Spreading branches of flowering cherry are a charming decoration of any garden. A variety of varieties will please even the most demanding grower. Interestingly this tree is also a form. It can be represented as a stately tree or a spreading bush. In order for the cherry to please not only with its shape, but also with its abundance of harvest, it should be carefully and carefully looked after. Care mainly includes annual pruning.
Crop of a cherry tree: why, how and when
The correct pruning of cherries in the spring is extremely important for the health and vitality of the plant. Photos of the process, posted later in the article, will demonstrate everything visually. This procedure allows you to create the correct form of the crown, inside which the air will circulate well and into which enough light will penetrate to ripen the fruit. The crown can begin to form in the fifth year after planting.
Being a heat-loving culture, cherries do not tolerate frosts and pruning procedures well, so it is better to start later, for example, in the second half of March, when the possibility of frosts returning is minimal. But the terms are variable depending on the climatic zone. A prerequisite is the start of pruning before the start of the sap flow process.
First of all, dried, diseased branches, which can infect the whole tree, and damaged, “drinking” nourishing juices, are pruned. All cuts should be smeared with garden pitch or ointment for pruning, but not on a bitumen basis. The processing process depends largely on whether you grow a bush tree or tree cherry in your garden.
Pruning in spring cherry tree
The processing of cherries is complex, painstaking and requires careful.
- The first level of branches begins at a distance of 70 cm - 1 m above the ground. The branches below are deleted.
- Trimming is carried out at an angle. All interlacing branches are deleted.
- Special attention is paid to giving the crown a vase-like shape.
- Annual shoots shorten slightly. This allows you to get a sufficient number of side branches and new bouquet twigs.
- The trunk height of 3.5 meters or more requires limiting growth vertically.
Requires ruthless thinning bush cherry. The spring pruning of trees of this variety has a number of features, since they are prone to thickening, which, in turn, leads to shallowing of the fruits and a decrease in yield.
- The lower branches must move away from the trunk at an angle of 40 degrees maximum, otherwise the tree may break over time.
- Creating a good, powerful skeleton requires trimming branches that compete with the main trunk.
- Two-year seedlings are pruned branches that have reached a length of half a meter. They can be shortened by a third.
- Removed all shoots growing to the ground.
- Semi-skeletal and skeletal shoots are shortened to dormant buds.
- You can leave shoots only in plants that have reached 80 cm in height.
- We work well sharpened tool.
The specifics of pruning young cherry
Pruning cherries in the spring when planting will ensure the formation of a strong, abundantly fruiting adult plant with a good crown and strong root system. First of all it follows:
- define a branch leader. This will be the strongest vertical branch,
- for the crown, leave 5 branches, located at a distance of 10 cm from each other and directed in different directions.
- branches, growing at an angle or diagonally, cut,
- shoots located on the base of the trunk, remove to enhance the power of the entire tree,
- be sure to cut intersecting branches.
It should be remembered that bush-shaped cherries, unlike tree-like ones, bear fruit only on annual shoots, which means that pruning cherries in the spring should be more thorough. In general, pruning should be approached carefully and cautiously, as it is now that the growth and fruiting of the plant is being laid. Errors in the process can be a major cause of low yields.
Rejuvenation of old wood
Phased process of rejuvenation and requires mature cherries. Pruning in the spring will provide increased yields. One common rule is for all cherries and tree and bush trees: do not remove many branches at once.
The bare ends of the branches of bushy cherries indicate the need for pruning. The number of branches is reduced by shortening the length of the shoot by half or one third. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches should be removed to the level of dormant buds. They should be removed in different years, that is, skeletal branches are cut off in one year, in the other - semi-skeletal. Otherwise, the plant does not have enough strength for fruiting.
Tree varieties rejuvenate a little differently. Annual shoots are shortened quite a bit, because it is on them that the fruits will later appear. The crown should be rejuvenated if the bases of the skeletal branches are bare, and their annual growth does not exceed 15 cm. In the case of the branches drying out in the middle of the crown, the side branches should be cut off on five-year-old wood.
