Not so long ago, the cultivation of grapes in the Urals was considered something incredible. After all, the fruitful vine has always needed a lot of heat and light. And only residents of the southern regions of the country could enjoy the amazing berries of this culture. Due to the fact that new varieties have appeared, this plant has become promising for cultivation in harsh conditions.
How to grow grapes in the Urals: planting and caring for berries in frost conditionsWine growing for a long time was the privilege of the southern countries. The fact is that this agriculture is considered to be thermophilic. But thanks to the work of breeders, the cultivation of grapes in the Urals, its planting and cultivation became real. Now viticulture is not only well developed on the territory of the Urals, but also shows a high yield coefficient.
Growing a southern culture in this area is not an easy task. Only the correct choice of varieties will allow you to get a harvest of healthy and tasty berries. The Urals are located in different climatic zones: temperate and subarctic. The circumpolar zone is characterized by a harsh climate, where the temperature in winter drops to –24 o C. In this zone, it is better to plant only winter-hardy varieties. They are much more stable and differ from cold-resistant in that they are able to withstand too low temperatures throughout the winter. Frost-resistant grapes can survive only short-term frosts.
Growing grapes in these areas is not limited to the acquisition of zoned varieties. Also important is the implementation of agrotechnical techniques, as well as the preparation of grapes for winter. The climate in temperate latitude is characterized by the loss of a large amount of snow, which serves as a winter cover for the vine. However, in the southern Urals, grapes must also be covered. In winter, the temperature in this region, compared to the Circumpolar, is not so low (–16 o C), but the cultivation of heat-loving crops here is always accompanied by risk.
Difficulties in the cultivation of grapes in the Urals may occur due to unpredictable summer. It can flood crops with abundant rains or be hot and dry. It happens that throughout the summer months is cold weather.
Grapes in the Urals: the choice of varieties for growingThe main criterion for the choice of Ural grape varieties is frost resistance and early ripening. It is better to choose zoned varieties. They are adapted to specific climatic conditions. The quality of the seedling depends on the growth of the bush and the harvest. It is also necessary to decide whether you need a table or a technical look. The first is designed for food and sales, and the second - for making wine. When choosing, pay attention to the sapling. It is better to buy from proven growers who have been growing it for years. Considered excellent seedlings with multiple shoots. Suitable varieties ripening 100-130 days and tolerate frost below -40 ° C. Cold-resistant grape varieties for the Urals:
- "Samokhvalovich" - early (110 days),
- “Olga” or “Beauty of the North” - early (110 days),
- "Negro" - medium (125 days),
- "Lydia" - medium early (125 days),
- “White Muscat Shatilova” - medium early (130 days).
The question of how to grow grapes in the Urals for beginners may arise from many who want to engage in viticulture, but who do not have any experience in this matter. And it is worth starting with just a few species. Let them be different in taste and color. When choosing a sapling, pay attention to the root was not overdried. It is better to choose seedlings whose root system is packed in a plastic bag. They will not starve and take root when landing. When the harvest period comes, you can decide which variety suits you best. Only on the 6-7th year there is an opportunity to see the entire yield of a certain variety. Depending on the quality of the grapes, you can harvest up to 8 kg of crop from one bush.
The grapes in the southern Urals is rapidly gaining popularity, its varieties are more and more known and often appear new. Already have up to 500 species. Among them, a special place is occupied by species that are not susceptible to fungal diseases.
Grapes for the Urals are picked with a short growing season. In order for the vine to reach full-fledged maturity, it is necessary to plant varieties of vines of early and middle early ripening. There are already varieties that have proven themselves best in harsh climates. These include: "Aleshenkin", "Negro", "Muscat White Shatilova", "Samokhvalovich", "Lydia", "Shatilova's Memory", "Muscat Pink Early", "Beauty of the North" ("Olga"). Of these, you can select the most unpretentious varieties that will suit those who are going to engage in the cultivation of grapes in the Urals in the open field. Let us consider in more detail the three most hardy vines:
- "In memory of Dombkowska" - the earliest variety of ripening. The first fruits can be removed after 3 months. The berries are dark blue, seedless, clusters are medium (400g). It is famous for its intensive growth of shoots, is not exposed to fungal diseases, tolerates drought, wind and frosts to -27 ° C. In the conditions of northern summer, the first fruits ripen in late July.
