Reproduction of currant autumn cuttings. Unfortunately, our market for planting material does not always meet our desires and needs. Fans of gardens and orchards are constantly faced with many problems: it is too expensive, the quality leaves the desired, the desired is not on sale. Life becomes simpler and more fun if you master the simple science of cutting bushes. And then you will know for sure what sapling of a culture, with what varietal traits will take place in your garden. Today in more detail we will talk about currant cutting.
Reproduction of currant cuttings
The most successful reproduction of black currant cuttings in the fall. The cuttings at this time are well saturated with moisture, so in the spring dormant buds will start to grow together. Preparation of cuttings produced from mid-September until then, until in October there is a steady frosts.
Red currant is sloughed from mid-August to mid-September. This is a more gentle culture.
But white or golden culture should be propagated by layering. The survival rate of cuttings is low.
For the preparation of cuttings, there are some general rules. In summer, mark those bushes from which you plan to take planting material. Cutting tools must be disinfected and ground well. Disinfection will protect plants from various diseases. Good sharpening will give the chance to receive a smooth, but not chewed cut, it will provide better rooting.
We proceed directly to the procedure for breeding black currant cuttings in the fall. Red breeds similarly, just this year we are already late. And the recommendations you can use only next year.
We choose a 3-5 year branch on the 3-5 summer bush that has a diameter of 1-1.5 centimeters at the base. We make a cut near the ground so that there is no hemp left. The thickness of the cutting should not exceed 0.7 cm, but should not be less than 0.5.
Therefore, for the planting material is suitable only the middle part of the workpiece. If the desired variety does not have such a basal shoot, you can use the side branches 1-2 orders of magnitude.
How to cut the cuttings?
The length of the cutting should be 15-20 cm. The upper cut is made oblique at an angle of about 60 degrees. It should be located at a distance of 0.5 cm from the upper kidney. Make the lower cut straight at a distance of 0.6-1 cm from the lower kidney. When planting the lower bud, we will drown in the soil. It is around it that the roots will form.
The next step is the reproduction of black currant planting. If you live in the southern regions, the landing is best done immediately in the autumn. Soaked prepared cuttings for 5-7 days in a solution of heteroauxin, root or other root-forming drug. In the fluid should be only the lower kidney approximately at the level of 3-5 cm. If the solution is moldy, replace it with a fresh one. After such stimulation we plant cuttings in the ground.
In the middle lane it is suggested to plant cuttings in the tank for the winter and keep them in a warm room. I do not like this way, since the seedlings grow, in my opinion, too pampered. It will be better if you tie the cuttings in bunches, wrap them in film and put them on the lower floor of the refrigerator. While the shanks will hibernate in the refrigerator, do not forget to check them periodically. Clean up, if something rot, moisten, if they start to dry out. We will plant in the spring when the ground is ripe.
For planting cuttings in the ground prepare a special bed. It is often called gardeners shkolka. Carefully select perennial weeds, add humus at the rate of 10-12 kg per square meter. The digging is carried out to a depth of 25-30 cm. Then a trench is prepared, one wall of which should be at an angle of 45 degrees. On it we will lay out our planting material.
The cuttings are laid out in such a way that 2 buds remain above the surface.
If the varietal feature is a shortened interstitial, then we leave the buds 3. The distance between the cuttings in the trench should be 15-20 cm. If you plan to grow seedlings in the school before the age of two, increase the distance to 30 cm. plan to move them to a permanent place, the distance can be reduced to 7 cm.
After planting all cuttings, the trench is filled with soil and compacted. Even if it rains, it is still advisable to water from the watering can to remove the voids in the soil. Above planting mulch to maintain a good balance of humidity and temperature.
As you can see, the reproduction of black currant cuttings in the fall can be done by everyone, while respecting the basic techniques of agricultural engineering. Root cuttings quite easily. By the fall you will have a full planting material.
Adding an article to a new collection
To increase the number of currant bushes on your site is very simple. Cuttings and layering take root easily, grow quickly and bear fruit well.
You can multiply currants in different ways: green cuttings, lignified cuttings and layering. Each of the procedures is a vegetative reproduction of currant and allows you to get a full-fledged seedlings without much effort. If you have not yet decided which one to choose, we will tell you. But first you should look at the mother currant bushes.