The specifics of trimming felt varieties of cherries
Felt cherry has fragrant, juicy and tender fruits. Fruiting begins the next year after planting. Productivity is high. All this is obtained with proper care and timely pruning. Pruning felt cherries in the spring should be made annually and be strong, as the crown of the plant is thickened. The harvest is mainly formed on the annual shoots, and their greater number will provide greater yield. However, they should still be shortened by a third if the length of the shoot exceeds 60 cm. Pruning cherries in the spring means removing all old, diseased, damaged, cracked or dried branches, as well as those that are directed inside. On old felt cherries, side shoots are removed on the ring, while the central part of the crown and peripheral skeletal branches should not be affected. After thinning should remain 12 strong shoots.
If you want a beautiful fruiting cherry to grow in your garden, pruning should be done in the spring taking into account the condition of the tree, its age and variety. A well-formed young trees will consistently receive a high yield of ripe and juicy berries.
What you need to cut the cherry in the springFor novice gardeners who wish to grow abundantly flowering and fruiting cherries, it is necessary to understand the goals and principles of spring pruning of cherries in detail. Cherry, unlike other fruit crops, is very early ripening, which is why it is so common in garden plots.
But such precociousness is also a disadvantage for cherries: the tree is quickly depleted, rapidly aging and losing its fecundity. Therefore, in order not to lose a cherry at all, it needs to be cut in a timely manner.
Trimming is needed in order to:
- to form the crown of the tree of the correct form, to prevent its one-sidedness and uneven development,
- increase yield
- improve the taste and size of berries,
- destroy old diseased branches, which reduces the risk of morbidity and attack of pests,
- rejuvenate the tree and prevent it from aging for a longer time.
How and when to prune cherries in spring: general rulesNow consider when it is better to cut the cherry: in spring or autumn, to ensure the best result for fruiting. In gardening, there is a common spring, autumn, winter and even summer pruning, which is more auxiliary.
In the springprune cherries before bud break. If, after wintering, the tree was damaged by frost, pruning is done a little later, when the buds start growing to remove frostbitten shoots. Usually, spring pruning of cherries falls in the middle of March - beginning of April, as this heat-loving tree does not tolerate severe frosts.
If you find sore branches, they need to be removed, otherwise they can infect the whole tree. Also remove the neighboring branches, entangling and thickening the crown. Annual shoots about 20-40 cm long do not need to be cut. Pruning cherries in spring is basic, forming the crown of a tree, and is carried out according to certain schemes, which differ depending on the variety, age and tree.
If pruning in the spring helps the cherry to recover after the winter, then autumn pruning prepare the plant for a long winter hibernation. Such pruning is usually in September - early November and is preventive in nature.In southern latitudes, trees are pruned immediately after the leaves fall. During this period, large growths are cut, which prevent the tree from developing, and also thicken the crown. You also need to remove dry, damaged, diseased branches and burn them, it will save other trees from infection.
Slices need to be treated with paint or garden pitch. Autumn pruning is carried out 1 time in 3 years. You can not prune trees before frosts, as this will reduce the hardiness of the tree and weaken it.
After pruning, the cuts must be processed with a twist or paint. In severe frosts, the bark of the tree becomes very fragile, and can be damaged during pruning, so it is impossible to cut it in such conditions.
And finally summer processing cherry trees, which is auxiliary, as to cut the cherry thoroughly need only in the spring.
In the summer, when the tree is in a state of active growth, the cuts are tightened long and painfully.
Therefore, during this period, only a slight correction of the crown is carried out, removing the diseased branches in case of detection.
How to cut a young cherry
Pruning a young tree is done immediately after planting, it allows you to form the correct shape of the crown and help the roots to transplant better in a new place. Pruning is carried out before the buds swell so that up to 5 strong, well-developed branches remain on the seedling. Selected branches should be at a distance of not less than 10 cm from each other and grow to the sides.
