Govorushka or klitotsibe refers to a roe of cap mushrooms of the family Rowan (Tricholomataceae). Often govorushkami call mushrooms from other genera, which resemble them externally, for example, from the genera Lepista and Leucopaxillus.
Characteristics of the govorushka mushroom
The hat of the govorushki is large, fleshy, the diameter reaches 15 cm. In the young mushroom it is hemispherical in shape, then flattens and becomes slightly depressed. The color of the cap is ashy with a yellow tinge. Along the edges it is lighter.
The flesh is white with a dense structure, as the fungus grows older it becomes friable. The aroma is pleasant, fruity and floral, intensified during the boiling of the fungus.
Govorushki leg thick, club-shaped or cylindrical. Height reaches 8 cm, thickness about 3 cm.
The edibility of the talker
The genus is represented by both edible and poisonous species, including deadly poisonous. Since it is very difficult to distinguish between these species, it is recommended that govorushki be collected only by experienced mushroom pickers.
Edible talkers exhibit many beneficial properties. They contain animal and vegetable protein, rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals. Mushrooms have a positive effect on the work of the digestive system, strengthen the immune system, reduce the risk of developing many diseases, including tumor ones. In addition, chauvushka is a low-calorie product that is suitable for diet food.
The food is mainly consumed by the caps of young mushrooms. The legs are tasteless, and mature mushrooms lose their unique flavor. Young govorushki fried, boiled, salted, stewed, pickled and dried. They give a delicate and delicate flavor to any dish, due to which these mushrooms are often added to soups and sauces.
They do not use govorushki fresh, because of the enzymes they contain, they have a bitter taste.
During heat treatment, the govorushki are strongly reduced and boiled, and lose about half the mass.
Climbing (Clitocybe geotropa)
Edible mushroom. The diameter of the cap is 4-12 cm, the structure is fleshy, the shape is wide-bell-shaped, flattened in mature mushrooms. The edge is thin, turned up. The skin of a young mushroom is smooth, shiny, later it becomes dry and matte. The color is reddish or yellowish-brown, sometimes fading to pale yellow or whitish. The flesh is white, dry, dense, at the cut does not change color, the taste is soft, the flavor is “almond”. The length of the leg is 5-10 cm, thickness is 2-3 cm. The structure is dense, longitudinal-fibrous, the shape is cylindrical, the color is light yellow. White spores.
The species is found in deciduous and mixed forests, on forest edges, roadsides, glades, in shrubs. Growing rings. The season starts in July and lasts until the end of October.
Speckled funnel (Clitocybe gibba)
Edible mushroom. The diameter of the cap is 3-7.5 cm, the shape is flat, it is gradually pressed and becomes funnel-shaped, the cap color is pinkish-ocher, and it fades with age. The flesh is whitish, the taste is bland, the smell is almond. Leg 4-6.5 cm long, cylindrical, ocher or whitish, smooth.
The species grows in coniferous and deciduous forests, on the edges and roadsides.
Stinging odorous (Clitocybe odora)
The cap is 3-8 cm in diameter, the shape is convex, gradually becomes flat and depressed, the edge is wavy, in the center there is a hillock, bare, bluish-greenish. The flesh is white, with a strong aniseed aroma and taste. Leg length 3-6 cm, cylindrical shape, color blue-greenish, not hollow. White spores.
Edible mushroom, used as a seasoning.
It occurs mainly in deciduous forests.
Snow talker or powdered (Clitocybe pruinsa)
The diameter of the cap is 2-4 cm, at first it is flat-convex, the old fungus is depressed, the structure is fibrous, covered with a whitish coating on top, the cap color is gray-brown, gradually fading. The flesh is whitish or creamy, the smell is earthy, the taste is pleasant. Leg 3-4 cm in length and 0.3-0.4 cm in thickness, cylindrical, reddish-cream color, leathery.
Gut tongue grooved or grayish (Clitocybe vibecina)
The cap is from 1 to 5 cm in diameter, the young mushroom has a flat-convex shape, then flat, indented and funnel-shaped. The surface is bare, sticky in wet weather, the color is grayish or brown. The flesh is grayish-brown, watery, the smell and taste of rancid flour. Leg length 2-7 cm, thickness 0.2-0.7 cm, cylindrical shape, the color is grayish-brown, similar to a cap.
The gutter is grooved, edible, but difficult to determine by the fungus, which is why it is indicated as conditionally edible.
It grows in groups, rings on decaying foliage and needles in forests, bushes, in their meadows. Widely found in Eurasia from September to late autumn.
Whitish, or whitish (Clitocybe candicans)
Whitewash is poisonous fungus, contains muscarin.
The diameter of the cap is 1-4 cm, the shape of young mushrooms is flat-convex, then it becomes flat, depressed, but not funnel-shaped. The surface is covered with a whitish waxy coating, the color is pale grayish or pale reddish. The flesh is greyish-white, watery, strong aroma similar to the smell of tomato leaves, the taste is bitter, unpleasant. The stem is 2-4 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm thick, cylindrical, pinkish or grayish-white in color.
It grows in large groups on decaying foliage and needles in deciduous and mixed forests. It is found in Eurasia and North America, starting in September and until mid-October.
Translucent govorushka or diatret govorushka, or cupped goblet (Clitocybe diatreta)
The hat is 3-4 cm in diameter, convex in shape, with a curled edge, smooth, nutty or ocher-reddish in color. Young mushroom caps are darker. The surface is smooth, shiny, without bloom. The flesh is pale-whitish, the taste is soft, the smell is not pronounced. Leg length 2.5-3.5 cm, thickness 0.4-0.6 cm, reddish-brown color, cylindrical shape. The surface is dry, matte, bare.
Grows in groups, arcs or rows in the pine, rarely in birch forests, the season starts in May and lasts through September. The fungus is common in the Caucasus, Western Siberia, the Far East, Western Europe, and North Africa.
Got Tinge Pale (Clitocybe metachroa)
The cap is 3-5 cm in diameter, flat-convex in shape, becomes depressed and funnel-shaped with age, light beige or brownish. Leg length 3-6 cm, thickness 0.4-0.8 cm, color pale brown, cylindrical shape. The flesh is whitish or grayish in color, delicate, taste and smell are not pronounced.
It lives in deciduous forests, grows singly or in small groups.
The diameter of the cap is 5-15 cm, in young mushrooms the shape is hemispherical or convex, the edge is wrapped, in mature mushrooms it is convexly prostrate, the edge is wavy. In wet weather, the cap is grayish or yellowish-brown in color and becomes light in dry weather. The flesh is white, the cut color does not change, the structure is fleshy, brittle, dense. The smell and taste are changeable. The stem is 6-10 cm long and 1.5-3 cm thick, dense, club-shaped.
Mushroom grows in coniferous and mixed forests, in groups, often in circles. The species is widely found in the Northern Hemisphere. The season starts in August and lasts until the end of November.
Smoked ginger is considered a mushroom of low quality, it is eaten only after boiling, but can cause severe digestive disorders.
Talking leafy, waxish, or greyish (Clitocybe phyllophila)
One of the most poisonous mushrooms among the googoshek.
Hat 2-9.5 cm in diameter, flat-convex, flattened with age. The color of the cap is whitish or greyish-cream with spots. The flesh is whitish, with a strong flour, grassy or sweetish aroma. The taste is bland. Leg 3–7 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm thick, cylindrical, cream or white.
It grows in large groups, tight rings in the forests, on decaying foliage and needles. It is found throughout Eurasia, from September to the end of autumn.
Reddish or furrowed (Clitocybe rivulosa)
Dangerous poisonous mushroom.
The diameter of the cap is 2-4 cm, the shape is convex, the edge is tucked, then becomes open, flat or depressed, with a wavy edge. The color of young fungi from mealy-white, white-gray and pink-yellow, the old - to ocher and pinkish-brown. The surface is covered with powdery powder. The flesh is thin, pure, with an elastic, fibrous structure, white in color, which does not change on the cut. Taste is mushroom, sweet, pleasant aroma. The stem is 2-4 cm long, 0.4-0.8 cm in diameter, cylindrical in shape, white or grayish, with spots.
It grows in small groups in meadows and pastures, forest edges and glades in deciduous and mixed forests, parks, and in the temperate climate zone of the Northern Hemisphere.
Growing govorushek at home
Govorushka - unpretentious mushroom, which forms mycorrhiza with any young trees. Sowing the mycelium starts from the end of spring to the beginning of autumn. Three holes, 20 cm deep and 10–15 cm in diameter, are dug near the tree trunk. Fill up half of the hole with soil for breeding houseplants. Then govorushki mycelium evenly distributed into the wells. Spread out the compost from the ground and tamp it tightly. From above lay a laying from leaves, a moss, branches. The wells gently watered.
The first harvest is harvested after a year. The period of fruiting from 3 to 5 years. About 17 mushrooms are collected from under each tree in a season.
They also grow govorushka in the premises, planting in special boxes.
Interesting facts about the mushroom
- Speakers have a good effect on the work of the human body, they are a prophylactic agent for the development of infectious diseases, their enzymes improve digestion, cleanse the body. Also, govorushki reduce cholesterol in the blood, prevent blood clots.
- In folk medicine, extracts, decoctions and ointments from govorushek are known, which have wound-healing, disinfecting properties, and are also used to treat the respiratory tract and urolithiasis.
