31 years ago in Moscow a new hybrid was bred - the apple tree Currency. The peculiarity of the apple tree is that it is absolutely resistant to scab and other diseases, and therefore does not need mass treatment with chemical means. In the central European part of Russia, the best climate for growing this variety.
It is worth emphasizing that the apple currency is a semi-dwarf tree. Its crown is rather small and compressed. It is because of the shape of the crown of the Apple tree. The currencies of the trees are incredibly decorative and will perfectly suit any landscape design. The variety has a long shelf life, therefore, suitable for preservation and for use in raw form.
The height of a mature tree is about 2.8 m, and in diameter it is 25–30 cm. Columnar apple tree. The currency has roundish fruits of medium size, weighing about 200 g. The skin of apples is thin, but at the same time it remains elastic for a long time. The fruits of the Currency taste juicy, sweet, but with barely perceptible sourness, with white flesh and a pleasant aroma. The foliage is rich green in color and absolutely disease resistant. In very rare cases, small black dots may appear on the leaves.
The ripening period is late and comes in mid-October. But the fruits of the apple for a very long time to keep on the branches, unlike other varieties, so it is possible to preserve the grown crop as much as possible. Sharpness varieties at the highest level. Annual seedlings bear fruit in the very first season. Apple trees give the richest harvest for 4–5 year - about 6 kg per tree. However, the apple tree is kolonovidnaya Currency will delight you with a lush harvest of no more than 15-16 years. But trees can easily be uprooted and landed new ones.
Cultivation and care
Growing an apple is a process that is as laborious as growing any other fruit tree. But with the right agronomical approach, you can achieve great results.
Below is a description of activities at the main stages of apple cultivation. Currency:
- The choice of location. Choose a well-lit or slightly darkened area. It is best to plant seedlings in early spring (before the buds swell) or in late autumn.
- Selection of seedlings. Buy annual seedlings, because the biennials are hard to adapt to the new environment.
- Preparation of seedlings. Place the seedling roots in warm water for about 10 hours.
- Soil preparation. Dig holes, the size of the seedling's root system, at a distance of half a meter and the arrangement of rows with indentations of 1 m. Mix the 4 kg of organic fertilizer, 70 g of potassium, 100 g of superphosphate with the top layer of earth. This will help microorganisms in the soil to develop better, thanks to which nutrients will be supplied to the tree.
- The landing. Place the tree in the prepared hole so that the roots are straightened. Ram the ground around. Dig holes around seedlings and fill with 1–2 buckets of water. Put a peg. It does not hurt to mulch the ground around the seedling. As mulch, you can use sawdust, straw or mowed grass.
Due to its disease-resistance, the columnar apple does not require special care. But this does not mean that you do not need to care for her at all. In the early years, apple trees need abundant watering - about 2 times a week, in hot weather - 3-4 times. By pruning and the formation of the crown, you can begin as early as 2-3 years - you need to completely remove the side shoots.
If the apple trees were planted in the spring, in the first year of flowering all the flowers should be cut off so that the tree can form well.
Cultivar apple variety responds well to potash, phosphate and organic fertilizers. But remember that in any case the wrong dosage can turn into a negative result. Another important way to take care of apple trees is tying. This way you can protect the tree from strong gusts of wind. It is also recommended to wrap the trunk and lower branches in the harsh winter.
Pests and diseases
The main enemies of the apple currency are the Codling moth, the flower beetle and the aphid. Moth butterflies lay eggs on the leaves, and then fall on the ovary. The moth may be treated with the following drugs: Mitak, Biorin, Intavir, Sumi-Alpha.
Apple flower beetle is able to destroy all the flowers of the apple tree. It is necessary to start the fight against this pest from the moment of bud break. For the first spraying you need to use "Fufanon", and for the second - "Inta-C-M". Aphids appear as larvae during bud break and can cause significant damage. You can fight it with chemicals, or you can use folk remedies - an infusion of ashes, tobacco or onions.
