends even more on air temperature and soil temperature. The most optimal soil temperature for grapes is + 28-32 °. It is also possible to increase the heat input by keeping the bushes on the surface formations, placing heat-reflecting screens on the northern side of the bushes, or sheltering with plastic wrap. Dark stones accumulate heat very well near the bushes, which heat up during the day and give off energy at night. You can cover the land between rows with black film.
Watering plants should be moderate and only heated water. The lack of a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil - significantly affects the grapes during the period of bud opening, the growth of shoots and berries. During the intensive growth of shoots, inflorescences of the next year’s crop are laid in the cells. With a lack of moisture from the buds of inflorescences in the kidneys, tendrils develop, reducing the harvest of the current year. That is why it is important to carry out water-charging irrigation in the fall, and in little winters it is necessary to water the bushes in spring.
Excess moisture in the soil also adversely affects the yield. At the same time, inflorescences in the cells are poorly laid, the vine matures weakly, the quality of the crop decreases (high water content and low percentage of sugar), and ripening is also delayed. Excess moisture during the flowering period leads to a strong "pea" berries and incomplete clusters. It also leads to deterioration of soil aeration, disruption of the normal course of plant physiological processes. Soak up the roots, and the bushes die. Therefore, when there is an excess of moisture, it is removed from the vineyard through the drainage system, and at the first signs of chlorosis (yellow plate, deformed, underdeveloped, the nodes of the shoots are thickened, the shoots easily break, the inflorescence does not form on the bushes) 0.25 - percentage solution of ferrous sulfate.
Humidity and air temperature during flowering greatly affect the pollination of flowers. At temperatures below 15 °, pollen germinates slowly, and at 10 ° it does not germinate at all (the optimum temperature is + 22-28 °). If the weather is dry during flowering (above 30 ° C with a relative humidity of less than 45 percent), fertilization does not occur at all. The same happens with very high humidity - about 100 percent. During the rain, the pollen is washed off, and the matter also does not reach fertilization. Where is the way out? In dry hot weather, it is necessary to increase the humidity of the air micro-sprinkling, and where it rains constantly, it is advisable to cover the bushes with a film.
Under favorable climatic conditions, additional and artificial pollination of inflorescences, pinching of the tops of the shoots, removal of part of the leaves in the zone of bunches (to improve pollen circulation), pollination of inflorescences during flowering with ground sulfur (stimulates fertilization) gives good results.
The shortage of mineral nutrition elements and the low level of agricultural technology, in turn, also affect the yield. It is necessary to take care of the grape bushes systematically, to evenly distribute the gain to the trellis, to regularly conduct root and foliar dressings. With a lack of trace elements in the soil the bushes grow weakly, the berries and clusters shrink, the shoots stop growing early. But an excess of chemical elements, especially nitrogen, is harmful. The latter greatly reduces the frost resistance of the bushes and the fertility of the buds, the fertilization of flowers. As a result, there are few or no grapes in the clusters, the vine matures poorly.
Diseases and pests of grapes have a great influence on yield. Despite the widespread introduction of resistant varieties and hybrid forms of grapes, it is desirable to process the bushes against mildew and oidium before and after flowering, adding colloidal or dispersed sulfur (0.5-1 percent) to the solution a second time. By the way, there is practically no absolutely resistant grape varieties to the oidium. It should be remembered that it is easier to prevent this disease than to get rid of it, since it will definitely be a loss.
We must be very careful in acquiring planting material especially imported. Before you buy, ask what region it was brought from. Crimea, southern Ukraine and Russia, Moldova - a zone of continuous or partial phylloxera infection (root aphid). If you received planting material from these regions, then it is desirable and even necessary that the quarantine inspections of your area should be disinfected.
The most important factors that ensure high and stable yields of grapes are the annual trimming of bushes, the correct load and the corresponding formations.
High-stem, arched formations with long sleeves allow you to increase a very large crop (25-50 percent higher than that of formations with short sleeves). Often the reasons for the low return of bushes is the non-compliance with the recommended length of pruning vines for fruiting. Leave a large stock of eyes - the crop will increase in the current year, but it will significantly decrease in the next. If you leave few cells, you will get a shortage of harvest, the bushes will begin to fatten and poorly budded in the cells. Therefore, it is better to leave the optimal number of cells, followed by rationing of the crop during the first breaking off of excess shoots. Especially should be cautioned against excessive load bunches of young bushes before the full formation of the skeleton and the root system.
From the above material you can see how many different factors affect the final result. Not only that - each, but also each specific variety or hybrid form reacts in its own way to changes in agroclimatic growing conditions. Even winegrowers with quite a lot of experience sometimes puzzled over the question of why, I saw and accepted a variety with some parameters, and in my area I got a completely different one. This is especially true of new hybrid forms. The younger she is, the greater the risk that she will not fit the specific conditions of growth.
The last remark does not apply to collectors. These are fanatical people who nothing can stop in search of new varieties. It is thanks to them that other amateur winegrowers can use what the collectors have tested without risking themselves. Honor and praise them for it. But at the same time I want to note that this is an irrational version of the practice of viticulture. For guaranteed high and high-quality yields, no more than 6-8 best varieties should be grown on your plot, following the rules of high agricultural practices, timely protection from pests and diseases, and reliably protecting the bushes from frost.
Adding an article to a new collection
We are ready to argue that not all gardeners are aware of the three methods of increasing the yield of grapes, which will be discussed in this article. Take into service and apply in practice!