Types of govorushka, names and photos. Edible and poisonous govorushki.
The genus Clitocybe includes more than 250 species of govorushek. On the territory of the Russian Federation, about 60 species have been studied and described. There are both edible and deadly poisonous govorushki, so this mushroom is recommended to be collected only by experienced mushroom pickers, as it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish between species.
Below is a description of several types of govorushek:
- Gingerbread bent (red) (Latin: Clitocybe geotropa, Infundibulicybe geotropa) - edible mushroom with fleshy bell-shaped caps, which later take the form of a wide funnel with thin, downward edges. In the middle of the cap there is a tubercle, which is clearly visible in young mushrooms and remains visible in mature fruit bodies. The smooth skin that covers the top of the cap is colored yellowish brown. As it ages, it fades to pale yellow with pronounced rusty spot. The white dry flesh of dense consistency over time acquires a pale yellow color and has a characteristic subtle almond smell. The pulp on the cut does not change color. The leg is rather high, slightly pubescent, has the shape of a cylinder with a thickening towards the bottom, and is colored in light yellow. In old mushrooms, it is almost the same as the cap in color. Frequent plates, strongly descending on the leg, have a width of less than a millimeter and are painted in white or cream tones. Bended goboos grow in Germany, France, Poland, Spain, Italy, Russia, Belarus and other countries of the Northern Hemisphere with a temperate climate. The beginning of fructification falls on the first days of July, and ends at the end of October. Occurs along the edges of paths, on forest edges and grassy clearing, deep in deciduous, coniferous or mixed forests on litter of fallen leaves or mosses. It forms large clusters in the form of arcs, paths or so-called "witch circles". Only the caps of young mushrooms go into culinary processing, since the legs and the fruiting bodies of the adult talkers are unfit for food (they are heavy for the stomach and poorly digested).
- Speaker funnelled (lat. Clitocybe gibba) - edible mushroom, the most common type of govorushek. The cap of an adult mushroom has the shape of a deep funnel with a diameter of about 10 cm with a thin winding edge. Its color can be brownish-fawn, yellowish-ocher or reddish. The flesh is loose, white or slightly cream-colored with a pleasant aroma of almonds. Smooth or with small longitudinal grooves, the leg up to 6.5 cm high has a cylindrical or slightly widening shape towards the surface of the earth. Her coloring is practically no different from the color of the cap. The white flesh of the leg is stiffer, resembling rubber in consistency. Often located narrow plates of hymenophore are painted white or cream-colored (depending on age) and descend quite strongly on the leg. Voronchataya choruska is widely distributed in coniferous and deciduous forests of the European territory of the Russian Federation, the North Caucasus, Western Siberia, as well as most European countries. Govorushka grows on forest edges, glades and along the roads. Only the caps of young mushrooms go into culinary processing, since the legs and the fruiting bodies of adult govorushek are unfit for food.
- Gingerbread odorous (anisic gopus) (Latin: Clitocybe odora) - edible mushroom. Due to the specific anise smell, it is one of the brightest and most recognizable species. The pulp of the fungus is fleshy, pale gray with a greenish tint. In young mushrooms, the convex cap of a bluish-greenish color becomes grayish-yellow over time and has an almost flat surface with numerous deep depressions. The claw-shaped leg up to 8 cm long has a considerable thickening at the base. Its coloring coincides with the color of the cap, although it may be slightly paler. The plates, located on the bottom surface of the cap, are painted in a pale green color and fall quite strongly on the leg. Mushroom fruits abundantly, from the first decade of August until the second half of October. There is a growing fragrant in deciduous, mixed or coniferous forests of the European part of the Russian Federation, Western Siberia, Central and Eastern Europe.
- Mate clave (claviform) (Latin: Clitocybe clavipes) - edible mushroom, but when used with alcohol can lead to poisoning. The cap is 4-8 cm in diameter, thick and fleshy, initially convex, then flat, obtuse or tubercle in the center, sometimes conical, dark ash-gray, lighter on the edge, whitish, and smooth. Leg 3-6 cm long, cylindrical, swollen at the base, shaped like a mace, one-colored with a cap, or whitish, fibrous. The talker's pulp is ash-gray, with a pleasant mushroom smell and taste. The plates are nibble, rare, wide, initially white, later yellowish. Mace grows in coniferous forests from July to October. Sometimes found in deciduous and mixed forests.
- Govorushka giant (lat. Leucopaxillus giganteus) - edible mushroom, which belongs to the genus of the white-headed pig. It has a large cap with a diameter of 8 to 30 cm of milk-white or cream color. In the center of the cap, the color may be slightly darker. The shape of the cap is convex in a young mushroom, and then becomes depressed and funnel-shaped. The height of the whitish leg is 4-7 cm. The shape of the leg is cylindrical, there is no cover. The flesh of a giant govorushka is white and dense, does not have a special flavor or taste. Hymenophor plate, the plates descend on the leg and have a white or cream color. Gigantic gigantic grows in North America, Europe and Russia. Occurs from late August to October. With good weather, fruiting in November.
- Tinted color pale-colored (lat. Clitocybe metachroa) - inedible mushroom, some sources attribute the mushroom to poisonous. The shape of the talker's hat changes with age. The young mushroom cap is slightly convex, almost flat. In old age, the cap becomes depressed and resembles a funnel with a curved edge and a surface covered with rather deep pits. Its diameter does not exceed 5 cm. The flesh is grayish or whitish in a watery consistency, without a pronounced smell. When dried, govorushki mushrooms acquire a persistent smell of mustiness. The leg is hollow, low, cylindrical, with a diameter of 3-6 cm, gray or grayish-brown. The slightly widened base of the leg has a whitish edge. Often located pale gray plates rather low down on the leg. Pale-colored govorushka is widely distributed in Spain, France, Sweden, Italy, Belarus, Poland and other European countries. From the second decade of August to the beginning of November, a slightly colored govorushka grows throughout Russia, starting with the European part and ending with the Primorsky Territory. The fungus feels most comfortable in fallen birch or oak leaves, although there are populations that grow in mixed and purely coniferous forests. Unlike other members of the Clitocybe genus, forming fairly large clusters, the pale-colored govorushka grows alone. However, there have been isolated cases of the formation of "witch circles", in which there were more than a hundred fruit bodies.
- Говорушка дымчатая (говорушка серая, говорушка дымчато-серая) (лат. Clitocybe nebularis) — гриб, который относится к условно-съедобной категории. Некоторые ученые считают гриб ядовитым. Употребление дымчатой говорушки в пищу может вызвать серьезные сбои в работе пищеварительной системы по причине содержания в грибе цитотоксического вещества небуларина. Шляпка дымчатой говорушки средних размеров, до 15 см в диаметре. Its color depending on the weather may be gray-brown, yellowish-brown or ash-gray. On the surface of the cap of young mushrooms is often observed easily removed grayish-whitish plaque. The white flesh of the gray talkers has a fleshy, dense consistency, which does not change its color on the cut, has a characteristic fruity or floral aroma. The pulp on the cut does not change color. A clavate leg with a smooth or slightly fibrous surface has a length of up to 10 cm with a maximum thickness of 3 cm. The young consistency of the pulp is rather dense. However, as the fibrous-spongy substance fills the leg, it reborn, and it becomes hollow. White or slightly yellowish plates of hymenophor are freely separated from the lower surface of the cap and the leg. The mass fruiting of the smoky govorushka lasts from the second half of August to the last decade of November. This species is found in all types of forests in all countries of the northern hemisphere. Usually it forms rather large populations in the form of long rows or “witch circles”.
- Translucent govorushka (diatret gossip, cupped gossamer) (Latin: Clitocybe diatreta) - poisonous mushroom with a small rounded cap of a flesh-colored, nutty or ocher color, with a slight reddish tinge. Its surface after slipping becomes slippery and sticky. The thin translucent edges of the caps are wrapped down. The fleshy flesh of whitish-fawn color with increased humidity can increase in volume. Unlike most other talkers, a translucent talker does not have a pronounced smell. The cylindrical leg, often tapering towards the base, does not exceed 3.5 cm in length. Its surface, painted in light beige, fawn or red-brown tones, becomes darker as the fungus ages. Straight plates have a width of 1 to 6 mm. They are painted in a creamy white color and partially attached to the leg. Translucent talkus is widespread in the countries of Western Europe, North Africa and in the countries of the former Soviet Union. In the Russian Federation it is found not only in the European part, but also in Western Siberia, the Caucasus and the Far East. The fruit bodies of a translucent govorushka can be found from mid-spring to early autumn in coniferous and deciduous forests. The govorushka grows in large groups on poor soil with a high content of sand, forming rather long rows or arcs.
- Whitish (whitish) gossip (lat. Clitocybe candicans) - It is a poisonous fungus with a small (from 1 to 4 cm) flat or slightly indented cap. The color of the cap at the edges is pale gray, in the center is pale red, with a whitish wax-like patina that disappears as it ages. The pulp of the fruit body has a pleasant smell, reminiscent of aroma emitted by the leaves of a tomato. Contains poison - muscarin. Often located plates of hymenophore of pale cream color descend along a cylindrical stem, the height of which varies from 2 to 4 cm. The surface of the stem can be both smooth and fibrous, and its color is light gray with a slight pink tinge. At the base, the color of the legs is grayish. Whitish govorushka is widespread in Germany and France, Poland, Romania, Spain and Portugal, Belarus, Russia, as well as other European countries. It is also found in the North American continent. Whitish govorushki grow on meadows, in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests on a nutrient substrate of fallen leaves or needles. Fruit bodies appear in the middle of summer and meet until September.