Everything else is removed, the wounds are covered with paint or boiling. Throughout the spring, it is observed that the bush does not thicken, and the crown is developing properly. All branches that begin to grow inward, must be removed along with new shoots formed on the trunk of a tree.
As the tree grows, new skeletal branches are left until there are more than 15 of them. These works need to be done very carefully, since cutting young cherry seedlings in the spring correctly is a rather difficult task. Mistakes made during pruning of saplings lead to a drop in tree yield in the future.
How to prune fruiting cherries
Pruning cherry fruit can be done once a year in the spring, this will be enough if the work is done correctly. In order for the tree to be accessible to the sun's rays, it is necessary 5 years after planting, when the tree is considered formed, the crown should be cut correctly.
So, spring pruning fruit-bearing cherries are carried out according to the standard scheme:
- removal of all branches that thicken the tree crown, except for branches located parallel to the soil,
- removal of branches that interfere with the proper growth and development of the main frame,
- if the main trunk is more than 20 cm taller than the frame branches, it should also be trimmed.
Annual branches of fruit-bearing trees are not shortened, as this leads to their drying. In graft trees, root shoots must be removed so that it does not reduce the yield of the cherry. Skeletal tree branches need to be shortened to the point where the formation of side branches has ceased. Further anti-aging pruning is carried out for 2-3 years.
Features trimming old woodFor beginners in gardening, it will not be out of place to find out whether it is possible to prune old cherry trees in the spring and what features of these works. Pruning of old trees is carried out in order to rejuvenate the cherry and return its yield.
For this it is necessary to reduce the number of branches and shorten them to half or one third of the length of the shoot. In addition to shoots, you need to remove the skeletal branches to the kidneys or developed lateral branches. Annual growths on the old tree cannot be deleted.
Rejuvenation of the crown is carried out only when the skeletal branches of the tree are bare at the base, and annual increments do not reach 15 cm in length. In the case of drying of the branches in the middle of the crown, pruned branches on the side branches.
Bush and tree: what is different pruning cherries
The correct pruning of a cherry necessarily provides for different schemes for tree and bush types of wood. In tree cherry berries are located on annual growths and bouquet branches, bearing fruit for several years, and in bush-type cherries fruitful branches are only annual.
Pruning spray cherry is carried out when the ends of its branches begin to bare. It is necessary to shorten these branches to half or one third of the length, and semi-skeletal and skeletal branches - to sleeping buds or developed lateral branches. Forming a crown in the bush trees, 7-8 skeletal branches are left.
It is best in one year to prune skeletal branches, and the next - semi-skeletal. It is necessary that the tree has time to recover and bear fruit annually. You can not remove the annual increments that occur as a result of such pruning, otherwise the branch may dry out.
Tree Crop Rules
Consider how to properly prune cherries. These works consist in a slight shortening of the annual shoots, which will result in fruit-bearing bouquet twigs.
When annual shoots do not reach 15 cm in length, and the skeletal branches have bare bases, they rejuvenate the cutting of tree cherry.
When a tree trunk reaches a height of 3.5 m, its growth should be limited to the transfer of skeletal branches and the main conductor to strong side branches. In tree cherry, 5-6 skeletal branches are left to form the crown.
So, for the annual and preventive cutting of cherries will have to spend time and effort. However, the results of such manipulations and improved yields can be seen already in the first year of pruning. Thus, even a beginner in gardening, who performed the procedure correctly, will be able to conclude whether it is necessary to prune cherries in spring.
How and when is it necessary to prune cherries?
Mostly pruned cherries are made in spring. At this time it is necessary to treat this matter with all care and accuracy, since this procedure is important in the viability of the cherry.
Thanks to this operation (trimming) the tree gets the correct form of the crown, which allows the air to circulate well and penetrate the sun to ripen the fruit.
It is necessary to form a crown only when the tree reaches four years. Due to the fact that the cherry is thermophilic, it does not tolerate frosts and the pruning procedure itself.
