Hybrid grade maker turkeys (read “Highbreed Grade Maker”) were obtained during long-term experiments on crossing selected breeds. Initially, the goal was to obtain breeds with high live weight and excellent taste characteristics.
Turkeys Grade Maker in a private courtyard
Description of the breed and its advantages
It is a hybrid (cross) moderate look. Among European, American and Canadian farmers, it is commonly called “festive” because these birds most often fall on the table during Thanksgiving Day and other celebrations. This is a moderate cross, featuring good meat.
Cross withdrawn in Canada. The color of the plumage is snow-white, the cover is fluffy. Turkeys are characterized by a wide, powerful chest. Growth rates are quite large - so, by 4 months, individuals reach:
The breed has long been grown in western farmsteads. In Russia, these turkeys are not yet widespread, but they have all the chances for this, since they have several important advantages:
- turkeys are gaining weight quickly
- due to these growth rates, the investment pays off quickly,
- meat has good taste, optimally suited for dietary nutrition, since the fat content is minimal,
- they are quite hardy to the environment due to a strong immune system, and their breeding in Russia has real prospects,
- carcasses have an attractive presentation.
The breeding of the highbreed breed maker can be carried out even in the conditions of the Siberian climate, given the several important points that are described below.
Breeding can be carried out even in the conditions of the Siberian climate.
Conditions of detention
The main requirements that must be taken into account when breeding turkeys of this breed are as follows:
- Maintaining a constant high temperature - the birds do not like cold, so they will not tolerate if the temperature in the house drops below 18-20 o C. The optimum value for adults is room temperature (22-23 o C).
The temperature in the house should be comfortable for the birds.
It is important to ensure that there is no moisture in the house.
7-8 turkeys should be per 1 male
The minimum height of the perch - 50 cm
Turkeys love sunshine
Sand tank helps turkeys get rid of skin parasites
Note! You can only vaccinate turkeys who have a healthy, normal look. In this case, the first hours after vaccination should not be given to drink water.
Since birds are gaining weight well, they need to create conditions for daily walks to prevent possible obesity. For this purpose, a special corral is created, which can be accessed directly from the turkey.
Making daily walks, birds can maintain good immunity.
The representatives of the highbred grade maker love to eat, so the minimum number of feedings is three times a day. During the mating period, the number of doses increases to 4-5 daily. The basis of the diet - dry and germinated grain. In the warm period, the presence of fresh greens is required. And in winter, you can provide additional vitamin supplements of natural origin - beets, cabbage and carrots. You can dry the tops of these and other cultivated plants in advance in the summer, and then give in the steamed form in the winter.
The minimum number of feedings - three times a day.
Note! In the morning and at lunch the birds are best served to give wet mixes, and for dinner - dry grain, since during the hours of activity the wet mashes digest best.
As for trimming, it is done on reaching the age of 16-17 weeks.
Turkey wing trimming scheme
In general, the grade maker is contained in the same conditions as other breeds. The principal difference is that birds are particularly demanding of a dry, warm microclimate.
Grade Maker - moderate hybrid white wide-breasted turkey, bred by Hendrix Genetics breeders in Canada. The breed was obtained by crossing turkeys of wild varieties with selected domesticated birds. In Europe and Canada, the bird is called "holiday turkey".
Appearance and character
Individuals of this breed have snow-white and unusually fluffy plumage. The bird is also characterized by a wide, powerful (big) breast. As for the nature of the representatives of this breed, they have it pretty nasty, ugly. Males Grade Maker often fight among themselves. They constantly vie for females, often causing serious injuries to each other.
Grade maker - moderate cross. Its growth rates are quite fast.
Performance characteristics are as follows:
- live weight of males reaches 18–20 kg by 4.5 months, females weigh half as much (at 4 months their live weight is about 9–11 kg, however, these weight indicators are enough to recoup the costs of rearing),
- the optimal slaughter age of a bird is 4–4.5 months, sometimes farmers slaughter a bird at 10–12 weeks (by this time its weight reaches 4–5 kg, and the meat in young individuals is even sweeter and juicier),
- the onset of egg-laying occurs at the age of 8–9 months,
- turkeys bring from 80 to 100 eggs during the reproductive period, hatchability - 87%,
- by weight, one egg is 80–85 g, their color is gray or beige of various intensity with brown patches over the entire surface.