- Gingerbread waxish (leaf-loving, greyish) (Latin: Clitocybe phyllophila) - poisonous mushroom from the genus govorushek. Contains a very high concentration of poison muscarin. The smooth cap has a diameter of 6-8 cm, is painted in dirty white tones, its wavy edges are wrapped up. The low foot has a cylindrical shape, its color coincides with the color of the cap. A small thickening, located at the base of the leg, has a light white edge. The wax wax is widespread in all countries of the temperate zone of the Eurasian continent. It can grow in both deciduous and coniferous or mixed forests, found in bedding of decaying foliage and needles. One at a time almost does not grow, usually forms large groups in the form of tracks or circles. Fruits in early September to mid-November.
- Reddish (furrowed) tongue (Latin: Clitocybe rivulosa) - poisonous fungus with a small cap (no more than 4 cm in diameter), changing its shape as it grows up. Its coloring is powdery white, pinkish-yellow, pinkish-brown or ocher. Often in adult govorushek of this species on the surface of the cap there is a thin mealy patina and grayish spots. The fleshy flesh of elastic consistency has a slightly sweet and pleasant aroma. The short thin leg of the govorushka has a cylindrical shape, somewhat tapering towards the base. In young mushrooms, it is filled with dense fibrous material; however, in old govorushek it becomes hollow. Hymenophore plates from 2 to 5 mm wide, painted in whitish, and later in light yellow tones, rather low down on the leg. The fruiting season begins in the second half of July and lasts until the beginning of November. Reddish govorushka found on forest glades and edges, in places of industrial and sanitary cuttings, as well as in urban parks. Usually forms large clusters in the form of "witch circles." Govorushka reddish grows over a vast territory, which includes almost all European countries, North America, the European part of Russia, Western and Eastern Siberia, Primorye, China, etc.
Where do govorushki mushrooms grow?
The growing range of govorushki is very extensive and includes all countries of the northern hemisphere with a temperate climate. Mushrooms of a govorushka grow among meadows, fields and park zones. The genus forms stable mycorrhiza with deciduous or coniferous trees of the forests of the European part of Russia, France, Italy, Portugal, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Belarus, Spain and other European countries. It is found on the territory of West and East Asia. Govorushek populations are noted in Turkey, China, Primorsky Krai. Some species grow in the vast North American continent.
Useful properties govorushek.
Edible types of govorushek are used to make soups, sauces, they are also used in fried or stewed form. Gobled smoky can even be salted or dried. Fruit bodies of mushrooms of this genus are used as low-calorie foods, without which virtually no professional diet is inconceivable.
- Hats of young edible talkers contain in their composition vitamins of group B, as well as macro- and microelements, being real storehouses of copper, zinc and manganese.
- Pulp talker helps to remove accumulated toxins from the body.
- The optimal ratio of plant proteins, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and minerals reduces the risk of various diseases. Govorushka mushrooms reduce the content of cholesterol plaques in blood vessels, their consumption has a beneficial effect on the state of the digestive system.
- In addition, the antibacterial properties of govorushek are used in folk and official medicine. Broths govorushek used to relieve tuberculous manifestations, and the substance contained in them klitocybin is part of drugs for the treatment of epilepsy.
Poisoning poisonous talker.
In the pulp of poisonous govorushek in quite a large number contains a strong toxin, which is called muscarine. Symptoms of poisoning govorushkami appear for a maximum of 3 hours:
- a disorder of the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, expressed in severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and spasmodic contractions of the stomach and intestines,
- dysfunction of the cardiovascular system, manifested by a sharp decrease in blood pressure and the occurrence of sinus bradycardia,
- excessive salivation and sweating,
- the difficulty of normal breathing, expressed in the form of bronchospasms or asthmatic manifestations,
- The most dangerous poisonous fungus of the genus Klitocybe is leaf-govorushka, it is also waxed. Its pulp has a pleasant taste and smell. Often, symptoms of poisoning are practically not manifested. However, on the fifth day, a person who ate these mushrooms may die due to kidney failure.
Nervous system poisoning usually has no effect on the nervous system. The states of anxiety and irrational fear arise against the background of the general state of the organism. At the first sign of poisoning by talking, you should immediately contact an ambulance.
Description of whitish govorushki
The diameter of the hat of the whitewash golovushki is 2-6 centimeters. With age, the shape of the cap changes - at first it is convex with the edges wrapped down, and eventually it reaches the prostrate one, and later becomes flat or depressed.
The color of the cap varies with age from mealy and grayish to ocher. Mature specimens have unclear grayish spots on their caps. The cap is covered with a thin powdery coating, easily removable. In wet weather, the cap is covered with a small amount of mucus, and in dry it becomes shiny and silky. When the hat dries, it brightens and cracks.
The flesh is thin - 3-4 millimeters thick, fibrous and elastic. The color of the flesh is whitish, it reddens on the cut. Her smell is mealy, and the taste is unexpressed. The plates are often located, first white, then gray-white, and even later they become light yellow. The width of the plates is 2-5 millimeters, they descend on the leg.
The length of the leg of the whitish govorushka is 2-4 centimeters, and the diameter ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 centimeters. The foot tapers slightly to the base. It can be straight or curved. In young fruit bodies, the legs are solid, but with age they become hollow. Color legs whitish or grayish. Places on a leg are observed spots of nut color. When pressed, the leg darkens. Spores smooth, ellipsoidal, colorless. Color spore powder white.
Types of whitewashed gossips
Earlier in the literature, two types of whitish govorushka were distinguished:
• Clitocybe rivulosa with a short leg, plates and a pinkish hat,
• Clitocybe dealbata with longer leg and grayish color.
But these signs were not enough to separate these species, since the govorushki have hygrophane caps, and they are able to absorb moisture from the air, and their coloring depends more on this. After molecular research it became clear that this is one polymorphic species.
Places of growth whitish govorushki
Bleached govorushka grows on the soil, in grassy places and on the litter. They can be found on edges, glades, pastures, forest clearings. In addition to forests, whitish govorushki grow in parks.
These mushrooms are common in the Northern Hemisphere, they grow in the temperate zone. Fruiting season - from July to November.
The venomousness of the bleached talker
Whitish goatfish is a deadly poisonous fungus. This small mushroom contains muscarin (poisonous substance) more than in the red mushroom. Muscarin causes severe poisoning. Signs of poisoning can be observed as early as 20 minutes after taking whitish govorushek for food. In the affected person, the work of the lacrimal and salivary glands increases, the heart rhythm is weakened, breathing is disturbed, blood pressure decreases, and severe diarrhea and vomiting are revealed.
Deaths when using whitish govorushki rarely occur, but still, they happen. Antidote for muscarinic poisoning - M-anticholinergics, for example, atropine.
Other mushrooms of this genus
Govorushka winter - edible mushroom. The diameter of its cap does not exceed 5 centimeters. The shape of the cap is first convex, and by old age it becomes depressed. The color of the cap is olive-brown or smoky. The leg is cylindrical, up to 4 centimeters high and about 0.6 centimeters in diameter. Leg with longitudinal fibers. Inside it is hollow, its color is the same as that of the cap.
Winter govorushki grow in coniferous forests. You can find them on the litter. They ripen in the fall. From these mushrooms you can cook second courses. Soups, dry them and pickle them.
Talking leafy - poisonous fungus. The diameter of its cap reaches 6 centimeters, sometimes up to 10 centimeters. The shape is rounded with a tubercle and slightly depressed. The color of the cap is whitish or gray-brown. The hat has a whitish bloom. In wet weather, the cap is covered with brownish spots.
The leg is 4-6 centimeters in length, its shape is cylindrical, the base is pubescent, with age it becomes hollow inside. The color of the legs is ocher-brown or gray-brown with a pinkish tinge. Face pills grow from September to November. They are common in birch, pine and spruce forests. Occur in the litter rings or groups.
Talked bent and gray
Bent gossip. It grows singly and in large groups, forming wide rings, from early July to mid-October. It grows in the form of "witch circles" on the edges of the forest, near roads and in the bushes. Great yields on calcareous soils.
Mushroom is edible. A large smooth depressed gray-yellow cap 12–20 cm, initially convex with a small tubercle, then becomes funnel-shaped with a tubercle in the center. The plates are frequent descending, initially white, then yellowish-pink. The stem is densely club-shaped, 10–20 cm long, 2–3 cm thick, of the same color with a cap, downy with mycelium. The flesh is thin and dry. Young mushrooms have white flesh, brown ones with mature ones, have a sharp unpleasant odor. In the cap it is dense, elastic, loose in the leg. Milk is not.
Fruits from August to October.
Knowing the description of the govorushka of this species, you will never confuse it with a poisonous entoloma (Entoloma sinuatum), whose cap is not funnel-shaped and without a tubercle; Entomola threatens indigestion.
Young edible govorushki mushrooms are tasty enough, old harsh, but quite edible, mixed with other mushrooms.
Talking gray or smoky (Clitocybe nebularis) - edible mushroom. Hat 7-15 cm, initially convex with a small hump, then becomes flat with a small depression, thick, fleshy, ash-gray or gray-brownish. The plates are frequent white-grayish or yellow-grayish. The leg is strong fibrous, thickened below, white-greyish short, 2-4 cm thick. The pulp emits the smell of toilet soap. In the cap it is thick, fleshy, watery and friable in the leg. Spore powder is white.