The main disease of all varieties of apples, of course, is scab. But as already noted, the Currency was withdrawn in a special way, which provided her with maximum immunity. But if the disease is still overtaken by a tree, which is extremely rare, process the apple tree in three stages: during blooming of buds with a Bordeaux mixture, at the beginning of flowering with “Skor” and after flowering with “Rubigan”.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of a grade the Currency:
- strong immunity
- high level of decoration
- comfort in processing by a manual sprayer,
- high marketability and manufacturability. Minuses:
- yield decline after 15 years,
- average winter hardiness.
Advantages and disadvantages
Everything best qualities columnar apple trees, you will find a variety of currency.
- Very tasty and attractive for implementation. They even under the counter and in the window can easily lie up to 2 weeks.
- Immune to scab variety with the Vf gene. More than 10 years of observing the variety in the Moscow region have confirmed the ability to withstand this dangerous and widespread disease of apple trees. No cases have been reported! Just do not think about the rigging of the results, this is confirmed by the description of the variety, photos, reviews.
- Crowded apple variety Currency enters fructification early.
- Productivity is high.
- No problem suitable for cultivation in areas of central Russia.
- Consider replacing wood in advance. Indeed, after 15 years there will be several apples on a tree.
- Score in the calendar memory:
- As soon as the trees hit ten years old, start a new garden of columns.
- Think of landing-replacements. After all, exactly like the variety!
Sizes of an adult tree
Low-growing semi-dwarf tree. Even closer to the dwarf. Therefore, even adult tree just over two meters. And the average growth of 2.1-2.3 m.
This determines the annual increase.. He is insignificant.
But if your tree grows 20-30 cm every year, it means that you take good care of your trees. And he's all right.
The frequency of fruiting
With a variety like currency you will have to forget about the frequency of fruiting.
Problems with the processing and use of fresh apples are provided to you.
Or rather not a problem.
And nice cares. You can even prepare a little drying. But fresh apples are better.
There are judgments that the apple does not bear fruit:
- I do not think this is due to the fact that she grows on her own. Although this is possible.
- I have a columnar apple for more than ten years did not give fruit. Nearby recognized pollinators grew (only later found out).
- So far, not all of us know about columnar apple trees! There is work to do.
Even compared with the famous Antonovka. And the comparison is not in favor of Antonovka:
- Even 38 degrees of frost withstand. This is a very high figure!
- Therefore, they are grown in the difficult conditions of central Russia. And not only there.
- But there are kolonovidnye varieties with higher winter hardiness (for example, Vasyugan and Iksha). But this is not a reproach to Currency.
Immunity to scab provides high resistance to other diseases. Especially to rot. But do better preventive treatments.Colony apple trees in the garden.
Planting a columnar apple.
How should fit and care
As soon as spring comes, I feel like it plant trees. Here and land the currency:
- For her spring is preferable. Manages to get stronger by the winter.
- Provide for her sunny or slightly shaded places.
- Pay attention to ground water. Their high location is unacceptable.
Who planted at least one tree, considers himself a specialist in their planting. And rightly so.
Only a few nuances:
- Choose a landing site that you did exactly before buying an apple tree.
- Pick up healthy seedlings. Better with a closed root system.
- Prepare planting pits (or trenches when planting a large number of trees). In the fall for planting in the spring. Or 20 days before landing. Their size should provide free placement of the roots. Without wrapping and bends. Feed them with fertile soil and fertilizer.
- The vaccination site must be 6-8 cm above ground level.
- Insert the peg and tie the seedling.
- Do not forget to water and muffle plentifully.
Landing options abound. And not only the availability of space and space, this determines. We after all talked about their magnificent decorative appearance. Anyway:
- Between rows must be at least one meter.
- 40-50cm is enough in a row.
Includes the above-mentioned place selection, landing dates.