How to equip a poultry house
Turkeys must sleep on perches. Since the representatives of the species in question are heavy birds, you need to take care of their strength. The bar must be of sufficient thickness. The height of the roosts should be 80 cm, and the width between them should be at least 60 cm.
A group of three birds should be allocated 4-5 square. m area turkey.
For better egg production, females need to be properly equipped with it. place for laying. In a secluded corner, install the nest from a basket or a wooden box. Put straw or hay in it. The average height of the nest should be 15 cm, width and height - 60 cm. A nest of this size is suitable for 4-6 hens.
Constantly keep optimal in the house the temperature for these birds: for adults it is + 22–23 ° С. In addition, the turkey must not be damp or dirty. These two factors are an enabling environment for pathogenic bacteria. The turkey dwelling should be dry, with no leaking roof or wet bedding.
To heat did not go away, you need to monitor the absence of drafts in the house. However, opening vents or air vents are necessary for fresh air to enter.
There are no special requirements for growing young stock. The main thing is to guarantee constant temperature indicators in the first two weeks (not below +35 ° C). Care must also be taken to ensure that the poults receive enough sunlight. It contributes to the rapid growth and formation of a good immune system of birds. Its lack of cool spring days can be compensated by ordinary incandescent bulbs. For birds older than 7–10 days, heating is no longer necessary. However, there should always be enough light in the turkey. To do this, in its walls can be done several small holes for the penetration of sunlight.
Since turkeys of this breed quickly gain weight, they should have a place for daily walks. An active lifestyle will prevent obesity and help maintain good immunity. For this a spacious pen is created, in which you can go directly from the house. It is desirable to fence the courtyard with a high fence, since turkeys of this species can fly quite high. Or you can cut the wings of young individuals, as we will discuss below.
Walks must last at least an hour a day. Cubs can be let go for a walk from the age of 14 days, but only when accompanied by a female. It is possible to produce poults in the courtyard from 2 months of age.
Feeders, drinkers, tank with sand
It is necessary to prepare for the purchase of chicks in advance by purchasing equipment (drinkers, feeders) and installing containers with sand. For young animals, these items should be made exclusively of soft material (silicone or rubber) so that the cubs do not damage their soft beaks. Always install drinking bowls close to incandescent bulbs, this will keep the water temperature at a stable level (not less than +24 ° С). This rule applies to chicks under the age of 1 month.
The height of the feeder for adults representatives of the grade maker should be on average 15 cm. Any suitable vessel will be suitable as a drinker. The main requirement is to install a tank at an elevation so that all sorts of garbage does not fall into the water.
Turkeys in the yard should definitely be small box with clean sand (can be mixed with ash). The ideal size of the tank is 130x85x30 cm. This device will be the key to good health of the turkeys. There they will take "dry baths", which will avoid the appearance of any kind of skin parasites. As you use, you should replenish the contents of the box. Given the dryness of the birds of this breed, for the time of heavy rains, the box must be covered with foil.
How to endure winter cold
Grade maker is a heat-loving bird, it needs to provide dry and warm housing, especially during the cold season. Despite a strong immune system and excellent vital signs, turkeys do not tolerate cold. Ensure that the air temperature in the house does not fall below + 18–20 ° C. In winter, it is necessary to use straw bedding for heat.
The walls of the house should not have very large windows, since in winter the heat factor is an order of magnitude more significant than light. For adults, turn on in winter additional lighting, it will help extend the daylight hours.
If you plan to leave part of the turkeys for the future, at the age of 3-4 months, you must trim the wing feathers on the wings. The procedure will prevent the birds from flying through the net and will not allow it to escape.It is desirable to trim only one wing - the bird will lose the balance required for flight. Crop is carried out by two people - one holds a turkey, the other works with scissors or shears.
After molting, feathers grow back, and they will need to be cut again. Birds from 6 months of age feathers are not cut, and tied at the back.
What to feed adults
Adults of this breed love to eat. They need to be fed at least three times a day. During the mating season, the number of meals increases to 4–5 daily. The basis of the menu is dry and germinated grain. In the warm season, fresh greens should certainly be present in the diet.
In the morning and for lunch, give the turkeys a wet mash, and as a dinner, offer dry grain.