It grows in coniferous, deciduous forests, in the bushes, near the deadwood. Often in large groups.
Fruits in August to November.
Poisonous and inedible twins has not. The fungus is difficult to confuse with other species, as it is distinguished by a sharp smell, late appearance, easily crushed plates in mature specimens.
Talking smoky belongs to the fourth category of mushrooms. Without pretreatment, which consists in boiling for half an hour, it can cause food poisoning.
Previously, the mushroom belonged to the unconditionally edible, now the views on its edibility have changed. The fact is that in some people it may cause indigestion, increased sweating, difficulty breathing when consumed (especially young specimens). Strongly accumulates heavy metal salts. In any case, it requires mandatory pre-boiling and they should not be abused.
At observance of all culinary norms the mushroom becomes absolutely harmless and it can be salted and pickled. In folk medicine, the healing properties of govorushki, in the tissues of which contains a natural antibiotic, have long been known.
Goblets goblet and orange
Govorushka goblet on photo
Govorushka goblet. The cap, up to 8 cm in diameter, is widely funnel-shaped, scyphoid or cup-shaped, with a curled edge, shiny, silky, when moistened as if soaked with water. The whole mushroom is dark ash gray or brownish-yellow. The plates are adherent or descending on the leg, rather rare, sometimes branched, light brown or brown-brown. The flesh is thin, greyish, watery. White spore nut. Leg up to 10 cm, elastic, hollow, thickened at the bottom, fluffy at the base. Grows in coniferous, mixed, deciduous forests on the forest floor, fallen needles, rotten wood, is quite common. Fruits in August - September.
Edible mushrooms govorushki eaten boiled and salted. High quality mushroom.
Talking orange is a rare edible agaric. Other names - kokoshka or chanterelle false. It grows singly or in small groups, yielding stable yields annually, from the beginning of August to the end of October. Favorite habitats - wet areas of mixed or coniferous forests, covered with a thick layer of moss or fallen leaves, as well as rotting trunks of pines lying on the ground.
As can be seen in the photo, this govorushka mushroom has a convex bonnet with curved edges and takes the shape of a funnel over time:
Its diameter is on average 4–5 cm. In the process of growth, the yellow-orange color of the cap fades, retaining its saturation only in the center. Пластинки нисходящие, более яркой окраски, чем шляпка, при надавливании темнеют. Ножка округлая, более тонкая у основания, того же цвета, что и пластинки на спороносном слое. Ее высота 4–5 см при диаметре не более 0,5 см. Мякоть тонкая, без вкуса и запаха, в шляпке желтая, мягкая, напоминает вату, в ножке красноватая, жесткая, упругая.
В пищу употребляются только шляпки молодых грибов, которые можно варить и жарить.
Говорушки булавоногая и ворончатая
Говорушка булавоногая(говорушка толстоногая, говорушка булавовидноногая). A cap up to 8 cm in diameter, initially convex, then flat, funnel-shaped in mature mushrooms, with a raised thin edge, brown or gray-brown, fading. The plates are rare, whitish, then yellowish, creamy, descending on the leg. The flesh is moist, on the edges is thin, whitish, with a weak floury smell. Legs up to 8 cm high, claviformly swollen, solid, fibrous, greyish-brownish, covered with a patina of mycelium in the lower part. It prefers to grow in coniferous and mixed with a mixture of birch forests on the forest floor alone and in small groups. Appears in August and grows until late autumn.
Cooking Little-known, edible conditionally edible, but not very tasty mushroom. In combination with alcohol, it acts as poisonous. After boiling and removing the decoction, it can be boiled, fried, salted and pickled with other mushrooms.
Funnel talker (funnel-shaped, funnels). The cap with a diameter of up to 8 cm, with a prominent tubercle in the middle, during the period of maturation takes on a deep-cornered shape, dry, with a winding edge, yellow-brown-fawn. The plates in the funnel govorushki are frequent, with small intermediate lamellae, descending down the pedicle. The flesh is thin, with a pleasant powdery smell. Leg up to 8 cm, thin, rigid-elastic, solid, with a white “felt” of the mycelium, which is involved in the decomposition of forest decay. This species is the most common among govorushek. It grows in forests of different types on the forest floor of fallen leaves and needles in the bushes, at the paths, often, singly or in placers, from summer to late autumn.
Cooking Edible mushroom at a young age. It requires long boiling. Can be dried. It is recommended to use together with other mushrooms.
Govorushki inverted and aniseed
Govorushka inverted (lepist reverse). The cap with a diameter of 4-8 cm, with the growth of the fungus becomes wide funnel-shaped, brick-like or red-yellow-brown, fading with time, in wet weather is brilliant. The plates are frequent, nibbered on the leg, light yellow, then brownish yellow, sandy-ocher. The flesh is thin, grayish-yellow or pale yellow, light brownish, with a faint sourish odor. The stem is root-stretched at the base, often curved, rigid, solid, then hollow, reddish, usually lighter than the cap, or rust-brown. The turned upside-down can be found in pine forests and plantings on coniferous litter, in mixed forests on litter. Fruit bodies form large groups in August - October.
Cooking Inexpensive edible mushroom. Suitable after boiling for salting. Some authors attribute this fungus to inedible.
Anisic gingerbread is an edible agaric. Other names - fragrant govorushka and fragrant govorushka. Quite a rare mushroom that grows singly or in small groups from early August to late October, yielding large yields each year. Most often it can be found in mixed and spruce forests.
In describing this govorushki it is worth noting that its convex cap with the edges curved downward in the process of growth straightens and acquires an outspread shape. In the center, as a rule, it has a small depression, less often a tubercle. The hat is painted gray-green, lighter on the edge.
Sporiferous layer contains adherent plates, whitish in young fungi, pale green in mature ones. Leg rounded, wider at the base, grayish-yellow color with a greenish tint. Its height is about 5 cm with a diameter of not more than 0.5 cm. The surface of the stem of the cap is smooth, has a slight pubescence at the base. The flesh is thin, watery, pale green or off-white in color, with a strong smell of anise.
Anisothora refers to the fourth category of mushrooms. It is eaten as boiled, salted, or pickled, and as a result of heat treatment, the characteristic smell of anise is significantly weakened and becomes not as pronounced as in fresh mushrooms.
Goslings is waxy and gigantic
Goosefish is a rare poisonous agaric. It grows singly or in small groups from late July to late September, preferring open, sunlit areas of mixed or coniferous forest with sandy soil or low dense grass.
In young mushrooms the cap is convex, but in the process of growth it becomes slightly indented or prostrate, with wavy edges. In the center of the cap is a small bump. The surface of the cap is smooth, matte, light gray in color, but in wet weather it darkens and barely visible concentric zones appear on it. The sporiferous layer is formed by cream-colored descending plates. Leg rounded, smooth, wider at the base, solid inside. Its height is about 5 cm with a diameter of 1 cm. The surface of the leg of this poisonous govorushka is painted in off-white color, its upper part is smooth, and the lower part has a slight pubescence. The flesh is thick, with an unpleasant smell, elastic in the leg, fragile in the cap.
In the tissues of govorushki waxed contains poison that is dangerous for the human body, which can cause serious food poisoning.
Govorushka giant - rare conditionally edible agaric. It grows in large groups, forming the so-called witch circles, from the end of August to the end of October. Annually gives abundant harvests. Prefers to settle in open areas of the forest, as well as pastures.
The convex cap of the fungus eventually becomes funnel-shaped, with thin, upward-curved edges. As a rule, the diameter of the cap of a mature mushroom does not exceed 13–15 cm, but there are also giants with caps with a diameter of up to 30 centimeters or more. They gave the name of this species of fungus. The surface of the cap is matte, silky to the touch, depending on the habitat it may be covered with small scales. Most often it is snow-white, less often the color of coffee with milk. On the underside of the cap are descending plates with jumpers. Their color in the process of growth changes from beige to yellow. The stem is white, dense, up to 8-10 cm in diameter and about 3-4 cm in diameter. The pulp is also white, fleshy, elastic, with a faint powdery smell, in old mushrooms with a bitter taste.
Govorushka giant belongs to the fourth category of mushrooms. It is eaten only after pre-boiling, after which it is possible to cook first and second dishes from it, as well as prepare it for future use - pickle or pickle. The pulp of the fungus contains a natural antibiotic - klitocybin A and B, which has a detrimental effect on the tubercle bacillus.
Whitish, whitish and reddish brown
Talking whitish (Clitocybe candicans). The cap with a diameter of 1.5–5 cm, at first convex, later extends to the concave, the edge is thin, lowered. The skin is lightly powdery at first, then shiny and smooth. The color is white, sometimes with a faint pink tint. The plates are frequent, slightly descending, white. The flesh is thin, white, the smell is inexpressive, the taste is pleasant.
Leg 2–4 cm high, up to 0.5 cm in diameter, cylindrical, often bent at the base, tomentose. The color is white or yellowish.
Spore powder. White.
Habitat In the forests of different types of fallen and pine needles.
Season. August - November.
Similarity. With other small govorushkami white, from the collection of which should refrain.
Utilization. The mushroom is suspicious, in different sources it is designated as poisonous, inedible, non-toxic. According to some, contains muscarin.