The plant to be used for breeding should be healthy, productive and varietal. Sick bush - not the best option. There are diseases that are very easily transmitted with planting material, for example, terry. It is possible to determine a diseased shrub by flowers and leaves of irregular shape, as well as bright white or dark purple color of buds. It is not recommended to cut cuttings from plants with strongly swollen buds: they can be damaged by kidney mites. So, how to propagate currants?
Reproduction of currants with green cuttings
The advantage of reproduction of currants with green cuttings is that their cutting does not affect the number of shoots per bush, because only the tops of the branches are used for this. In addition, the development of young plants is not too dependent on the weather. That is, it does not matter at all whether the autumn will be dry or wet, the winter will be cold or with thaws, and the spring will be dry or rainy.
Cutting cuttings. It is possible to begin reproduction of currant with green cuttings at the end of May - beginning of June. At this time, the shoots have just grown so much that they can be cut from the upper parts with a length of 10-12 cm. There must be at least 3 buds on one cutting (cuts must be made very close to them).
On the handle should remain a few top sheets, all the rest should be cut off.
Landing. Cuttings are planted in the soil in the soil under an inclination, deepening to the top with leaves. After this, the landing site needs to be mulched, watering and periodically removing growing weeds.
After 2 weeks, the cuttings of currants will start the first roots, and after 3 they will already root well. By autumn, the height of such plants, which will turn into small bushes, will be 20-30 cm. In September, they can already be transplanted to a permanent place.
In the following articles we will talk about the diseases and pests of our currants.
How to propagate the black currant
The best way to reproduce this shrub is vegetative reproduction:
- green cuttings
- lignified cuttings
- division of the bush.
Each method has its advantages. But the simplest and proven reproduction remains by cutting the bush. Thus obtained seedlings fully retain all varietal characteristics of the mother plant.
The whole breeding process consists of several stages:
- cutting preparation,
- planting material
- care for seedlings.
Black currant can be propagated by cuttings throughout the season. This allows you to get enough planting material to work.
We prepare cuttings for planting
Experienced gardeners practice cutting currants all year round. Each method has its own characteristics.
1. In the summer currant propagated by green cuttings.
This is a fairly time-consuming process that requires special skills. Cuttings harvested from well-developed annual shoots. Rooting is carried out only in the greenhouse. The length of the cutting should be about 10 cm. Each finished cutting should have several green leaves, the tops of the shoots are not used for rooting.
The lower cut is made straight and the cutting is immersed for 14 hours in a growth stimulant solution. This will speed up the process of rooting. Planting cuttings carried out in the greenhouse, where the temperature should be at least 25 degrees. Planting depth is about 2 cm.
2. In the spring or in the autumn, the currants are reproduced by lignified cuttings.
It is necessary to harvest cuttings from annual shoots that grow from the root or on two to three year old branches. On cuttings is the middle of escape. The length of the finished cutting should be up to 20 cm.
You can prepare the cuttings in the spring, in the process of planned pruning, or in the fall before the onset of frost. Cutting is carried out with sharp garden shears. The lower edge of the shoot is cut right under the kidney, the upper cut is made oblique 1 cm above the kidney.
Before planting seedlings need to prepare the site. They dig up the earth, level it, clean it of weeds and form trenches, fertilize it.
Black currant prefers organic fertilizers. In the planting trenches lay compost or rotted manure. Preparation of trenches for planting takes place in the fall, and planting cuttings - in the spring. This allows the earth to accumulate enough moisture for better root formation.
Some gardeners plant cuttings for the winter, but this is not recommended. The cuttings do not have time to settle down well and die in the cold. In winter, it is better to grow cuttings at home, and in the spring to plant in the garden.
Spring planting cuttings should be carried out as soon as possible. Prepared cuttings of black currant are planted in trenches at a distance of about 10 cm from each other. Between the rows they keep a distance of up to 50 cm. This will facilitate further care and transplanting seedlings to a permanent place.
Fresh planting must be mulched humus. The layer of mulching material should be at least 5 cm. This will help retain moisture to form roots. A black film can be used as a mulching layer, which suppresses the growth of weeds, accelerates the development of the roots, and preserves the looseness of the soil.