- "Aleshenkin" - early table variety with grapes. Berries of emerald color, oval, sweet. Leaves dissected glossy. Maturing term - 4 months. The brushes are very large. It tolerates a decrease in temperature to -27 ° C. Since the vine is more resistant to frost than the lower part of the crop, for the sake of reliability this variety is grafted on to more resistant rootstocks.
- "In memory of Shatilova". Bushes average, the vine matures in a cold rainy summer. Normally transfers the temperature to -34 o C. Oval berries are yellowish in color with an average sugar content. Differ in the complete absence of pea.
Features planting grapes in the Urals
Once a variety is selected, many questions arise. One of them, how to plant grapes in the Urals. It is necessary to choose the most suitable place for disembarkation and prepare the landing pit. In principle, this culture can grow everywhere, if it is well cared for. But the expected harvest will be scarce. Planting grapes in the Urals is possible and quite real. The main thing is to purchase a quality sapling and follow the rules of planting.
The choice of grapes for growing in the Urals
The success of planting and growing grapes in the Urals depends not only on the proper farming practices, but also on the choice of the variety. Varieties should be selected only zoned, winter-hardy. You need to firmly understand the difference between frost resistance and winter resistance. Unfortunately, even manufacturers of planting material sometimes allow liberties in the use of these terms. The frost resistance of a variety is its ability to tolerate short-term freezing without damage. Winter hardiness - the ability to survive without loss until spring with significant winter temperatures drops. The higher the winter hardiness of grape varieties, the more to the north it can be grown.
According to the maturity date for the Urals, it is necessary to choose early grape varieties (90-110 days) and medium-early (115-130 days). The following varieties proved themselves to be the best in the Ural climatic conditions:
- In memory of Dombrovskaya - early (90-100 days). Clusters up to 400 g, black berries, seedless.
- In memory of Shatilova - early (100 days), very winter-hardy. Berries are bright.
- Early pink muscat - 110 days, pink berries, fragrant. Cluster to 700
- Samokhvalovich - early (110 days). Cluster up to 200 g, dense. Berries are fragrant, pinkish-green.
- Olga or Krasa Severa - early (110 days). Cluster up to 600 g, amber-yellow berries.
- Aleshenkin or Alesha - medium early (115 days). Cluster up to 700 g, berries are bright, amber.
- Negro - medium early (125 days). Cluster up to 600 g, brown berries, tasty.
- Lydia - medium early (125 days). Cluster up to 200 g, yellow-pink berries, fragrant.
- White Muscat Shatilova - medium early (130 days). Clusters grow up to 1 kg, berries are light yellow, fragrant. Very productive variety.
Experienced winegrowers in the Ural region are advised to start with the varieties “In memory of Shatilova”, “In memory of Dombrovskaya”, “Aleshenkin”. These varieties are the most unpretentious, easy to maintain and hardy.
Not so long ago, non-roofing grape varieties that can be grown in regions with a cold climate have been developed. These varieties are still little known, but deserve consideration, because they are able to withstand temperatures down to –40 o C. Domestic breeders managed to bring out a number of hybrids, the “progenitress” of which is small-fruited Amur liana. The following are varieties from the selection of A. I. Potapenko:
- "Amur Breakthrough". The bush is powerful, almost not exposed to disease. The berries are purple and raspberry-colored, have a dense peel, large, high in sugar. Clusters are very large, with suitable conditions, they reach a weight of 1 kg.
- "Amethyst". Culture with strong shoots and wrinkled leaves, has a strong immunity to disease. Delivers frost to –35 o C. Fruits ripen at the end of summer. The ripening of the vine is excellent, the clusters are not too large (500g). The berries are almost black with a deep purple hue, very juicy, the sugar content is 22%. This variety is good because it has a short period of ripening berries.
- "Amur Triumph". Liana has powerful bushes and increased frost resistance. It is able to transfer the temperature drop to –40 o C. The crop ripens at the end of August. This variety has bulky brushes with large black berries. As the vines grow, the yield and size of the fruits increase every year.