In order not to cause any damage to the tree, it is necessary to choose the right time for pruning. As mentioned above, the most suitable period for this procedure - spring, middle or end of March - at this time frosts are less common. Although the timing depends on the climatic zone in which the cherry is grown.
Pruning must be done before how will sap flow begin. The first to cut off the sick and frozen branches (in order to avoid spreading to the whole tree). And also it is necessary to remove the branches that are damaged or drink the sap from the tree.
After you have cut the branch, the place of the cut should be treated with a special ointment (you can use garden var). The type of pruning also depends on what shape the cherry tree has (tree-like bushy).
Features pruning spring. How to cut a cherry?
Pruning in the spring is a key element in the formation of the fruit tree. If pruning is performed regularly for several years in March, then additional pruning will not be needed.
As already mentioned, the cherry tree is quite thermophilic, because of which the branches begin to shorten after swelling of the buds.
Thanks to this procedure, you can eliminate the branches that froze in winter, and form a crown by the summer.
The spring pruning procedure should be done as follows:
- The first step is to remove the branches that thicken the crown, then remove the branches (under the base, branches that are parallel to the ground, leave) growing upwards.
- If the length of the shoot reaches thirty centimeters, then it should not be touched. In this case, it is necessary to remove the branches that prevent the rest from growing.
- The last step is to trim the trunk itself. Its length should be no more than twenty centimeters above the frame.
- Cut the branches is necessary until the moment when the movement of juice begins. Thanks to this, you can save the tree from various diseases.
The most thorough pruning needed on felt cherry. After the seedling has developed, its branches must be cut a little so that they are no longer than half a meter in length. A year later, lateral branches begin to appear. A quarter of them must also be removed.
If a felt cherry tree has a rather dense crown, it will not yield any yield. В этом случае при обрезке необходимо оставлять только крепкие ветви длиной около десяти сантиметров. Побеги необходимо срезать до основания.
Теперь поговорим о том, как правильно производить процедуру обрезки в летний период.
When the tree is in a state of growing season, each incision will drag on for a long time. therefore only sick branches need to be cut. And not only cut, but also burn - it will help avoid the risk of infection of the entire suburban area.
Should I prune in the fall?
By pruning the branches in the spring, we help the tree to wake up after winter. By performing this procedure in the fall, we prepare the tree for a long winter.
Cherry is a fruit crop with stones, which is recommended to be cut in the period of autumn and spring.
Beginner gardeners may be afraid of cutting branches in the fall, and this, in turn, often harms the tree.
If the tree grows in the northern region, then its branches must be cut before September. If it was planted in the southern region, the pruning is done until November.
The slowdown in the movement of juices suggests that the growing season is over. It is necessary to cut the branches before the start of frost, otherwise they simply wither.
A sapling that will meet winter for the first time will not need to be cut, as this may contribute to the instability of the tree before the cold weather.
How to spend?
- Removed branches that interfere with the growth of other branches. The exceptions are the branches that form the crown.
- Small branches need to be cut in the spring.
- Removed branches that form an acute angle.
- After the whole procedure, it is necessary to process the slices with a special ointment.
What you need to know any gardener?
To a tree or bushy cherry requires its own approach.
Tree cherry does not need cutting of all escapes. On the contrary, it only hurts him. It is necessary to shorten the crown gradually, until the crown reaches three meters.
If the tree grows quickly, that is, the lengths of all branches increase by half a meter each year, it is recommended to thin them out - thanks to this, the crown shape will be correct.
With slower growth you want to cut off those branches that do not give new branches.
Pruning bush cherry, you can not be afraid. You can shorten the branches to half a meter.
By pruning skeletal branches, processing of secondary branches is allowed to be postponed until next year.
When processing bush cherries you need to be careful and attentive to treat young shoots. No need to touch the branches that bear fruit. Cutting them, you risk reducing yields.
Attention! Beginners, working with seedlings, it is recommended to use a saw or garden knife. When working with seedlings can not use pruners, as you can easily damage the young branches of the tree.
Formation of tree cherry in spring
When performing trimming accuracy required. You need to remove branches that are located at a height not higher than seventy centimeters above the ground, at an angle, while removing intertwining branches. The crown should look like a vase.