Seedlings, which had developed well in the spring, transplanted to a permanent place in the garden. Weak plants leave to winter in the same place.
Important!When planting cuttings for the winter they need to be tilted at an angle of 45 degrees. If this is not done, the frozen ground pushes the unrooted shoots to the surface of the soil, and they die.
General recommendations for the reproduction of black currant
Propagating the black currant cuttings need to adhere to certain rules, then the rooting of the shoots will be good.
- For rooting cuttings use only nutrient soil, which is well passes moisture and air to the roots.
- Currant loves feeding. Fertilize seedlings need at least 4 times per season. Use organic and mineral complexes, which are diluted according to the instructions. An excess of nutrients is harmful to currants.
- Regular watering has a positive effect on the shrub. It provides good growth of saplings, their abundant fruiting.
- Growing cuttings at home in the winter, you need to cut off the flowers and ovaries. The plant will spend too much energy on flowering, the root system will weaken and you will get a barren currant bush.
Soil mixtures for rooting cuttings should be fairly loose. For the preparation of the substrate using peat and humus in equal parts, add sawdust and river sand. This soil is good moisture passes, prevents the accumulation of excess fluid.
Caring for blackcurrant seedlings
Propagating black currants by cutting in a year you can get good powerful bushes with a good root system. But it is important to remember that these are not yet adult bushes and they need special care.
1. Pruning of shoots is carried out in early spring, leaving up to 4 buds on each branch.
2. Appearing flowers and ovaries should be removed to ensure good growth of lateral shoots.
3. During the season, currants need to loosen the soil. To loosen the need to shallow, the roots are on the very surface of the soil.
4. In the dry season, saplings need watering. Water consumption per plant up to 15 liters.
5. Fertilize with bird droppings no more than once a month.
Annual and biennial currant seedlings need to be cut in the spring, which forms a well-developed crown. The first crop during the reproduction of currants by cuttings is removed in the third year of bush life. The maximum yield peak occurs in the sixth year of cultivation, after which the amount of the crop falls. Growing black currants by cutting, you need to rejuvenate the bushes every 10 years.
Methods of breeding currants
Reproduction is carried out by seeds and vegetative way. Seed propagation of currants is used in specialized breeding centers in the development of new varieties. In country conditions, the most optimal is vegetative reproduction, which can be carried out by layering, currant cuttings, dividing the bush.
The easiest and fastest method is grafting. It allows you to get a large amount of planting material painlessly for the bush in the spring when cutting bushes or in the fall. Cuttings harvest summer or green, apical and autumn. The best is the reproduction of currant autumn cuttings.
The harvesting period of the autumn cuttings of currants
Autumn cuttings lose less moisture. Shoots "fall asleep" and cuttings in the spring, thanks to the preserved moisture, they take root faster, forming a good root system.
Autumn or lignified cuttings of different types of currants are harvested at different times.
- Blackcurrant cuttings at the end of September and the entire warm period of October.
- Red currant is grafted only in autumn, which provides a good survival rate. The cutting is carried out from the third decade of August to September 10-15.
- Golden and white currants more practical to propagate the spring layers. Rooted cuttings are separated from the main bush in the fall or next spring and planted in open ground.
Rules for the selection and preparation of autumnal currant cuttings
For the selection of high-quality cuttings of currant, you must perform some preliminary work.
In the summer, note the strong bushes of the selected variety:
- not damaged by diseases and pests,
- forming a high yield.
When harvesting cuttings, they always work with disinfected instruments in order to prevent infection through fresh wound surfaces. The cut should be smooth (not chewed), so the tools must be sharpened.
On the bushes noted during the summer period, they carry out a preliminary diagnosis. For harvesting cuttings, it is better to use 3-4-5 summer highly fertile bushes or to harvest cuttings of special uterine bushes. Healthy basal or main shoots are selected for cuttings, having a diameter of 1.0-1.5 cm at the base. They are cut without hemp near the ground. From the harvested shoots, cuttings are cut, the diameter of which should be 0.5-0.7 cm. Therefore, only the middle part of the shoot is used.