- "Marinovsky". The shoots are vigorous, characterized by a large number of ovaries. Good matures by early September. Clusters are small. The berries are oblong, small, have a dark blue color and strong skin. Frost resistance to -32 o C. After frostbite has the ability to recover. Oidium is unstable.
The above grape varieties are promising, as breeders use them to breed new hybrids. They are combined with species that have the best taste.
Also uncovered grape varieties of American breeding deserve consideration. There are varieties that have long been popular, in Russia they are known by the name "isabella". These are unpretentious resistant lianas, which without shelter can withstand a temperature drop to -35 o C. And these berries can even exceed covering grape varieties in sugar content. However, novice farmers, who are going to start growing grapes in the Urals, are advised to pay attention to one more variety.
- "Alpha". Early medium liana was obtained by crossing two American varieties - Riparia and Labrusca. The new hybrid easily tolerates severe frosts (-40 o C). Outwardly, it resembles "Isabella", but differs in earlier maturation. Beautiful berries of a round shape have a waxy coating, in the hands are tight. It is famous for its intensive growth of shoots and is already known to winegrowers in the northern regions. The minus varieties that berries have high acidity.
- PrairieStar("Prairie Star"). Another variety with unusually tasty berries, greenish-yellow color and dense tassels. They have a solid (crispy) structure and a balanced content of acid and sugar. The vigorous shrub is resistant to gray rot and mildew. The grapes of this variety are adapted for cultivation in the northern regions and can tolerate low temperatures down to –38 o C. It is used for wine production and at the same time it is table.
Choosing a landing siteThe yield of the bush depends on where it is planted. The location chosen should be as sunny, dry and open as possible. The soil is loose, nutritious. It is better to plant a sapling away from the trees so that the crown does not shade it, and the roots do not compete with the roots of the grapes. Shrubs should be protected from dust, if they are planted by the road, and from poultry and animals. Groundwater should not be close to the ground. An ideal site would be located on the south or southwest side.
Planting and growing
Planting of seedlings is best done in the second half of June –Jule, when the threat of frost is over and the soil warms up to +15 С. For landing you need to choose the sunniest place on the site where the sun does not go all day. At the site of planting grapes, the soil should be loose, nutritious, moisture and breathable.
For each bush, a feeding zone of at least 1 m 2 is envisaged. Single bushes can be planted in pits of 1 X 1 X 1 m. If the bushes are to be planted in a row, a trench should be prepared 1 m wide and deep. Its length is calculated by the number of bushes: not less than 1 m per plant. The best location of the trench is from north to south. At the bottom of the pit or trench, it is necessary to arrange drainage: lay 20-30 cm of large stones, cobblestones. On them pour a layer of 10-15 cm of expanded clay or crushed stone. Fill the rest of the pit with a mixture of sand (or vermiculite), mature humus and garden soil. In this mixture, you can add phosphate and potash fertilizers, wood ash.
A landing pit is prepared 2 months before planting of seedlings, approximately in March-April. The pit needs to be watered several times so that the ground in it is a donkey and compacted. The soil should not reach the edge by 20 cm. The following year, the pit will have to fill the soil to the top and at the same time pile up the grapes to a height of 30 cm. Bushes growing in a trench should be tucked away in the manner of potatoes - a comb. This technique will allow to accumulate heat in the soil around the bushes.
For a seedling in the middle of a prepared pit, they dig a small hole, pour it with water and plant grapes. The earth around the seedling is compacted. Water as the soil dries, but not very rich. When the seedling starts to grow, watering stops - the grapes will have enough of the water in the soil. In total for summer it is necessary to make 2-3 plentiful watering.
Stationary greenhouses should not be used for planting grapes, as the plant requires a snow cover for a successful wintering season.
In the first, and sometimes in the second, year, the grapes are not cut. They must gain root mass and increase 1-2 vines with a length of at least one meter. To do this, the seedlings choose the strongest shoots, and the rest break out as they appear. It is possible to leave one additional runoff until autumn - the reserve one. In the fall, the weakest vine is removed.
If only one shoot was left on the handle, then a strong stepson should be left closer to the base and pinch it along with the main vine. The following year, this stepson will catch up with the vine in growth. On the plant you should always leave one male shoot for pollination.