Whitish govorushka, bleached govorushka (Clitocybe dealbata). A hat with a diameter of 2–4 cm, convex or flat, later funnel-shaped, often irregular in shape, with a sinuous uneven edge. The skin is smooth, dry, with a slight powdery coating. The color is whitish, with weak grayish zones along the edge in the form of concentric circles formed during the cracking of the plaque, in maturity with ocher spots. Adhesive or descending plates, white or grayish, then cream. The flesh is thin, white, tasteless, the smell of weakly melted.
Leg 2–4 cm high, diameter up to 1 cm, cylindrical, slightly thickened towards the base, whitish or creamy, first solid, later hollow.
Spore powder. White.
Habitat On meadows, pastures, on forest grassy edges.
Season. Summer autumn.
Similarity. The mushroom is extremely similar to the Hebrew (Clitopilus prunulus), which is distinguished by a much stronger floury smell and in which the plates become pinkish in maturity.
Use. Very poisonous mushroom due to its high muscarin content.
A word of caution: in case of the slightest doubt, it is better to refuse to collect white talkers at all.
Govorushka cracking, Govorushka reddish (Clitocybe rivulosa). A hat with a diameter of 2–5 cm, initially convex, later straightened, pressed into the center, covered with a powdery white bloom, which cracks as the cap grows, exposing the main color - cream or reddish-reddish. As a result, the surface is covered with obscure concentric zones. The plates are adherent, frequent, reddish-white, later cream. The flesh is thin, the taste is expressionless, the smell is expressionless.
Leg 2–4 cm high, diameter 0.4–0.8 cm, of the same color with a cap or reddish-brown, slightly felt at the base.
Spore powder. White.
Habitat In the forests, gardens, parks, often along the paths, along the sides of the ditches.
Season. From late summer to autumn.
Similarity. With other small govorushkami white, with edible ivy (Clitopilus prunulus), which differs floury smell and pink plates.
Use. Mushroom is very poisonous.
Caution: do not collect small white govorushki, if you are not sure of the exact definition.
Talking red-brown. Cap 5–9 cm in diameter, widely funnel-shaped, red-yellow, red-brown or rust-spotted, often hygrophagous. Plates are frequent, decurrent, creamy or yellow-rusty. The flesh is thin, brittle, tough, reddish or pale yellow, the smell is sour, the taste is tart.
Leg 3-5 cm in height, diameter up to 1 cm, reddish, lighter than the cap, rigid.
Spore powder. White.
Habitat In coniferous, less deciduous forests.
Season. This is an autumn view, growing to steady frosts.
Similarity. It looks like a water-stained goat goat (C. gilva), growing in deciduous and coniferous forests, colored lighter and having watery spots on the surface, like an edible funnel goad (C. infundibuliformis), which has white plates.
Use. Previously, govorushka ryzhe-brown and govorushka water-spiny were considered edible, but later muscarine was discovered in them. Information in the literature about their edibility is very contradictory, besides their taste is mediocre, and therefore we do not recommend collecting these mushrooms.
View photos of govorushka mushrooms, which are described on this page:
Large smooth Talked tucked into the photo
Rare edible mushroom Govorushka orange on a photo
Whitish talker on photo
The study of these fungi has allowed them to find many useful properties. The composition of govorushki includes both vegetable and animal proteins, vitamins B2 and B1, a large number of such trace elements as zinc, manganese, copper. In addition, various medicines can be obtained from the govorushek. These include diatretin, nebulyarin, klitocybin and others. The use of these tools can treat tuberculosis. Govorushka has pronounced antibacterial properties.
The structure of this fungus includes klitocybin, which allows its use in the treatment of epilepsy. Like all other mushrooms, govorushka is a low-calorie product, it is recommended as a diet food. These mushrooms have a cleansing and regenerating effect on the body; they remove slags, toxins and heavy metals salts from it. In folk medicine, decoctions and ointments made from govorushka are used. They have a healing effect, help to remove stones. For the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract make extracts of these fungi.
Among the govorushek there are very poisonous species, therefore, they are recommended to be collected only by experienced mushroom pickers. In addition, it is not recommended to use these mushrooms in combination with alcoholic beverages, it can cause serious poisoning. For conditionally edible types of govorushki it is very important to conduct heat treatment correctly.
The genus of these mushrooms has two hundred and fifty species. In our country and in Europe, only fifty are common. Depending on the variety, the mushrooms differ in the size and color of the cap, the consistency of the pulp, the height and structure of the leg, taste, smell, belonging to the category of edible and inedible mushrooms.
Talking mushrooms contain large amounts of the following substances:
- Proteins of plant and animal origin.
- Amino acids.
The use of fungi improves digestion, strengthens the immune system, prevents the development of cancer. Mushrooms are low calorie foods, and are therefore used in a variety of diets. They have the ability to excrete toxins and salts from the body, thereby purifying and renewing it.
Mushroom govorushka, which species are used in traditional medicine, is part of many decoctions and ointments, which are used to treat wounds, respiratory tract, and kidney diseases. Mushrooms are an important product for vegetarians, as they replace meat.
There are talker mushrooms edible and inedible. The group of edible mushrooms includes: govorushka gray, funnel, folded and others. There are no restrictions for the use of these mushrooms; they do not pose a danger to the majority of the population. But even edible mushrooms can harm, if a person is not okay with digestion. With individual intolerance can not eat even the most useful and tasty mushrooms.
This mushroom has several names: govorushka smoky, smoky gray, smoky row. The surface of the cap of all varieties is covered with a mealy bloom, so it seems that the mushroom is smoky, hence the name.
The govorushka gray mushroom is distinguished by a large cap, the diameter of which is more than twenty centimeters, its shape is spherical, the edges are tucked inside. In the process of growth, the edge expands; a hillock appears in the center.
The hat is gray, smoky or ashen. The skin has a matte color and velvety plaque, which disappears with age. The leg of small height, up to ten centimeters, has a thickening at the base of the fungus.
The type of fungus is lamellar, the pulp structure is fibrous. The hat is fleshy, breaks easily. The fungus is highly hygroscopic. During rain it absorbs moisture in large quantities. The cut color does not change. Smell floral, very pleasant.
Mushrooms of this variety are considered conditionally edible and harmless to humans. But sometimes people get poisoned by using them. Therefore, this fungus should be treated with caution. And another thing: heavy metals accumulate in the porous flesh. To prevent these substances from entering the human body, it is necessary to pick up mushrooms in ecologically clean places.
For growth, the row forest has chosen forests with different tree species, including coniferous. It grows well with high humidity, so the fruiting period comes after a rainy summer, in the middle of August, and ends in early October. The smoky row has inedible twins:
- Entoloma is a poisonous fungus with a mealy bloom and a grayish color of the cap. Differs in more dense pulp and a thin structure.
- Rowing soap - a poisonous mushroom with a greenish tint of the cap and the smell of soap.
Talking gray is suitable for drying, boiling, frying, canning. When processing mushrooms, be aware that they are strongly boiled. Mushrooms have a sweet smell with a floral aroma and a sweet and sour taste.
This mushroom has a different name - golden row. Belongs to the category of inedible. It grows from July to September one by one or in groups, prefers conifer forests and mixed forests.
The hat is medium in size, ten centimeters in diameter. In the process of growth changes its shape. When the mushroom begins to grow, the cap is convex, its edges are bent down. Then the cap straightens, the edges become thin and curved. The surface of the cap is smooth, yellowish, orange, reddish colors. Adult mushrooms fade, their caps become almost white. Often there are rusty or brown spots on the mushrooms.
The leg is of medium height - no more than six centimeters, but thick and slightly curved, has the same color as the cap. Thin pulp is dense, with a yellowish or creamy tint, bitter taste.
These mushrooms contain the toxic substance muscarin. Their use is fraught with severe poisoning for a person, signs of which appear twenty minutes after the poisonous govorushka mushrooms have been eaten. In humans, breathing is impaired, the heart rhythm is weakened, pressure is reduced, tearing and abundant salivation appear, vomiting and diarrhea begin. If this happens, the victim must take an antidote, for example, atropine. A distinctive feature of poisonous talkers is a bright color and a pleasant, but not sharp smell.
General characteristics and description of the genus
В народе эти шляпочные грибы известны под названиями говорушка, или рядовка. В России грибы названы говорушками из-за кучного роста: рядом с одним представителем этого вида обязательно будет ещё десяток его сородичей разного размера, как будто вся эта толпа собралась побеседовать друг с другом.
Научная классификация говорушек:
- род — Clitocybe,
- принадлежат к отделу базидиомицетов,
- классовая принадлежность к агарикомицетам,
- порядковое наименование — агариковые,
- belonging to the family ryadovkovyh.
Rarely when the fruit body reaches a large size, medium and small are more common, with hats no more than five centimeters. While the mushroom is young, the white fruit body is elastic. In old mushrooms, it grows, loses its elasticity and becomes crumbly.
Ordinary types of hat frames are small, up to 6 cm wide, although, for example, a giant hat can have a diameter of 20 cm. The mushroom that has just appeared out of the ground has a round cap, its edges are turned inside. Over time, the hat straightens and increases in diameter. In aging mushrooms, it can arch in the opposite direction and even take the form of a goblet. The outer surface of the mushroom hat is without growths, without luster, smooth, but there may be strange spots on it, in the form of mold - these are remnants of the mushroom mycelium. It may have a variety of colors: off-white, gray-brown, fawn, brown-pink or all sorts of ocher. By the middle of the hat, the color is more saturated, and at the edges it seems to fade and pale.