If there is no suitable currant shoots, then one-year shoots of the first and second orders are harvested. They are represented by lateral shoots located on the basal stalk. From the bush you can cut several shoots, of which to prepare up to 20 cuttings. The cuttings are cut to a length of 15–18–20 cm. The upper cut of the cutting is made oblique (approximately 60 degrees) from left to right 0. 5 cm above the kidney, the lower straight line is 0.6–1.0 cm below the kidney. The roots develop in the area of the kidney and the adjacent internode.
- In the southern regions, you can immediately prepare and plant currant cuttings in open-air shkoluku. Usually landing begin from 10-15 October.
- In the middle lane and to the north, cut currant cuttings are more practical to plant in containers and grow in room conditions until spring. During autumn plantings, rooted cuttings are planted in late August in open ground.
- Regardless of the region, you can save currant cuttings in a dormant state until spring and with the onset of heat, plant in a prepared open-air school.
Ways of planting autumn currant cuttings
After cutting, the cuttings of the currant are placed at the lower end into a solution of a root, heteroauxin, or any other growth stimulator by 3-5 cm.
In solution, the cuttings are kept for 5-7 days at an ambient temperature of +18 .. + 20ºС. При помутнении или появлении плесени на поверхности раствора, его заменяют свежим.
Подготовленные черенки смородины сразу высаживают
- в открытый грунт,
- в подготовленные емкости.
При наступлении ранних холодов нарезанные черенки смородины можно хранить до весны и при наступлении теплой погоды высадить в школку. Small bundles of related cuttings are stored standing in the snow. If the snow melted too early, the bundles are wrapped in wet sackcloth, then wrapped in film and kept in a refrigerator until the weather is good for planting the cuttings. If the currant cuttings are small, they are simply wrapped in film and stored in the refrigerator, periodically unfolding to humidify.
Autumn planting cuttings of currants in the open ground
Before cutting cuttings prepare the site (school). At the allocated place contribute to the square. m area of 10-12 kg of humus or compost for digging a depth of 25-30 cm. The site is leveled, all clods are crushed. If necessary - watered. One or 2 trenches are dug up along the cord in 40-50 cm. One wall of the trench for cuttings should be inclined by about 40-45 degrees so that the currant cuttings are inclined. At the bottom of the trench, if necessary, pour a layer of sand for drainage, a layer of humus, a layer of earth.
Currant cuttings are laid on the sloping side of the trench so that 2 buds remain on the ground surface. In varieties with shortened internodes, usually leave 3 buds. In a row, the distance between the cuttings ranges from 15-20 cm. Distances can be greater if the shanks in the schoolhouse are under 2 years of age. If a transplant is planned for a permanent place in spring, the distances between the cuttings in a row are reduced to 7-10 cm.
After the trench is filled, the soil around the planted cuttings of currants is compacted so that there are no air gaps between the cutting and the soil, they are poured with settled (warm) water. After the water is absorbed, the soil is mulched to 3-5 cm with small mulch - humus, peat, finely chopped straw, and other material. If the weather is warm for a long time, it is necessary to loosen and water the planting. Drying of the soil is unacceptable. Recently, mulching is carried out with a permeable coating material.
Rooting cuttings in the open field. © gardenersworld
Winterized currant cuttings in the spring when the soil temperature is more than +10 .. + 12ºС take root and begin to develop the aerial part. By the end of May, they have 1-2 roots and full buds or unfolded leaves. During this period, rooted cuttings of currants can be planted in a permanent place. But it is better to grow the cuttings until the fall in shkolka and only then transplanted to the “permanent”. During the summer, currant cuttings will develop a good root system and aerial part. It is even possible to trim the annual growth, leaving 2 buds on the lateral shoot of the rooted cutting, and use the trimmed part for reproduction.
Planting cuttings of currants in the tank
Harvested currant cuttings before spring can be planted in separate containers and placed on a window sill on a tray. In this way, cuttings are prepared for planting in open ground in central Russia, where the autumn period is short and cold. Currant cuttings do not have time to adapt to new conditions and during the winter some of them die.
For planting cuttings currants use any capacity: pots, boxes, 1.5 liter bottles of mineral water. The soil mixture is prepared from different components: peat, humus, sand and soil, mixing equal parts of the ingredients. At the bottom of the tank, holes are made to drain excess water and drainage. Cuttings 1-3 are buried in the soil mixture up to the two upper buds. The soil is carefully compacted and watered. Throughout the winter, planting is taken care of, avoiding over-wetting or drying out of the soil.