Growing a rich grape harvest is not always easy. In the weather conditions of the middle band, you can get grapes with good berries, but they will not always be as large as we would like. And the rainy weather can upset all your plans for a decent harvest. To prevent this from happening, adopt these three effective tricks.
Secret number 1: ringing shoots
Ringing fruitful green shoots under a bunch will help get a large number of berries. To perform such an operation, you will need small scissors, with the help of which cutcambium layer. This will help delay the flow of nutrients from the leaves to other parts of the bush. After such simple manipulations, all the nutrients will go to the formation and development of berries.
After 8-10 days The wound on the shoot must be tightened with callus, therefore the banding is repeated. However, this time the cut is made a couple of centimeters lower.
In this procedure, there is one nuance, it lies in the fact that the shoots on which the fruits do not develop, do not ring. They are left alone because they are able to feed all the branches.
Products of photosynthesis bush provide all the leaves that are located below the ring cut. So for its vitality you should not worry.
Secret number 2: spraying inflorescences
It is known that in a rainy summer it is rather difficult to get a rich harvest of grapes. The fact is that in adverse weather conditions, ovaries are not formed on the grapes, because of this brush is quite sparse. Fruits without pollination grow light, without stones, having no presentation. In addition, grapes lose all their taste.
How to be when the summer was rainy and completely unsuitable for growing grapes?
To prevent shedding of inflorescences during prolonged rains, the grapes during flowering sprayed independently prepared solution. This will require:
- 10 liters of water
- 30 g of citric acid,
- 50 g of urea,
- 30 g of boric acid,
- 10 g of iron sulphate.
This solution will help prevent unwanted processes during flowering.
It is necessary to prepare the solution in strict sequence, otherwise particles of iron sulphate will stick together.
Secret number 3: pollination of the ovaries
There is another effective way to increase the yield of grapes. True, he requires certain skills. The secret is to to stimulate the ovaries of the grapes during flowering. For this it is necessary to pollinate them with ground sulfur.
For this you can use a small gauze bag or a regular nylon stocking. It is necessary to spray ground sulfur so that it slowly settles into florets with a light smoke. So that everything goes well, this procedure should be carried out early in the morning.
Ground sulfur will also help get rid of ticks.
If you have your own proven secrets of a good grape harvest, be sure to share them with us!
Factors affecting fruiting
The choice of a site for planting affects how comfortable seedlings feel in the ground, depends on their survival rate and the quality of the future crop.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the soil and place for planting. Grapes are not whimsical and grows on any soil except saline. The best place for the development of the vineyard is the south or southeast side of the plot. It is not recommended to plant in the lowlands, as cold air masses accumulate there, and there is a risk of frostbite during the frost period. The best place is the slopes, protected from the cold northern winds with the lowest probability of soil freezing. The vineyard feels great in the fences and walls of buildings. The optimal arrangement of the rows is considered to be north - south. In this case, the bushes get access to sunlight from both sides. Uniform and full coverage will help the plant to gain the nutrients necessary for growth and development. With this orientation, the landing between the rows is recommended to leave about 2 meters. This distance is enough for the free development of the bush and the formation of the necessary shade to protect against the harmful effects of direct sunlight. In other cases, 2.5 - 3 meters are left between the rows.
Planting time - air temperature and weather conditions on the day of disembarkation affect the ability of seedlings to take root and ensure further favorable development.
The ideal time to start planting are the days when the soil temperature has reached a stable value of +15 degrees Celsius. The higher the temperature, the faster the seedlings take root and form a powerful root system.
Proper pruning is the key to the formation of a strong shrub capable of providing the clusters with essential nutrients.
In the first year of growth, all forces must be directed to the development of two main shoots. In early September, it is recommended to pinch their tops, and remove the young stepchildren. After full maturity, in early December, the vines are pruned to 3-4 buds. In subsequent years, the formed stepchildren pinch over the second sheet, and the upper part of the inflorescences is removed.
Periodic top dressing of a bush with fertilizers and watering will allow the plant to restore the nutrients spent in large quantities on the ripening of clusters.
In spring and early summer, it is recommended to apply nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers together for better efficiency, and organic fertilizers are added in autumn. Fertilizers are applied to a depth of 40 - 60 cm within a radius of 1 meter. Nutrients can provide not only the roots, but also the foliage. Foliar top dressings are applied by spraying the leaves and absorbed instantly. Often they are combined with substances to protect against fungal diseases and rot.
If you want to get fruit-bearing grapes as soon as possible, you can resort to some alternative methods.
- Healthy grape cuttings can be planted in a plastic container in February. By May, they give a meter sprout, which can be safely planted in open ground. After the stalk takes root and gives the first stepchildren, they are pinched, and the next year you can get your first harvest.
- The easiest way is to buy a ready three year old sapling. It is planted in the soil, remove the extra stepchildren gently so as not to harm the plant. This method makes it possible to get the first mature clusters in the first year after planting and check the acquired variety.
Another major question that torments gardeners is finding out how many years grapes have been bearing fruit. From the moment of full fructification to aging and the withering away of a bush, it takes from 9 to 26 years, and an increase in the period is possible depending on the characteristics of the variety and its care. When a crop is propagated by cuttings, it will produce a crop for 50-150 years.
Today there are many grape varieties with different properties, taste and commodity qualities. What remains unchanged is the love of people for this culture and loyalty to the ancient traditions of grape cultivation. Become part of this exciting process and choose varieties from which you will enjoy the process of growing and consuming.