Shoots (annual) is recommended to be shortened slightly - this will help new lateral ramifications and bouquet twigs to grow faster. The height of such a cherry should not exceed four meters (preferably three and a half).
What features are there in cutting young cherry?
Thanks to spring pruning, the plant becomes stronger, fruit-bearing, with a good crown and a strong root system. First, they define the main branch (the most vertical).
To form a crown It is recommended to leave several branches (about five), which are located at a distance of approximately one decimeter from each other.
Growing at an angle / diagonal shoots are recommended to be removed. The processes on the trunk must also be cut off (this will strengthen the tree itself). Branches that intersect must be cut.
Spruce cherry fruits with the help of shoots (their age is about a year). Because of this, pruning branches of cherries in the spring should be carefully, with caution.
Rejuvenation of old wood
Old cherry tree needs rejuvenation. In this case, spring pruning will help, in which you do not need to remove a lot of branches.
If the branches of the tree began to bare, this means that pruning is required. Cut a third or half of the branch.
Skeletal branches pruned to dormant buds.. I do this in one year, the next half-skeletal branches are removed. It is necessary to increase the strength for fruiting.
The rejuvenation of the cherry tree is different. Annual shoots are shortened slightly. It is necessary to rejuvenate the crown only if the base of the branches (skeletal) is bare and their annual growth does not exceed twenty centimeters.
How to form tree and bush varieties?
The main difference in pruning cherries of tree and bush varieties is the removal of different types of branches due to the characteristics of fruiting.
Thus, in the first species, the berries are located on the bouquet shoots and annual growths, while the tree is able to yield them for several years. In bush cherries only annual shoots are able to bear fruit.
Circumcision of the cherry tree is aimed at slightly shortening the shoots, which makes it possible to get lush bouquet branches and a large number of berries.
Also, it is necessary to learn other nuances of cutting the variety:
- All branches are removed, the location at a distance of 1 meter from the ground.
- If the height of the trunk has exceeded 3.5 m, its growth is recommended to be inhibited, translating the main conductor and skeletal shoots to branches growing sideways.
- If the branches are intertwined, they also need to be cut to the side branches.
- Pruning of the crown is carried out in such a way that as a result the gardener could get a vase-like shape.
The branches are always pruned at an angle, the tool must be as sharp and clean as possible so as not to carry the infection.
The thickening of spray cherries is far from uncommon. This situation not only reduces the yield of the tree, but also leads to a decrease in the size of the berries.
Spring pruning is aimed at thinning the branches and maintaining plant health:
- Shoots that tend to compete with the trunk are removed.
- If the ends of branches are exposed to baring, they are recommended to be shortened by a distance of 1/2 or 1/3 of the total length.
- Young shoots must be left.
- Shoots growing on the side branches are subject to complete cutting.
- Optimally prune only those branches whose length has reached 1 m.
- For the correct formation of the crown need to leave 7-8 skeletal shoots.
In case pruning of a bush cherry requires a considerable amount of work, it is optimal to remove skeletal and semi-skeletal shoots in different years. So the tree will not only have time to recover after the "surgical operation", but will also actively bear fruit.
Having learned to competently form a cherry tree, you can enjoy delicious and juicy berries every year and prevent the degeneration of plantations.
Basic principles and advice
In the gardener's inventory must be saw, garden knife and pruner. All inventory should be perfectly ground and leave an even cut (infection through easily digested wood can easily penetrate).
Before work, the necessary equipment should be disinfected with alcohol. To avoid infection, the wounds of the plant should be smeared with garden pitch.
Features pruning at different times of the year
Let's look at a few seasonal pruning rules for a novice gardener.
This spring is the main and most massive pruning. If all the rules are followed, it will increase the vitality and yield of the plant, while the berries will become much larger.