In spring, when the soil temperature is above + 10 .. + 12ºС, rooted cuttings of currant are transshipped by planting into a school or immediately to a permanent place. In the spring and summer school, the cuttings will turn into well-established seedlings and, when they are planted in the autumn, will easily transfer the winter to the designated place. Usually survival rate is 100%.
Choosing a place
Depending on the type of currant, places of permanent cultivation are selected different. Thus, black currant grows in open areas and in partial shade, in low wet areas, but without stagnation of water and waterlogging. Red and white currants are more drought-resistant and they are more practical to plant in an elevated and well-lit place.
For black currants, neutral heavy and medium loamy soils are suitable. Red and white currants form good yields on loamy soils, but they prefer light and sandy.
The currant area is carefully leveled, which is important for subsequent irrigation of the crop. It is imperative that the seedlings are planted, thorough cleaning of perennial rhizomatous weeds that oppress young plantings is carried out. They dig up the plot to the depth of the spade bayonet. Before digging, they bring in a bucket of humus or compost and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, respectively, 40-50 and 20-30 g per 1 sq. Km. m square. Planting holes for currants prepared for autumn planting for 2-3 weeks before planting bushes, and in the spring it is better to prepare them in the fall.
Rooted cuttings / seedlings before planting look through and remove diseased, broken shoots, dried roots. The above-ground part is cut to 15-20 cm and soaked for 3-6 hours in a solution of a root or other root-forming drug.
If the planting is carried out by 2 - summer saplings, then annual shoots with 2 - 4 buds are left. Trimming the aerial part is required. A small above ground mass will allow the bush to use more nutrients for the development of the root system. Remember that currant root system begins to develop and function at a soil temperature of +16 .. + 18ºС, and above-ground system much earlier, at an air temperature of +6 .. + 8 ° С. An underdeveloped root system cannot ensure the normal development of the above-ground mass and the formation of a sufficiently high quality crop.
The main methods of planting currant seedlings
After the preparation of the landing pad, landing pits are prepared depending on the variety with a distance between the rows of 1.7-2.0 m and in the row 1.0-1.25-1.5 meters. The preliminary size of the landing pit is 30-40x30-40 cm to a depth of 35-40 cm. The final size of the seat is prepared for the root system of the seedling.
A prepared soil mixture consisting of 6-8 kg of humus (if the soil is heavy) and respectively 40 and 20 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is brought into the planting pit. On light soils, you can limit the introduction of nitroammofoski 50-70 g / pit or other complete fertilizer.
Most currant varieties are self-fertile and do not need a partner, but for yields to be constantly high, it is better to plant several mutually-exploiting varieties.
The 1/3 pit is filled with prepared soil mixture so that one wall is inclined.
The seedling is placed in a pit at an inclination of 40-45 degrees along the row and gradually fall asleep with the soil, constantly compacting it with your hand so that the air gaps between the root and the soil do not remain.
Currant root neck should be 5-8 cm below the soil level. This is necessary for additional shoots.
Currant. © fruitnut
note: sapling must be placed inclined. This technique will contribute to the development of additional roots of the root system, and additional shoots will be formed from the root collar and parts of the stem embedded in the soil. Lush bush grows. With a direct landing. One little branched stem will develop. This planting is used in the formation of miniature currant trees.
- After filling 2/3 of the pit, 0.5 buckets of settled warm water are poured for planting. Pit fall asleep to the end, compacted. A well is formed around the planting so that the water does not spill around, and another 0.5 buckets of water are added.
- After water is absorbed, the planting is mulched with small mulch.
- After 4-5 days, the planting is re-watered.
So that a sapling weakened by a transplant does not suffer (especially the root) from the winter cold, plant a spud before a steady cold spell, leaving a part of the stem with 1-2 buds on the surface, and mulch with a layer of 5-7 cm.
And a little about the secrets.
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But how to rejuvenate them? Plastic surgery? I found out - no less than 5 thousand dollars. Hardware procedures - photorejuvenation, gas-liquid pilling, radio lifting, laser facelift? Slightly more accessible - the course costs 1.5-2 thousand dollars. And when to find all this time? Yes, and still expensive. Especially now. Therefore, for myself, I chose another way.