The leg is not thick, in the form of a cylinder, its height depends on the type of rows and their age. The usual length of the leg is from 3 to 8 cm, its thickness varies from 5 mm to 2-3 cm. Often there is a near-soil thickening of the mushroom foot.
The plates at the rows have a light color of various shades, they are connected with a diagonally, descending leg. Anise talker plates
Spreading and ecology govorushek
The genus Clitocybe consists of 250 varieties of rats. In Russia, Ukraine and Belarus about 100 species of this mushroom grow, some of which are deadly poisonous. It is sometimes very difficult to distinguish toxic species from edible or conditionally edible, as they are similar to each other.
Talking tongue mushrooms are found everywhere in the countries of the middle climatic zone: in the Russian Federation (from the Far East to the Moscow Region), Ukraine, Belarus, Britain, Belgium, and in some Asian countries. Clitocybe can be found on pastures, fields, spruce forests.
Edible Mushroom Types
Edible varieties of ryadovok in cooking used as follows:
- when boiling mushroom soups,
- fried with vegetables
- stew mushroom stew,
- based on them prepare mushroom sauce and sauces,
- salted barrel ambassador,
- pickled and rolled for the winter
- some varieties are dried.
- vegetable proteins,
- amino acids
- B vitamins,
- trace elements.
The funnel, the Latin name Clitocybe gibba, is quite a good mushroom, and perhaps the most common mushroom in our forests. Characteristic and description
- The cap of an adult mushroom is turned upwards in the form of a bowl, the width from edge to edge is 10-12 cm. The thickness of the cap closer to the edge becomes thinner and becomes wavy. Color can vary from brown (reddish) to various shades of ocher (yellow, fawn). The flesh of the cap has a pleasant white or pale cream color, a slight almond smell, it breaks easily.
- The leg is smooth, in the form of an even or slightly widening upward cylinder with longitudinal grooves. The height of the legs usually reaches 6-6.5 cm. The color is one or two tones lighter than the color of the cap.
- The plates are narrow, often located. The young fungus is white, the old - yellowish, from the edge of the cap gradually descend to the stem of the fungus.
- Distribution area - Russia, European countries, North America.
- Where it occurs: in parks and forest plantations. Loves both deciduous landings and spruce forests. It prefers well-lit places, so most often a scattering of rows can be found on the side of a forest road, on a clearing or forest edge.
White smoky tongue, the Latin name Clitocybe robusta, is a tasty and edible mushroom.
Characteristic and description
- The hat is fleshy and thick, 5 to 20 cm wide. The young hat is hemispherical, curved downwards, as it grows, turns to a flat-convex or it may look slightly pressed in with a flattened or slightly curved edge. The color is from dirty white (gray) to dirty yellow, in the old mushroom the cap coating fades almost to white, on the surface a slight scurf. Ripened spores look like white powder.
- Leg. On young mushrooms there is a thickening under the ground (club-shaped), as aging grows, roundness smoothes out, but the leg acquires wider outlines closer to the root system. Young pulp loose, fibrous, without voids. In the old mushroom, the leg becomes soft, whitish gray, faded color and with a pronounced smell of fruit.
- Plate - often located under the cap, slightly descending. On young mushrooms - white, overgrown - yellow or slightly cream.
- Distribution area - the European region, the Far East.
- Where it occurs: prefers forests with a predominance of fir trees or mixed plantings of spruce and oak. He likes well-lit places (edges, glades) and deciduous or coniferous litter. It grows in groups of 5 to 40 pieces, the mushrooms are arranged in rings, half rings or rows, they do not bear fruit every year and are rare.
- What can be confused: inexperienced mushroom pickers can be confused with a poisonous white rowing, a strong hallmark is the unpleasant odor of a poisonous fungus.
Govorushka winter, the Latin name Clitocybe brumalis, is a good edible mushroom. Characteristic and description
- The hat is 5-6 cm wide; in a mushroom that has just emerged from the soil, it has a spherical, curved downward shape. In a large mushroom, it moves to a flat (prostrate), in the old one it takes on a cup again. In the middle the hat is thick, to the edges it becomes thinner and becomes wavy. The color of the hat is marsh, brownish-smoky, with age the brightness of the color is lost. The mushroom body is tender, supple with a floury aroma. When dried, the flesh becomes white, as well as fully ripened spores.
- The leg is longitudinal-fiber, in the form of a cylinder. Height - 3-4 cm, thickness - up to 50 mm. The color of the legs usually coincides with the color of the hat, with time the color of the one and the other becomes a few tones lighter (faded).
- The plates are frequent, narrow, directed down the descending. The color of the plates is gray or yellow-white.
- The territory of distribution is the European part of the Russian Federation, the hills of the Far East, the foothills of the Caucasus, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Africa (north) and America.
- Where it occurs: winter ryadovka grows well on rotting vegetative litter. Especially likes to grow in pine plantations.
The difference between conditional edible mushrooms and edible mushrooms is that they can not be used without prior treatment. Some species require pre-boiling (possibly several times) and further washing in clean water. Other types of mushrooms enough to soak for several hours in one or more waters. These mushrooms can be eaten, but they must first be heat treated.
Talking anise, in Latin the name sounds like Clitocybe odora. Often this mushroom is called fragrant or fragrant rowing. Characteristic and description
- The cap is 4 to 9 cm wide, the shape initially slightly convex, growing up, straightens to an even state. Sometimes in the middle of a hat a depressed fossa is formed. The color is an unusual, faded blue color, the coating is smooth. The mushroom pulp has a thin watery consistency, a grayish color and a clearly noticeable aroma of anise drops. This smell served as the basis for the other items mentioned above.
- The leg is brown, greyish or with an olive tinge, in the form of an elongated cylinder, thickened at the bottom. The body of the stem near the soil is slightly trimmed with mycelium.
- The plates are densely located under the cap, wide. Color - pale green.
- Area of distribution - Far Eastern hills, the foothills of the Caucasus, Europe.
- Where it occurs: in spruce and deciduous plantings. The peak of mushroom growth is in the middle of September.
- With what can be confused - on the row (govorushku) anise looks very similar to a govorashka fragrant. You can distinguish them by colors: the last is yellowish.
Scent is fragrant, Latin name is Clitocybe fragrans.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is of medium size, width from edge to edge - from 3 to 6 cm. At the beginning of growth it is spherically convex, later it straightens and bends in the opposite direction, acquires curved edges. The color of the hat varies in color from yellowish-gray to light ocher, the shades may be different. The watery pulp is tender, very fragile, white. When the pulp is broken, the smell of anise drops is felt. Ripened spores look like white powder.
- The leg in height reaches 3-5 cm, thickness - from 50 mm to 1 cm. The shape of the leg is classical, in the form of an elongated cylinder, flat. The color always coincides with the color of the cap, mostly these are variants of yellowish-gray tones.
- The plates are narrow, often located on the cap, gradually descending to the stem. The color of the plates is off-white, in old mushrooms it is gray-brown.
- Distribution area - the European region, South America, North Africa.
- Where it occurs: in conifers, and in mixed plantings, mass fructification begins in mid-September. Mushrooms grow until the end of the first October decade, during a particularly warm and rainy autumn, fruiting can last until the end of October. Rowing is fragrant with a large group or rows, from 5-7 to 50 mushrooms in one place.
- What can be confused with an edible mushroom is the anisic numbering, the main difference between these species is the yellowish color of the fragrance cap.
Govorushka goblet, Latin name sounds like Clitocybe cyathiformis. Few people know that these mushrooms can be eaten.
Characteristic and description
- Cap 4 to 8 cm wide, in the form of a deep cup or funnel. The edge of the hat is uneven, wavy, the surface is soft and silky (in dry weather), and hygrographic in rain. The color is brown, grayish, the color of the pulp is the same (a couple of shades are lighter). The pulp consistency is watery. Ripened spores look like white powder.
- Leg rather high (4-7 cm), thin (up to 50 mm), pubescent near the ground. Its color is the same as that of the hat plate, or 2-3 tones lighter. Leg pulp fibrous, hard.
- The plates are rarely located, gradually descending from the cap to the stem, their color is the same shade with the hat plate, but slightly lighter.
- The distribution area is European countries and the European region of the Russian Federation.
- Where it occurs: spruce and mixed plantings, forest belts and urban park areas. Mycelium sprouts on wood rotters and coniferous pillow. Grow in groups and one by one.
- What can be confused with: mushrooms look a bit like a funnel row, but still differ from it in the shape of a cap, brown-brown color, a thin hollow stem and dark pulp.
The little clava tongue, Latin name Clitocybe clavipes. She has a few more names (Tolstonog, club-like).
Characteristic and description
- The hat is rather wide, up to 8 cm. The young one has a convex shape, then gradually straightens to absolutely flat, overgrown mushrooms are decorated with a hat rolled into a funnel. “Hat funnel” with a thin corner, its color is a mixture of brown and gray colors, with time it fades. The pulp of the cap is watery, tender and brittle, has a floury smell.
- The stem is rounded at the ground, then - cylindrical, the general shape resembles an inverted mace. Height - from 5 to 8 cm, thickness - 50-70 mm. Leg pulp fibrous, gray-brown, without voids. On the swollen lower part, you can visually notice the mycelium in the form of plaque.