Processing grapes in the summer includes watering, pasynkovanie, chasing (pinching the tops of the vines), mulch the soil. Watering should be done under the root with plenty of water so that the soil is well soaked. Do not water the grapes on top of the foliage, especially in the heat. It is very good to sow siderats near the bushes; you can leave the grown grass to be left right there for mulching the soil - this is very much in favor of grapes. In July, work in the vineyard should be aimed at protecting plants from fungal diseases. At the beginning of the month, fertilizing should be done with complex fertilizer.
Grapes always form much more buds and fruit brushes than they can “feed”. If all of them are allowed to ripen, then the bush will quickly weaken and the berries on it will become small. And for the short summer of the Urals, they simply will not mature in time. Therefore, some of the brushes from the grapes must be removed. Usually leave 3-4 ovaries on the vine. If two brushes have grown alongside - remove smaller and weaker ones. Or you can allow all brushes to pollinate and tangle, and only then remove the weak and rare clusters.
During the ripening of their berries, one should carefully inspect and remove the injured and diseased. In September, the leaves should be gradually removed from the fruit vine in order to open the berries to the sun. It is not necessary to tear off all the leaves at once - this can lead to sunburn of the bunch and the vine.
As the vines grow and berries ripen, the grapes are strengthened on a support. It can be a pole with crossbeams, a trellis, an arbor.
Cutting and planting
In some areas, seedlings can be purchased at the nursery or on the market. To grow them yourself, you need to prepare the strongest cuttings from autumn. In February, they are placed in suitable conditions for germination. Seedlings are planted in May on a sunny warm day. Planting grapes in the Urals includes the following actions:
- For young bushes dig a trench in advance. Its length is calculated according to the number of available plants, the distance between which is about 2 m.
- The bottom is covered with loose solid material, for example, small stones or rubble. On top of the drainage poured soil mixed with sawdust.
- In the planned places digging holes and planted seedlings at an angle of 45 degrees. Их нужно расположить так, чтобы верхушки были направлены к югу, а корешки к северу. Впоследствии лиана сама потянется к солнечной стороне.
- Затем их обильно поливают, последующие увлажнения проводят регулярно и умеренно.
- При выращивании винограда на Урале в открытом грунте важно следить за тем, чтобы запоздавшие заморозки не погубили молодые саженцы. Sheeting film should always be at hand. It is necessary to cover the ground around young plants so that it warms up faster. For this purpose, use a black film.
To free yourself from unnecessary trouble with the warming of grapes in the springtime, cuttings sprouted in February can be planted at the end of June.
Growing grapes in the Urals means a few more activities.
In early summer, along the row with seedlings you need to install a trellis.
Watering is carried out for the entire season 3 times. In case of drought, this amount can be increased. Water the plants under the root.
The soil near the bushes should not be open. A layer of mulch is placed on it or siderats are planted, which positively influence the development of plants.
If during the preparation of planting pits fertilizers were applied, then for the first few years they will be enough.
For old bushes, top dressing is a mandatory event for the care of grapes in the Urals. In August or September, when the shoots are freed from the severity of the wrists, the vine must be restored. In order to get a good harvest next year, it needs to be supplied with organic fertilizers. Manure, bird droppings, tree ash, compost, herbal infusions - all this is an ideal option for nourishing vines.
Landing pit preparation
Preparation of the planting pit is made 2 months before planting the seedling (March-April). Its size is 1 mx 1 m. The pit is watered several times to settle and compact the soil. Sand, humus is poured at the bottom, fertile soil mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizers is added. After 2 months a sapling is planted in a prepared pit. The earth is rammed and watered. If fertilizers were applied at the time of planting in the pit, then the first year the seedling is not fertilized.
Pruning of vines is necessary to increase yields, as well as to better prepare for the winter. Pruning done throughout the season (breaking out stepchildren) in the fall. Autumn pruning done after harvest, with the onset of the first frost.
Many novice growers ask the question: how to cut the grapes in the summer? Summer pruning includes:
- Pruning withered vines over the winter,
- Removal of weak and rare ovaries.
- Regular removal of stepsons and weak shoots.
- Coinage (pinching) from mid-July to late August.
