Black currant fell in love with summer residents due to its unpretentiousness to the soil and the ability to survive freezing to -25 degrees without preparation.
But you can count on getting a full-fledged harvest only with timely care of berry bushes.
Is it necessary to cook black currants for winter in the Moscow region, in the Urals and in Siberia?
With proper care, it can produce yields up to 15-20 years.. The first few seasons of active fruiting summer residents can count on picking large berries without any extra work.
But with time bush grows old branches give meager harvest and hinder the access of sunlight to the young shoots.
Together with that soil depletion occursand there is a lack of nutrients in the plant. Branches and roots are damaged by pests and fungal diseases.
Comprehensive preparation of black currants for winter carries a number of advantages:
- Increase yield.
- The absence of old branches allows young shoots to receive a sufficient amount of light. Berries grow larger and rich in vitamins.
- Digging helps get rid of pests, smooth out the effects of frost and retain moisture.
- The plant will be able to safely winter.
- From the improved bush it is much more convenient to harvest.
- Due to regular “rejuvenation”, it is able to bear fruit for up to 15–20 years.
Bending down the branches of a bush
Despite the high frost resistance of this garden crop, when the temperature drops below -25 degrees, shoots freeze and start to die. This can lead to a significant reduction in yield or even death of the plant.
To avoid this, you need to bend the branches to the ground. This can be done in several ways.
The easiest way is to press down the shoots to the ground with bricks.. To do this, you need to group the branches in 3-5 pieces, alternately bend the bundles to the ground, put a board on them and press it with a brick.To protect against freezing the currant branch can be pressed to the ground with bricks or non-metallic tiles
But better for that use non-metallic shingles, placing the stalks in its furrows. The branches grow in different directions, they need to be bent in this direction, having no more than 2-3 shoots in a row under one load. Otherwise they may be subject to excessive fracture.
Burying. This method is used by gardeners who are faced with frosts below -35 degrees, when there is no snow layer on the soil. In this case, the plants need to cover with a layer of soil in 10 cm.
But, since the bush must be able to breathe, icing up this protective cushion can damage it.
Pruning in the fall
This the procedure is carried out after the leaves fall. The following branches are subject to removal:
- dried and sick,
- old dark brown thick stalks
- superfluous, least strong young shoots. Thin branches will be harder to winter, they will become an extra burden on the root system.
For trimming old and thick branches may require the use of saws on wood, and for removal of young shoots there is enough secateurs or garden shears.
Need to leave the strongest, fruit-bearing, non-shadowing stems, and young zero (root) shoots located near the main trunks.
Excessively thin branches will hardly survive the winter and will not delight the gardener with a high yield, and will only load the root system.
Pruning needs to be done off the ground.. When hemp protrudes more than 2–3 cm above the ground, they often re-grow.
Total bush should contain about 14-16 shoots. 3-4 stalks from 1 to 3-4 years old. Timely replacement of old stems with new growths will help maintain yields for many years.
Tops of zero shoots need to be shortened, as well as dying tips on older shoots. This will contribute to abundant spring branching.
Pruning is also needed as a preventive measure against fungal and other diseases. Removed residues are recommended to burn.
Pruning of black currant bushes in autumn:
Comments from experienced gardeners
- Currant - self-pollinating plant. If you plant other varieties nearby, cross-pollination will occur, the berries will be larger,
- Blackcurrant does not like acidic soil, so deoxidize the soil,
- Do not plant currants in the lowlands with high moisture, it is unlikely that there will be a good harvest,
- The harvest of berries does not depend on the number of branches, but on the number of buds on them,
- The taste of the berries depends not only on the variety and care, but largely on the weather conditions. If the weather is cold during the ripening of the berries, then the fruits will be noticeably sour.
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Good harvests! With you was Taisiya Filippova.
Watering and feeding
Currant spends on nutrients a lot of nutrients, so in the fall the bushes, especially adults, are necessarily fed. To do this, apply both organic and mineral fertilizers, but among the mineral should not be nitrogen-containing. Nitrogen causes the growth of green mass, and plants need to prepare for winter. Already in the beginning of autumn, up to 100 g of superphosphate and 30–40 g of potassium sulfate are shallowly buried under each bush (for young bushes is half as much), and closer to winter a bucket of rotted manure.
Water recharge irrigation is required. It can be performed with the beginning of the fall foliage. Shrubs under the age of 5 years will require 3-4 buckets of water, older ones - more. To the water remained under the bushes, make the sides, or at least slightly dug up the area. In the case of heavy rainfall, the rate is reduced: waterlogging of soil for currants is harmful.
Pruning currants easy to do: do not even cover up the wounds of garden pitch, although for very thick shoots and you can do it. The operation can be performed as early as September, it is important not to leave this procedure for a time of severe frost.
For young bushes it is enough to remove sick and broken shoots, as well as obviously weak ones. Do not leave the branches that are close to the ground: it is not very pleasant to collect dirty berries. With older bushes, work continues even after the removal of the shoots mentioned.
Very old shoots are easy to learn: they have a darker color, and the annual increments on them are small.
After 5–6 years of age, such shoots start cutting out, 2–3 per season. First of all, the shoots growing inside the bush, that is, thickening, poorly lit by the sun, are removed, trying to transfer the fruiting to the peripheral parts of the plant.
When doing pruning, you should try not to leave the stumps even 2–3 cm high.
When pruning, it is easy to notice the disease or the effects of pests. If the cut shows that the wood is gray-black or there are internal cavities, these branches are cut out near the ground. Periodically, the secateurs should be disinfected with alcohol, especially if they had to cut diseased branches. Carved shoots burned.
During pruning, much of the diseased and infected branches are destroyed, but the foci of infection may also be on the leaves. Therefore, immediately after leaf fall foliage must be collected and burned, and the bushes must be treated for fungal diseases. Traditionally, in the autumn time, a 2-3% Bordeaux liquid is used for this. It is advisable to spray it and the ground around the bush.
Processing against pests at this time is not carried out, unless their presence is precisely established. However, the majority of pests are destroyed during pruning and subsequent digging of the soil.
Digging and mulching
Closer to the winter they dig up the soil around the bushes, introducing simultaneously humus or compost. Directly at the bush, the depth of loosening is 6–8 cm, then you can act more boldly - half a bayonet of a shovel. To keep the moisture better, the clods of earth are not broken. If the winter will linger, you may have to water the currants.
After digging and watering the soil is mulched. This is especially important in cold regions. The layer of mulch should be at least 5-7 cm, and the area should capture the entire periphery of the bush. Mulch material - humus, peat, sawdust mixed with ash, etc.
Almost any bulk material is suitable for mulching: it is important that it prevents soil drying and warms the roots of plants.
Shelter for the winter
Most modern varieties of currants with proper agricultural technology can easily tolerate frosts down to -25 o C. If a more severe winter is possible, it is better to cover the bushes. Where there are no problems with snow, it is enough just to tie the branches together so that they are not broken by the weight of the snow cover, or, conversely, bend down gently to the ground.
In the regions with little snow, wooden boxes, coniferous spruce branches or nonwovens are used as cover, but in no case is plastic. It is important to remove the shelter in time with the onset of spring heat.
It is often convenient to wrap a bush for the winter with non-woven material.
The purpose of preparing currants for winter is to maintain its natural strength: healthy plants easily tolerate frosts. There is nothing difficult in the autumn events, but their timely and high-quality implementation is necessary.