- The plates are sparsely arranged, initially gray-whitish, as the fungus grows older they acquire a light yellowness. Located at the bottom of the hat and gradually descend to the leg.
- The distribution area is the European region, the foothills of the Caucasus, the hills of the Far East and southern Siberia.
- Where it occurs: in leaf plantings and conifers mixed with birch. You can see a mace-leaf goblin growing in large quantities and alone. The first mushrooms grow in the second decade of August, the most fruiting comes in September, the last mushrooms can be found even in late October.
Talking smoky, in Latin its name sounds like Clitocybe nebularis. This variety is also called govorushkoy smoky gray. Pharmaceutical enterprises process the antibiotic nebularin contained in these mushrooms and prepare medicines based on it.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is medium or very large, its diameter reaches 23 cm, the surface is smooth and glossy. Its colors can be all shades of gray, pale brown or pale yellow. The cap of young mushrooms is spherical, slightly curved downwards, in the center one can see a clear bulge. After some time, the cap becomes smooth, its edges are thin and curving. In the break, the flesh is dense, friable, appetizing white. The color of the pulp in the air does not change, the taste is pleasant. The smell of smoky ryvodovki suggests rotting fruit, although sometimes it resembles a strong floral scent.
- The leg is rounded and elongated, the lower part is round and twice as thick as the main one, height - from 5 to 15 cm. It can be completely smooth or covered with a touch of white-gray color. Young mushrooms have a dense stem, overgrown it becomes hollow. The color for a couple of colors is lighter than the color of the hat.
- The plates are thin and often located, of different shades of sand color, do not attach to the mushroom stem, and very weakly attach to the cap.
- Area of distribution - in the countries located in the Northern Hemisphere, these mushrooms like a cool climate.
- Where it occurs: in forest parks, forest plantations, in parks, in coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests. Fruits from the first decade of August to mid-November (with a mild autumn). Mycelium likes to settle down on rotten wood, next to fir trees and birches. It grows in large groups, often "witch circles".
- What can be confused: smoky has a similarity with the entomine tin mushroom (Entoloma sinuatum). The difference is that Entoloma sinuatum has pink plates and a hat of a dark yellow color.
Talking orange, Latin name Lepiota aspera, this large semi-edible mushroom is named after its colorful hat.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is thick, width - from 5 to 22 cm, the surface is not shiny, smooth. The color is bright: all shades of orange, overgrown mushrooms hat fades and becomes a dirty yellow color, or rusty spots appear on it. In young instances, the hat in the shape of an inverted bell, as it grows older, straightens out and becomes even straight away, and later acquires a depressed shape. A small tubercle is seen in the center, the edges are turned up. On the rift, the body of the hat is white, when exposed to oxygen, the color does not change, the almond aroma appears.
- The leg is cylindrical in shape, height is from 6 to 15 cm, its fibrous pulp is wiry. The color of the legs usually coincides with the color of the hat, or has a slightly lighter tone.
- Plate brown or cream.
- Area of distribution - the countries of Eurasia, in which the climate tends to temperate.
- Where it occurs: on the edges of forest roads, forest edges, large forest glades. Любит смешанные леса (лиственные деревья и ели), хорошее освещение.
- С чем можно спутать: оранжевая имеет сходство с говорушкой гигантской, но отличается шишкой в середине шляпы, и ядовитой рядовкой беловатой, шляпа которой усыпана светлым налётом (напоминающим мучной).
Govorushka bent, Latin name Clitocybe geotropa. Characteristic and description
- The hat is large and fleshy, gray-yellow, diameter - from 12 to 20 cm, initially spherical shape with a small knoll, then becomes funnel-shaped (with a cone in the middle). The pulp of the cap is dense. On the rift of young mushrooms, the body of the hat is dry, loose, white, in the old - brown color, with an unpleasant aroma.
- The leg has dense pulp and club-shaped (pubescent mycelium) thickening at the base, length - from 10 to 20 cm, diameter - 2-3 cm. Same color with a hat.
- The plates are often located, gradually descending to the mushroom foot. The color on young mushrooms is white, on the old - yellowish.
- The distribution area is European countries, the Far Eastern region.
- Where it occurs: in the bushes and forest plantations, on forest edges. He likes mixed forest parks and lime-containing soil, grows in wide rings, in which there are from 20 to 50 mushrooms (large and small). Starts fruiting in summer, from mid-summer, and the growth of mycelium continues almost until the end of October.
- What can be confused with: a bit like a poisonous entolome. They are easy to distinguish, since the inedible mushroom does not have: a hat with a cone in the middle and in the form of a funnel upturned, its leg without a rounded thickening below, and the flesh smells unpleasant. If you make a mistake and eat the entomus, you can get a serious upset stomach.
Snow talker, in Latin pronounced as Clitocybe pruinosa.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is from 3 to 4 cm wide, the initial shape is a convex sphere, a little later - widely concave, with bent, sometimes wavy edges. The color is grayish-brown or gray-brown with a brighter middle of a hat. Pulp on a break is white, dense. It has a distinct smell of cucumber. Spore-ready spores look like white powdery substance.
- The leg is a thin, rather long light sinewy cylinder, up to 4 cm long, up to 30 mm thick. Leg without voids, curved, smooth, its color merges with the mushroom hat.
- The plates are narrow, often located, gradually descending to the leg. On old mushrooms - yellowish, on young - whitish.
- The distribution area is the countries of the European region.
- Where it occurs: spruce, pine and mixed with deciduous forests with an abundance of sunlight. Grows in early spring (all May), comes across infrequently and not annually.
Govorushka giant, scientific name Leucopaxillus giganteus, is a rare mushroom from the category of conditionally edible.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is spherical, with time it expands and turns into a funnel looking upwards, the edges are thin, bent upwards. The most common caps reach 13-15 cm, but sometimes there are giants with a cap diameter of 30-35 cm. The surface without gloss, smooth, but (depending on the composition of the soil) is covered with small scales. The color of the hat is snow-white, sometimes there is also a light beige color, the flesh on the break is white, it has a light flour aroma and a pleasant taste. If you taste the raw pulp of old mushrooms to taste, then it will turn out bitterly.
- The foot is high (8-10 cm) and thick (3-4 cm) white at the break.
- The plates are beige, become yellowish as they age, and are located in a downward direction from the cap to the stem.
- The distribution area is European countries and European territories of Russia.
- Where it occurs: on open forest edges, pastures. Mycelium develops annually, abundant fruiting begins from the second decade of August and lasts until the first days of November. The mycelium is located in the form of large diameter "witch circles".
Inedible poisonous talkers
We must not forget that over time, any fungi are capable of accumulating heavy metals and toxins in the fruit body, and talkers are no exception. It is this that justifies the ban on the collection of talkers (rowers) next to large industrial enterprises and high-speed highways. Eating such mushrooms can lead to severe intoxication.
Toxic varieties of govorushek - sources of muscarin, which is a very strong toxin. The first symptoms of intoxication appear within three hours:
- nausea, vomiting diarrhea, cramps in the stomach and intestines,
- pressure drops to critical and sinus bradycardia occurs,
- throws into a cold sweat, begins an uncontrollable saliva discharge,
- the man is choking.
Whitish (whitish), the scientific name Clitocybe candicans, is an extremely toxic fungus. Characteristic and description
- The cap is small, width - from 1 to 4 cm, prostrate or slightly convex, contains muscarin (strong poison). The center of the hat is faded red, closer to the edges turns into faded gray. On young hats there is a light (waxy) plaque, which is absent on overgrown mushrooms. The pulp in the fault smells pleasantly, there is a clear similarity in smell with the green leaves of tomatoes pounded in a hand.
- The leg is thin, cylindrical, with a smooth or fibrous surface, height is 2-4 cm. The color is gray-pink, closer to the ground is dark gray.
- The plates are light beige, going downward from cap to leg.
- The distribution area is the European part of the continent, North and Latin America.
- Where it occurs: last year’s leaf or coniferous pillow, in coniferous and mixed plantings, in open areas. Fruiting begins in mid-summer and lasts until the third decade of September.
Pale colored (gray)
Talking a little pale or gray, the Latin name Clitocybe metachroa, is very poisonous. Characteristic and description
- Hat in width from 3 to 5 cm, initially spherical, with a central tubercle, curved edges, later - straightened, with a depressed middle part and a tuber available in the middle. The edge is thin and wavy, in the rain becomes sticky. A young mushroom has a gray hat with a white powdery coating in the middle, becomes watery a little later and changes color to a grayish-brownish color, when it is not raining, it brightens, becomes whitish-grayish or whitish-brownish. With any change in color, the middle always remains much darker than the base color. Cap pulp is gray, watery, odorless. Ripened spores look like white-gray powder.
- Leg length from 3 to 6 cm, thickness - 30-50 mm. Smooth, or tapering down, hollow, initially grayish with a light coating, later on becomes a grayish-brownish color.
- The plates are narrow, often located, adherent to the cap and gradually descending to the stem, pale gray in color.
- The distribution area is Europe, the foothills of the Caucasus, the Far Eastern hills.
- Where it occurs: in spruce, pine, mixed plantings, arranged in groups. Fruiting begins in August and lasts until frost.
- What can be confused with: has a similarity with the chattering tongue, which has a clear floury aroma. A young pale-colored govorushka looks like a winter goat (Clitocybe brumalis).