And also a number of agrotechnical actions. Regular watering and dressing for the columnar apple are of great importance. The high location of the root system requires you to conduct them regularly:
- Water twice a week (if summer is dry).
- Feed. Organic and mineral fertilizers. As during the growing season. So when the fruit ripens. Top dressings can be root and foliar.
- Loosen and mulch. After watering. But do not dig. Remember the roots.
- Sow with cereals.
- Protect from pests and diseases. Even immunity to scab involves preventive treatments in the early spring and autumn from diseases. And the pests will remind you about yourself. Treatments can be performed with compatible tank mixtures of insecticides and fungicides.
- Including rodents. Or as you can call bunnies. The crown of columnar apple trees is very vulnerable and tasty to bunnies.
- Especially carefully prepare for winter trees. And they are a serious test.
Trimming and shaping
Included in the complex agronomic techniques apple care. Many believe that it is not necessary to cut off the columnar apple. Therefore, acquire them.
This is a misconception. Save the shape of the pillars (or pyramids) just pruning and allows you to save:
- From side shoots leave 2-3 buds.
- Will grow next year two escape.
- Of these, leave more horizontal.
- And second cut back on 2-3 buds.
- The following year, remove the fruit branch.
- And with two shoots repeated actions.
- Especially it is necessary to remove damaged and dry.
- AND do not forget about the apical bud. Even take care of her. Its preservation will provide a columnar shape. Damage to the kidney leads to an increase of 3-4 shoots. Your task is to leave one of them. And then do it every year.
- And if you miss this moment and leave them a few, grow a dwarf tree with a pyramidal crown. And increase the yield.
This the grade you can buy on superdwarf rootstocks:
- In the regions of the South - Belarusian Paradiska (PB-4).
- In Central Russia - Baby Budagovsky.
- So they will grow up slowly, slowly.
What year does it bear fruit?
Currency in the leaders in the earlyness even among the columnar apple trees. An annual sapling planted in spring may bloom in May.
Experts do not recommend leaving flowers for fruit formation.. That the apple tree has got stronger for this year. And gave strength to the fruit. They will then.Apple-shaped apple-trees Currency and Moscow necklace.
Features of fruiting
Are concluded in flowering regulation and education ovary:
- First year of planting - remove all flowers
- Second year - leave 6-8 of the resultant fruits.
- Further - leave 2-3 flowers on the fruit link.
- Of the resulting ovaries leave only one.
Yours normal storage conditions in the basements will ensure their long-term preservation. Until February.
Want to eat on March 8 - take care of improved storage conditions.Annual saplings of a columnar apple in the garden.
In Siberia and the Urals
Kolonovidnye apple trees are becoming increasingly popular:
- Their frost resistance among the priority qualities.
- Crown apple Currency is not just included in the list of varieties that can be grown in these harsh lands. She takes the lead.
- And when you consider the possibility of growing them in flowerpotsThis opens up additional perspectives. Not just for currency.
What if not fruitful?
I have such a story and happened.
But the variety of the columnar apple is different. What did you do:
- The waist of the trunk.
- Driving nails into the barrel.
- Threats with an ax.
- Increased care attention (especially more watering and fertilizing).
- Apples appeared. What specifically helped? I do not know. And many more options (root system, even errors with grade).
Watch the video about the features of care for columnar apple trees:
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Obviously, compared with tall, spreading apple trees, columnar forms benefit in many ways. Based on the findings of gardeners and professional gardeners, the main positive traits varieties are:
- the short stature of the trees, which makes it easy to tear off the fruit from them,
- high yield
- small and decorative apple trees,
- resistance to frost, pests and diseases,
- good apple keeping
- excellent taste and presentation,
- the versatility of apples (suitable for eating raw and for home canning in all kinds),
- simple care (no need for pruning and spraying).