- Lightening crown in September - removing part of the leaves. Removed leaves, shading ripening brush, bottom, as well as old and diseased leaves.
With the help of autumn pruning form fruit vines (sleeves) and substitution shoots. For the Urals region, the most optimal is a four-arm stepped fan pruning. On the trunk, four vines are formed with a fruit zone and shoots (knots) of substitution at the base.
The first time the vines and abandoned stepson (if any) are cut to a length of 4-6 buds, removing all stepchildren, antennae, leaves. Then the vines are horizontally pinned above the ground for shelter for the winter.
In the second year of the left buds, new shoots will develop. Of them leave 4 of the strongest (2 on each vine), and the rest are removed. By the fall of these shoots will develop young vines, which next year will be able to please the first harvest.
The most productive part of the fruit of the vine falls on its middle. This should be remembered when doing autumn short pruning, and leave them on 8-10 buds. In the spring, at the base of each such vine, it is necessary to leave a strong shoot, which over the summer will develop and become a replacement shoot for the spawn. Vines after 3-4 years of fruiting in the fall cut out, leaving a small stump, and replace them left young knots. Thus, 3-4-year-old vines of grapes can grow on the developed roots, which are two to three decades old.
You can see the procedure for pruning grapes in the fall in the video:
Grapes for the Urals
1 Grapes for Ural Recommended vine grower-experimenter Alexander Semenovich Sinitsyn. Chelyabinsk 2005
2 1. Memory of Dombkovskaya Bred in Orenburg by Shatilov Fyodor Ilich. The cluster is large, black, seedless, medium-sized berries. The skin is thin. Burgundy juice A variety of universal purpose, suitable for table consumption, the production of juices and high-quality wines. Very cold resistant. Hibernates under light cover. One of the best varieties for the Urals and Siberia.
3 2. Aleshenkin A large, very stable frost-resistant variety with tasty amber berries. When rainy weather is prone to pea. Prone to overload, requires rationing. One of the best varieties in the Urals. It hibernates under light cover, it is enough to cover with roofing sheets.
4 3. Muscat is white. Very early Vinograd selection F.I. Shatilova. Obtained as a result of crossing varieties Aleshenkin and Novoukrainsky early. A bunch of large, dense. White berry with nutmeg aroma. Variety is prone to overload. Requires rationing. When rainy weather there is a pea. Promising for the Urals and Siberia.
5 4. G.f. Glory G. f. A.S. Sinitsyna bred in Chelyabinsk. A variety of early ripening, fruitful. Bush average strength growth. Flower bisexual. A bunch of large, branched. White berry medium in size, rounded. Pleasant, harmonious taste. The vine matures perfectly. Frost increased. Hibernates under light cover.
6 5. Yangi - Yer Sort was developed in VIR Tashkent. Clusters 200 - 300 g cylindric. Berry ovoid whitish-golden color. Seedless with very high sugar content. Ripens in mid-August. Productivity is high. The vine ripens mediocre. Requires limited watering, soil mulching film.
7 6. Beauty of the Volga region Bred in the Kuibyshev zonal horticultural station as a result of crossing varieties Pervorets Kuybysheva and Muscat Hamburg. Clusters of medium density. The berries are pink, large, slightly oval. Taste harmonious with nutmeg aroma. Ripen in mid-August. Productivity is high. Winter hardiness increased. Hibernates under light cover.
8 7. Summer Muscat Bred as a result of crossing the hybrid form of CB and the Queen variety of vineyards. Early. Clusters are large, medium. Berries are very large ovate-ovate, amber-white with nutmeg aroma. Shoots mature well. Productivity is high. Hibernate under light cover.
9 8. Delight High-yielding variety of early ripening. Dining facilities. Selection NIIViV them Ya.I. Potapenko. Bush vigorous. Flower bisexual. A cluster of large, loose conical medium density. Berries are fleshy, large (5-6g), rounded white. The vine ripens satisfactorily. Requires special soil preparation with good warm-up and aeration. It is considered the best table variety.
10 9. Timur Bred in the All-Russian NIIViV. Very early. Average Clusters are large cylindrical, medium density. Berries are oval with a pointed tip, white with amber tan. Aging shoots good. Prefers well aerated and heated soils. The vine matures well.