Vegetative reproduction of black currant
Vegetative breeding methods of black currant provide for the formation of a new plant from part of the parent and are optimal for most gardeners. Their main advantage is that young plants fully preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent and easily take root in the new environment.
Various vegetative breeding methods are used:
Each specified method has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
Preparation of woody cuttings
- Make stocks of cuttings better in spring or autumn. It is reasonable to carry out the harvesting in the spring during pruning.
- It is necessary to choose a healthy annual or two-year branch with a diameter of at least 6 mm.
- Use a sharp knife or pruner to cut a branch, remove the tip, and then cut it into pieces about 20 cm long. At the top of the cutting, make a straight cut 1 cm above the bud. Oblique cut to remove the part under the lower kidney.
Ligneous currant sprout is cut into pieces about 20 cm long with a straight cut at the top and an oblique cut under the lower bud
- On the eve of planting, it is recommended to place the cuttings in water with a temperature of 45 ° C for disinfection for 15 minutes.
- For planting cuttings need to prepare the furrow depth of about 15 cm with a dug and moistened earth.
- Plant plants 10–15 cm apart from each other, keep 40–50 cm between rows.
- Backfill to produce fertile soil. The soil must be firmly pressed to the cuttings.
- Mulch plantings with peat chips, humus layer up to 5 cm (for better preservation of moisture).
- Leave two buds above the soil surface. One of them is located at ground level.
Currant cuttings should be planted obliquely, in the direction from north to south. This contributes to a better illumination of the rows.
Further care of plants
- In the summer months of planting need to regularly weed and loosen the soil.
- Ridges must be kept moderately wet. The root system of rooting cuttings is very weak, so even short-term drying can have a detrimental effect on plants.
- Fertilization for developing cuttings to carry out every 10 days. From May to June, alternate the feeding of ammonium nitrate (20–40 g per 10 l of water) and infusion of rotted mullein (1 part of the mullein per 10 l of water). From July go to top dressing with wood ash. A handful of ash must be poured over 1 liter of boiling water and infused for a week. Thanks to this preparation, soluble substances are extracted from the ash from the ashes, which are better absorbed by plants. Also for 1 liter of infusion, you can add 1 tablespoon of superphosphate.
The cuttings planted in spring will become full-fledged strong seedlings by autumn. They will easily transfer the transplant to a permanent place.
Useful advice: planting can be closed with a black film with holes cut for cuttings. Film coating protects young plants from weeds, saves moisture and allows you to monitor the development of cuttings.
Preparation of planting material
- The cuttings will be more viable if their preparation is carried out on cloudy, cool days, to choose elastic, non-breaking shoots.
- The handle should be about 20 cm long with 3-5 leaves. The leaves below are best cut.
- The cuts should be, as in woody cuttings - straight above and oblique at the bottom.
It is better to remove the lower leaves of the green cutting
- Green cuttings before planting is recommended to be placed in a growth stimulator suitable for black currant. This will accelerate the formation of roots and increase survival rate.
- Planted cuttings should be in a mixture of rotten compost and river sand (1: 1). Planting depth - 3 cm, the distance between plants - 10-15 cm.
- Green cuttings require more thorough care than lignified ones. They do not tolerate the lack of moisture, so besides watering, planting need to be sprayed daily.
- The optimum temperature for good rooting of the cuttings is 25 o C. It is advisable to cover them with a film that protects against drying out and provides temperature control. The film must be slightly shaded so that direct sunlight does not fall on the seedlings. For this, the film can be whitened or covered with a light cloth.
- After rooting (2–3 weeks after planting), the cuttings will not require daily spraying and watering.
- Over the entire period of survival, the leaf plates should remain green and juicy.
- After about four weeks, the film over the plants can be removed. It is better to do this gradually, first opening the saplings for several hours during the day.
- After rooting, the cuttings are fertilized with urea (1 tsp. For 5 l of water). Feeding is carried out until mid-August once every 10 days.
- Next spring, the seedling is transferred to a permanent place of growth.