Among the shortcomings, perhaps, the only quality is a decrease in yield after 15-16 years of life. This forces gardeners to rejuvenate plantings, since on old apple trees from the bottom collar begin to dry out and trees become fruitless. It is not possible to stimulate fruiting by pruning the branches, as on ordinary apples. On large-scale areas, it is recommended that ten-year-old plants be uprooted, replacing them with new seedlings. Moreover, this procedure is done not immediately throughout the garden, but in parts, in order to avoid a reduction in yield.
How to plant an apple tree
Many people believe that if a tree is undemanding in its care, then planting it is all the same no different from other plants. But it soon turns out that disregard for the rules for choosing a place and rooting seedlings affects the quantity and quality of fruits.
The key to success in gardening, of course, is healthy seedling With a powerful rhizome without any damage. The development of an apple tree during the first ten years depends on its quality, and in the case of columnar specimens this is the period of intensive fruiting.
If you have already acquired a high-quality planting material, and it is a meter-long, straight trunk with an intact root collar, smooth whole bark and a well-developed root system, you can proceed to inspect the landing site.
Choosing a place for a tree
Apple-tree colony "Currency" prefers a comfortable place for planting with diffused lighting, protected from northern winds and drafts. Not sunshine or shade.
Perfect option - near the fence or the building. It is also important to take into account the location of groundwater: they must be no closer than 2 m from the ground surface, otherwise the excess moisture will spoil the roots, and the plant will die. Look in your garden plot, where a lot of snow accumulates in winter, and in spring there is no stagnant snow water and streams.
Colon-shaped specimens, as well as all apple-trees, develop well on black-soil light soil enriched with useful substances.
When choosing a place, it is necessary to check the acidity of the substrate, since in an acidic environment the tree cannot grow. For full vegetation, he needs good drainage and moderate humidity, therefore, stony and marshy areas are not suitable.
Given the compactness of miniature crowns of standard trees, they can be planted two ways. The first is to seal the trunks in rows with intervals of 30-40 cm and wide row spacing from 1 to 2.5 m. The second is a square technology when the distance between seedlings in the rows and between the rows is 1 m.
How to care for the apple "Currency"
Despite the small growth, the tree has a voluminous rhizome, so it takes root quickly and begins to develop. The first 2 months after planting are especially responsible: during this period, the gardener should help the young apple tree with regular soil moistening, dressing, winterizing. Mature plants require much less attention.
Watering a tree
At first, the seedlings of the apple-tree columnar “Currency” should be watered with such a frequency that the soil does not dry out, and further cultivation provides for limiting irrigation to 2 times a week.
In the second year of life, apple trees are moistened every 7 days. В больших садах можно облегчить процесс, обустроив механизированный полив путем дождевания, грунтовым либо капельным методами.In hot weather, a slight wetting of the substrate will harm the roots more than a drought, so water activities are best done in the morning or evening. The earth should get wet by 30-50 cm. The amount of water poured under each barrel depends on apple age. Young seedlings need moisture often and little by little, and old trees need the opposite: a lot, but rarely. For example, annual bushes require 3 buckets of water, and five-year buckets require 5 buckets.
Begin to water the apple orchard before budding. For mature plants, the second moistening is arranged during the formation of the ovary, then - during the period of its growth, the latter - 14 days before the fruits are removed.
In the case when the yard is a long warm autumn, the trees should be watered again. This additional watering protects the roots and sprouts from freezing.
Top dressing and care of the soil
It is desirable to replenish the soil in apple tree trunks with useful substances, preferably throughout the growing season.
In the initial phase, when the shoots begin to grow rapidly, a solution of manure or chicken manure is poured into the recesses previously made in the ground. Organic matter can be replaced with nitrogen-containing commercial mixtures. When the tree enters the phase of fruiting, it is important to feed from nitroammofoski (30 g), ammonium nitrate (30 g), superphosphate (140 g), potassium chloride (50 g). An alternative to this mixture may be a solution of 100 g of superphosphate, 70 g of potassium sulfate and 10 liters of water.