Since it is necessary to cut the cherries in the spring before the main movement of the juices (otherwise the plant will lose a lot of strength and get sick), this is done approximately from mid-March to early April. If the tree is clearly affected by frost, spring pruning is carried out a little later - at the time of bud swelling, so that dead branches could be seen in winter. Anyway, it is advisable to have time before May.
At this time, you need to cut off the old, sick and broken shoots, tops (fruitless branches growing vertically upwards), thin out the thickened areas and at the same time form the crown. The stock of a grafted tree can emit basal shoots that must be removed so that it does not take power from the graft.
The pattern of trimming is determined by the age and variety of cherries.
Summer pruning is carried out only when necessary, since the juice is actively moving; all sections are healed for a long time, pulling forces out of the plant. Accordingly, in the summer, only broken or infected branches are removed, as well as minor crown correction.
Autumn pruning helps cherries prepare for winter. It is important to accurately choose the moment when the movement of the juice is already beginning to slow down, but the night frosts have not yet come. If the fresh cut is frozen, the entire branch will begin to dry. In the northern regions it is desirable to conduct the procedure no later than mid-September. In warm areas, you can prune cherries until November.
In the fall, predominantly large branches are cut (except for skeletal ones), which prevent others from developing normally, as well as branches extending from the trunk at an acute angle.
If the harvest has weakened the plant, it is better not to carry out autumn pruning (except for removing infected areas) or reduce it to a minimum.
Different types of trees
In many respects, the health of the tree depends on a well-formed crown, and how much it will produce. At the same time, a novice gardener must remember that the pattern of trimming depends on the type and age of the tree.
Consider each case in more detail.
An important feature of the bush type of cherries - berries are formed only on annual shoots.
For this type of trimming you need to do when the tips of the branches begin to bare. In this case, they are shortened by half or a third of the length. Semi-skeletal and skeletal pruned to well-developed lateral branches or to the sleeping buds.
When forming crowns of this type, 7–8 skeletal branches are left. It is recommended to alternate for years pruning of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches, so as not to reduce the yield of the tree. Annual increments can not be cut.
Treeline cherries bear bouquet branches that give a harvest for several years. To stimulate their formation, annual shoots are slightly shortened. When the bouquet twig ceases to bear fruit, it is cut to perennial wood.
When the cherry grows to 3.5 m, the growth of the main trunk and skeletal branches translate into the formation of side branches. A well-formed crown should have 5–6 skeletal branches.
On average, five years after planting, the formed crown should be lightened and rejuvenated in order for the fruits to receive more sunlight.
Proper care of a fruiting tree is pruning the branches that thicken the crown (except those that are perpendicular to the trunk) and those that hinder skeletal development. The main trunk should be cut if it is more than 20 cm higher than the frame branches. The skeletal branches themselves are shortened to the place where the lateral ones have ceased to form. Annual shoots are not cut, otherwise they can dry out.
Now we find out how to properly prune the old cherries.
The main signs that a cherry needs rejuvenation are the exposure of skeletal branches at the base and the slow growth of annual shoots, in particular, their increase by less than 15 cm per season.
In order to rejuvenate old bush cherries, it is necessary to lighten the crown thickened by lateral shoots in the first year. In the next 2–3 years, the branches of the first and second order are shortened by half or one third. Too old and bare branches need to be cut to the ring.
For tree species, anti-aging pruning is shortening branches to six or seven year old wood. Note: for the crown to quickly recover, the tree needs regular balanced feeding.
If radical growth has appeared, it must be removed during digging.
In any case, you can not immediately cut a lot of branches, so as not to weaken the tree. This should be done gradually over several years.
Growing a young tree begins with pruning. For the first time it needs to be carried out immediately after planting and before the buds swell - this lays the correct shape of the crown and also strengthens the roots.
On the seedling should be 5 strong branches, growing in different directions and at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other. Throughout the spring, they ensure that the crown develops correctly, without thickening, and if necessary, remove new shoots appearing on the trunk and directed inside the branch.
In the autumn, it is better not to prune young cherries - this will reduce the winter resistance of the plant and may destroy it. The only exceptions are infected branches.