Brownish yellow cat, scientific name Clitocybe gilva, is a poisonous fungus, which has other names: watery row, gold row.
Characteristic and description
- The cap is dense, but thin, on the rift white-yellowish with a noticeable aroma of anise, according to unverified data, its taste is slightly bitter. The diameter of the cap is from 3 to 9 cm, the shape is initially spherical with a hill and bent edges, later - slightly pressed inward, with thinned wavy edges, the surface is smooth. Visible small wet spots remain on the hat dried out after the rain - this is a feature peculiar only to this species. In rain and fog, the cap becomes watery, without shine. Coloring in yellow-brown tones, by old age fades and fades to almost white color, on which red-rusty spots are visible. The spore-ready spores look like off-white powder.
- The leg 50–100 mm thick, from 3 to 5 cm long, flat or curved, becomes thinner towards the soil, and is covered with white mycelium under the ground, without voids. The color of all shades of yellow, the same color with the plates or a few shades darker.
- The plates are narrow, located densely, descending to the leg, sometimes wavy. The color of the plates of a young mushroom is light yellow, changing to brown-brown with age.
- Distribution area - European regions, the Far East.
- Where it occurs: in coniferous and mixed forest plantations, it bears fruit all summer until the end of October. The peak is in the middle of August. It grows in groups.
- What can be confused with: the brown-yellow talker is very similar to the inverted rowing, in contrast to which it has a paler color in all parts. Since both varieties are poisonous, it is impossible to collect them and their differences are insignificant for mushroom pickers. Also, brown-yellow has some similarities with the row of red (Lepista inversa).
Govorushka waxed, in Latin Clitocybe phyllophila. The fungus is very poisonous, containing a high percentage of poison muscarin. Also has other names: leaf-loving or greyish govorushka.
Characteristic and description
- The hat is from 6 to 8 cm wide, with a completely smooth surface, painted in whitish tones, the edges are wavy and turn up.
- Leg height from 3 to 4 cm, thin, cylindrical shape, the color is identical to the color of the cap. At the point of contact between the legs and the ground there is a thickening on which the white edge of the mycelium is visually visible.
- The distribution area is Eurasian countries.
- Where it occurs: deciduous, spruce or mixed plantings, grows on needle or sheet pillows. Fruiting throughout the fall, until the first frost.
The tongue is grooved, the name in Latin sounds like Clitocybe vibecina.
Characteristic and description
- The hat is small, smooth, width - up to five centimeters. Spherical initially, later becomes concave and flat. It takes a little leukemia shape with a dark recess in the center. The color is gray-brown or gray-whitish, which burns out due to old age of the fungus. The flesh is loose, whitish in the fault (in the rain - grayish). It has an unpleasant taste and powdery smell. In the heat, the hat skukozhivaetsya and becomes pale sandy, in the rain, wavy edges become a strip of dark color. Ripened spores look like white powder.
- Leg wavy-curved or straight, in the form of a cylinder or even, in old mushrooms becomes hollow. The top color is whitish (with flour spraying), gray at the bottom, covered with mycelium at the junction with the ground. In the heat becomes dirty brown.
- The plates are narrow, often located, descending to the stem, their length on one mushroom may be different. The color is a pale gray or grayish-brown blurred color.
- The distribution area is European countries.
- Where it occurs: it grows as a team from 5 to 10 mushrooms in the places where pines grow, it is rare. Loves pillows of moss and rotting bark. Fruits from November to January. Prefers acidified, poor in organic soil.
- What can be confused with: resembles a mildly scented pet (Clitocybe ditopa), differs in that the second cap is covered with a coating and has no striped edges, the leg is also much shorter. Also, a slightly colored govorushka (Clitocybe metachroa), which prefers to grow in leafy plantings and does not have a floury aroma, looks like a grooved one.
The name of the leaf is the scientific name Clitocybe phylophila.
Characteristic and description
- A hat with a diameter of 4 to 10 cm, initially spherical, having a high knob in the center, bent corners. Subsequently, it takes a slightly depressed shape (lumpy surface), with a downward, thin and curved edge. The color is whitish or gray-brown, with a light touch, it becomes watery in the rain, with clearly distinguished wet brown spots. Matured spore powder acquires an ocher-cream color. The pulp in the rift is watery white, but fleshy, spicy-smelling.
- Leg length from 4 to 8 cm, width 50-100 mm. The form may be different: cylindrical, dilated downwards, with club-shaped swelling or tapering downwards. The leg is fibrous, in the place of contact with the ground, pubescent with white mycelium, becomes hollow as it ages. The color is whitish at first, then it becomes grayish brownish or yellowish brownish with a transition to pale pink.
- The plates are wide, rarely located, descending from cap to leg, color - from whitish to cream.
- The distribution area is the European region.
- Where it occurs: in birch, spruce and pine forests, prefers to grow on leaf litter. It grows in circles, rows, groups. It occurs not too often, fruiting begins in September and ends with the November frosts.
- What can be confused with: is similar to govorushka waxish (Clitocybe cerrussata), the cap of which, when fractured, exudes an unpleasant odor, and goofy Belovatoy (Clitocybe dealbata), smaller in size and growing in the meadows.
Talking upside down, the Latin name sounds like Clitocybe inversa. This poisonous fungus has another name govorushka red-brown, in the pulp of the fungus there are poisons similar to muscarine.
- A hat with a diameter of 4 to 10 cm, in a small mushroom - spherical, it soon expands and takes the form of a wide funnel, the edges of which are bent. The color is rust, brown or red, the color of red brick, with clearly visible darker spots. Ripened spores look like whitish powder. The flesh in the fault is pale fawn, dense, the smell is sharp, specific.
- Leg 4 to 6 cm long, up to 100 mm wide, sinewy and fibrous, slightly lighter than the cap.
- The plates are densely arranged, graceful, gradually descending to the leg. Young mushrooms - cream, as they age, take on a rusty color.
- Distribution area - the European region, the Far East, the Caucasus.
- Where it occurs: in spruce and pine forests, a little less often this species can be found in mixed plantings. Fruiting begins in August and lasts until the end of October. It occurs quite often, grows in group plantings (in rows, "witch circles").
Slightly scented gingerbread, the scientific name Clitocybe ditopa refers to inedible toxic fungi.
Characteristic and description
- The cap up to 6 cm wide, in young mushrooms, spherical with bent edges, subsequently becomes flat or curved in the opposite direction and takes on a slightly cup-shaped appearance, its thin and translucent edges become bent. The color can vary from beige to gray-brown, there is a whitish or gray plaque (waxy) on the hat, the central part of the hat has a more saturated and dark color. With a lack of moisture, the color of the slightly odorous smell changes to gray-beige. Ripened whitish spores. The flesh is white-gray, with a pleasant flour aroma, without bitterness.
- Leg 5-6 cm long, with a diameter of up to 100 mm, the shape - cylindrical or slightly flattened, with time becomes hollow. The colors of the legs and caps are almost the same, below - pubescence with mycelium.
- The plates are wide, densely arranged, having different lengths. Coloring - shades of gray.
- The distribution area is the European part of the Russian Federation and other European countries.
- Where it occurs: coniferous-deciduous forests. Fruits in winter (December and January).
Growing a govorushka mushroom
Growing govorushku at home is quite simple. It is unpretentious and can form mycorrhiza with any young trees. It is best to start planting mycelium in the period from late spring to early fall. Near the trunk of a tree you need to dig three holes with a depth of 20 cm and 10–15 cm in diameter. Half holes must be filled with soil, which is used for cultivation of indoor plants.
Spreading mycelium evenly distributed across all wells. Put the compost out of the soil again and tamp it tightly. Cover the resulting plantation with a bed of trees, moss, small branches. Very carefully, so as not to wash the seeds, you need to water the wells. The first harvest can be expected in about a year. The period of fruiting is 3-5 years. From under each tree you can collect up to 17 mushrooms per season.
You can grow this mushroom and indoors, landed in special boxes. In this case, the cultivation can be done at any time of the year.
Talker - this is a very tasty and unusual mushroom. You will be fascinated by the unusual aroma that will fill the kitchen while cooking dishes from these mushrooms. But you need to be extremely careful when collecting govorushek, so as not to take poisonous species of these mushrooms by mistake.
Гриб говорушка беловатая ядовит, его нельзя употреблять в пищу. Имеет много названий: говорушка обесцвеченная, бороздчатая, выбеленная. Шляпка гриба небольшая, от двух до шести сантиметров. Ее форма в процессе роста меняется. У молодого гриба она выпуклая, края завернуты вниз. Over time, the cap becomes prostrate, and then flat. There are specimens with a depressed surface.
Depending on the age of the fungus, the color of the cap also changes: powdery, grayish, ocher. On the caps of adult mushrooms, you can see the unclear spots of a grayish tint and powdery patina, a thin layer of which can be easily removed. In the wet period on the cap mucus appears. But if the weather is dry, the hat glitters and becomes silky. When it dries, it becomes light and begins to crack.
Thin pulp elastic, characterized by a fibrous structure and a thickness of up to four millimeters. The color of the flesh is whitish with a reddish cut and powdery smell. Leg mushroom short and thin, narrowed at the base. In most cases, it is straight, although sometimes curved. The leg is painted to match the cap: whitish or greyish, sometimes with nut stains. If you press on it, it becomes dark.