Be careful with feedings. Nitrogen fertilizers are necessary for the tree at the beginning of development, and in the autumn they can only harm, because the grown tree will not have time to prepare for winter and freeze. To stimulate winter hardiness in September, apple trees are fed with mineral complex fertilizers marked “Autumn” on the package or with humus.
The final stage of any irrigation should be loosening and mulching the soil. First, these moments affect the future harvest. And secondly, they feed the root system with oxygen and do not allow moisture to evaporate, prevent the formation of a tight crust on the top layer of the tree trunk circle.
There are almost no branches in the crown-shaped apple trees that need to be cut, trimming only needed in the rare cases when the crown begins to form incorrectly.
Often this happens when the upper fruit bud is damaged: then a tree has two tops. The one that is weaker must be cut off. If the stem begins to branch, side shoots are also subject to removal. On fruit shoots annually should be removed by two buds. Sometimes on the trunks in the first or second year inflorescences are tied. In this case, all the buds are cut off, giving the tree the opportunity to form a powerful crown and, accordingly, the root system. When re-flowering leave about six of the strongest inflorescences, and in the next year - about ten.
In nurseries, the main method of reproduction of columnar apple trees is budding. But to take the stalks from the trunk is almost impossible, since there are no side branches, and it is impractical to cut the top, which is a continuation of the main trunk. Therefore, for the purpose of blanks for budding, the stubs are severely sheared, which stimulates the branching of the column. As a result, each mother apple has 5-10 sprouts.
At home, gardeners often graft petioles of their favorite columnar varieties onto the branches of ordinary apple trees. In this case, the crown clearly stands out a single branch, generously hung with fruits.
Preparing for the winter
Argued that winter varieties of apples do not need special preparation for the cold, because they are vaccinated from their parents genes low temperature endurance. In fact, this fallacy is completely unfounded. All young saplings, and especially columns, are equally sensitive to the harsh winters, so caring gardeners are obliged to help the plants to overwinter. In the northern regions with very harsh winters for this purpose, apple trees are planted in trenches, which are filled with sawdust and fallen leaves and snow in the fall.
In latitudes with a temperate climate, this technique is not practiced, but protects the roots with mulch, and the top is covered with non-woven material. Trunks half wrapped sheet of tar or branches of coniferous crops. This is done so that hungry rodents do not eat the bark. You can scare them off with unpleasant odors, but this method is not as effective as sheltering a column.
Apples have a variety of different:
- correct oval-conical shape,
- yellowish skin with greyish dots under it,
- Blush on the sides,
- the pulp is white, grainy, medium density,
- dessert taste
- pronounced aroma.
The taste of the fruit corresponds to 4.5 points. Light sourness is present, but it is harmonious with the sweetness of the fruit. The taste only improves as the apples are stored.
Apple cuttings should be planted in autumn or spring. After leaf fall, planting pits are prepared. Until October 15, the seedlings are determined on the selected place in the garden. If the crop is planted in the spring, the pits are prepared in advance, better in September-October. If they add useful fertilizers, then until spring they will dissolve in the soil, saturating it. Planting work is carried out immediately after the snow melts, before the start of sap flow.
Shelter for the winter and protection from rodents
Although the variety tolerates low temperatures, young trees require protection. Therefore, in October-November, whitewashing of the trunk is mandatory, as well as shelter with spruce branches. It is advisable to wrap the trunk with several layers of non-woven material or roofing sheets. If you dig a sheet of roofing material and wrap the trunk, then you can protect the tree from rodents. Putting down the snow in the garden will not let mice gnaw on the roots of an apple tree.
Prevention and protection against diseases and pests
The immunity gene in the variety Currency is present only on the scab. But the column can get sick:
- powdery mildew,
- brown spot,
Spraying Bordeaux liquid in spring and autumn will save the culture from pathogenic fungi. Of the pests, the tree is affected by the moth, aphids, and leafworm. Insects, their larvae are visible on the leaves of the tree. They must be fought with insecticide treatment.