If there is a shortage of planting material, then for the reproduction of currants, you can use the upper parts of the branches. The percentage of survival rate of such cuttings is less than lignified and green. They are more capricious, may die when dried. The process of caring for planted cuttings is the same as for green ones.
If the cuttings are rooted in a sunny place, then in the subsequent of them the bushes will grow, giving a higher yield than from seedlings grown in the shade. And the berries from such bushes are much sweeter.
Plant reproduction by layering
This is a simple and reliable way to obtain excellent seedlings from your chosen bush. Almost 100% survival rate and minimum care are the main advantages of the method of reproduction by layering. It can be implemented in four ways:
- arc-shaped layers,
- horizontal layouts
- vertical layers,
- air layouts.
The method of breeding arcuate layings is as follows:
- Choose 2-3-year-old branches that grow from the base of the bush.
- Pre-bend the shoots to the ground and mark the place where the prikop will be produced. And also noted on the escape site, which will be prikopan.
- The earth is carefully loosened with a chopper. Dig a ditch around 10 cm deep.
- Harvest hooks for pinning a branch to the ground. They can be made from wire or from knots of trees.
- Using sawing or jigsaw, they scratch the underside of the shoots in the places that will be buried. This will accelerate the rooting of cuttings.
- Put the prepared branch in the ditch and pin it with harvested hooks. On the surface should remain part of the shoot length of about 30 cm.
- Bind the tip of the escape of a free eight to small pegs.
- Fall asleep prikopa mixture of soil and humus.
- Mulch to preserve moisture.
During the summer, you need to water the cuttings as needed, weed them, pour it two or three times with a mixture of soil and humus.
In October, will develop a strong root system on the layers. And he can be separated from the parent bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Two-year and three-year-old shoots of currants bend down to the ground and drop in such a way that a part of the shoot about 30 centimeters long remains on the surface
This method of reproduction differs from the previous one in that the parent branch fully fits into the harvested furrow. The branch must cut the top. As a result of dilution by horizontal layers, it is possible to get not one, but several seedlings from one prikopanny escape.
Use the method of breeding horizontal layering need to blooming leaves
This method also allows you to get a large number of seedlings from the mother bush. The essence of it is that the shoots originate from the buds located in the lower zone of the shrub. Breeding with vertical layers includes the following steps:
- A young, healthy currant bush is chosen, in March or April all branches are cut off, leaving spikes 5–8 cm long.
- By the end of spring shoots appear on the thorns. When they reach a height of 15–20 cm, shoots fall asleep with moist soil to half the height. Approximately in a month, re-filling is carried out, which will promote the formation of roots in the appeared growth.
- In the fall, rooted shoots are separated from the parent bush. Strong, with powerful roots immediately planted in a permanent place, and the weaker are determined to grow.
Adding fertile soil contribute to the formation of roots in the resulting growth
- For this method of breeding currants strong branch is selected, which can be located in any part of the plant.
- On the branch (20–25 cm from the ground) two circular cuts are made at a distance of 5 cm from each other. The bark ring between the cuts is trimmed to wood.
- Then a plastic bag is put on, the bottom edge of which is fixed a few centimeters below the bare ring. The package is tightly secured with tape or wire.
For the method of propagation by air layering, you can use plastic bottles with soil
Cultivation of black currant seeds is used by experienced breeders to create new species. Seedlings obtained by this method do not always preserve the best qualities of the parent plant.
Dilution of black currant seeds requires patience and good luck
The method of propagation of currants by seeds is chosen by those who have a desire to experiment:
- Take the largest, ripe berries.
- They are washed and soaked in water for a while.
- Carefully choose the seeds, laid out on paper and dried.
- Provide storage conditions until next spring.
- In March, the seeds are prepared for sowing. To do this, soak them for a quarter of an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then dried.
- Sow the seeds in a container filled with fertile soil. Sprinkle with earth, water, cover with glass or film. Before the emergence of shoots, the container is kept in a warm shaded place.
- As soon as the shoots hatch, remove the cover and rearrange the container to light.
- Picks are made in separate pots when shoots reach 10–15 cm.
- In the second half of May, seedlings are planted on a plot in planting pits (40x40 cm) at a distance of about one meter from a seedling. Particular attention is paid to thorough watering of seedlings.