11 10. Crimean Pearl Variety is bred in the NIIViV “Magarach” of early maturity. Bush vigorous. Flower bisexual. The cluster is large, conical, friable. Berry is a very large oval greenish-yellow. Taste is pleasant with nutmeg aroma. For good vine ripening requires special soil preparation with good heating and aeration, humus is excluded, the main fertilizer is ash. It should be limited to a single watering during the growth of shoots.
12 11. Zarif A variety of very early ripening. The bush is vigorous, fruitful. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average conic, friable. The berry is fleshy-juicy, medium and round, black. Taste with high sugar content and nutmeg aroma. The vine matures well.
13 12. White Rose. The variety was obtained at NIIViV named after Ya.I. Potapenko. Bush vigorous, high-yielding. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average, conic. The berries are large, oval, light green with a pink tinge, good taste, ripen in the first half of September. Shoots mature well.
14 13. Tukay High-yielding variety of selection NIIViV. Bush srednerosly. High-yielding. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average, branchy. The berry is white, medium with a nutmeg flavor. Requires crop rationing. The vine matures well.
15 14. Friendship The variety was bred jointly by the breeders of Novocherkassk and Bulgaria. Bush vigorous, high-yielding. Flower bisexual. The clusters are medium and large, of moderate density. The berries are large - 4g, rounded, golden-white, has a unique delicate nutmeg flavor. Sugar content is 21%. The vine matures well. One of the best muscat varieties. Deserves attention growers. Suitable for fresh consumption and the production of high-quality wine.
16 15. Viktoria Sort was bred at Ya.I. Potapenko NIIViV. Small bush. The flower is functionally female. The cluster is large, conical, of moderate density. The berries are large, fleshy, oval, red-raspberry, has a harmonious taste. The vine matures well. Deserves attention growers.
17 16. Romulus Bred as a result of the crossing of varieties Vitis Ripariya and Kishmish white. Bush vigorous. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average, conic. The berries are fleshy-juicy, rounded amber-green, seedless. The vine matures well.
18 17. European Crystal - Amur grade. Bred in Hungary. Bush srednerosly, fruitful. Flower bisexual. Clusters are medium, cylindriconical. The berries are fleshy-juicy, medium, oval, green with a harmonious taste. The vine matures well.
19 18. Novoukrainsky RanniySort was launched in NIiViV “Magarach” by P.Ya.Golodriga. Bush srednerosly. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average, conic. The berry is large, round, light pink, at the beginning of ripening amber. The taste is fresh with a high sugar content, with a bright nutmeg aroma. The vine matures well.
20 19. Muscat Yerevan Variety bred in Armenian NIIViV. Bush srednerosly. Flower bisexual. A cluster of large conical, medium density. Berries are large white. The taste is soft with nutmeg aroma. Harvest ripens before September 1. Deserves attention growers.
21 20. Beauty of the North The variety was bred in the city of Michurinsk. The bush is vigorous, fruitful. Flower bisexual. A bunch of large, branched. Berry large, white with a pink tinge. The taste is simple. The variety is attractive because the berries with a high content of folic acid juice have healing properties. The vine matures well.
22 21. G.f. Shatilova 2-1-5 Obtained in the city of Orenburg as a result of the crossing of varieties of Muscat pink and Early Magarach. The bush is vigorous, fruitful. Flower bisexual. The cluster is large, conical, medium dense (average weight 350 g). Berry large pink, rounded, harmonious taste. The vine matures well. Variety deserves attention.
23 22. Amur form Shatilova 2-7-2 Obtained from sowing seeds of Amur grapes. Bush vigorous. Flower bisexual. The cluster is large and loose. White berry round, large, simple taste, sugar content 18%. Crop ripening in Chelyabinsk - 2nd decade of September. The characteristic features of all Amur forms are the early maturation of the vine (before September 1). Winters without shelter.
24 23. Amur form Shatilova 1-9-2 strong-growing shrub. Flower bisexual. The cluster is average, conic, friable. The berries are black, rounded with a diameter of 14-16mm. Sweet with a spicy aroma. The flesh is juicy. Suitable for making juice and wine. The vine matures well (until September 1). Winters without shelter.