How to feed turkey poults
During the first month of life, the chicks should be fed 7–8 times a day. Give the kids a mixture of chopped boiled chicken eggs and raw wheat cereals. From the seventh day you can include in the diet cake, fish meal, cottage cheese. From the twentieth day of life, in addition to wheat, you can give turkeys another dry grain (corn, millet). After 4 weeks, while continuing to feed on such mixtures, gradually add fresh herbs (clover, alfalfa or cabbage leaves) to the diet. Greens first need to chop finely. You can also give special combined feed for chicks.
Pros and cons of cross
Grade maker turkeys are marked by a variety of merits:
- rapid development and increased rate of weight gain (without using intensive growing techniques),
- excellent taste, usefulness and digestibility of meat and eggs,
- beautiful presentation of carcasses,
- good immune system and high disease resistance
- undemanding feeding
- excellent stress resistance
- when growing poultry costs quickly pay off.
Only minus, which can be distinguished - the cross is very sensitive to temperature changes, it grows comfortably only in warm conditions.
Reviews of cross-grade maker
In conclusion, I would like to note that Grade Maker turkeys are perfect for novice farmers. The bird is most adapted for breeding in conditions of small farms and private homesteads. The money and energy invested in the maintenance of these turkeys will very soon justify itself.
Hybrid Grade Maker (on the farm in the house)
The level of cross population in our country, this cross is quite insignificant. However, to meet this breed of turkey on the shelves of stores can be quite often. This is due to the low popularity of the turkey poults discussed. At the moment, some farmers are beginning to actively breed them, and also meat is imported from abroad.
Turkey Hybrid very quickly gaining weight, which by its standards is above the average.
And thanks to a strong immune system, turkeys are more resistant to viruses and other diseases.
But it is precisely the fast level of ripening, at which the turkey covers all expenses in less than 3 months, is the main criterion of its prospects. By this time, the cross gets a nice presentation, and is gaining from 5 or more kilograms of weight.
This breed was created specifically with the criteria of profitability of raising birds for slaughter. Breed features:
- The ability to gain weight quickly. After 2-3 months of fattening, you can already send birds to slaughter. Carcasses do not lose an attractive presentation, and the meat has a delicate taste. Specialists carried out calculations and came to the conclusion that by this time the cost of maintaining the poultry would be completely covered by the profit from its sale. Growing such a bird guarantees a high income.
- Unpretentiousness to the conditions. Birds are unpretentious and will feel good and gain weight even under ordinary conditions.
- Strong immune system. Breeding work has led to the fact that turkeys Grade Maker have increased resistance to many diseases that can be detrimental to other breeds. This is a significant plus in favor of the content of this particular breed.
The main difficulty for growing - the need to respect the temperature. In order for the birds to grow quickly and not die, it is necessary to maintain a comfortable temperature for them in the house - 22-24 degrees.
The maximum weight of a bird is gained by 5 months - up to 20 kg. It does not always make sense to grow birds to the maximum size, because fattening takes a lot of financial expenses, which simply cannot be recovered from the profits of such a volume of meat. Turkeys are sent to the face in 3 months.
Tikhoretskaya (Kuban) breed
Feature of the breed - unpretentious content. Birds need large spaces. Due to increased activity, turkeys need a place to walk. Although the body weight in animals is small, they have an increased resistance to diseases. Good health and good immunity ensure a low mortality rate among young animals.
Males gain weight up to 10 kg, females - up to 5 kg. The Tikhoretsk breed has a high egg production rate - for a year, a turkey can produce up to 100 eggs, but under proper conditions.
Such characteristics indicate beneficial breeding, especially since birds adapt well to low temperatures and do not need complex diets.
Tikhoretsk black turkey
French breed Bronze 708
Characterize this breed can be small in size and perfectly flat plumage, attracting attention. The maximum weight of the bird reaches 4 months of life. The survival rate of chicks is 70-90%, which is an excellent indicator due to strong immunity.
Birds of the French breed combine several excellent qualities: they are able to gain weight up to 12-13 kg, are not prone to diseases, are unpretentious in food. But at the same time the birds are very active and they need a lot of space. This is an important factor to consider when setting up a house.
It is not necessary to grow turkeys exclusively for meat or for profitable business in order to implement it. There are some breeds that are famous for their external characteristics:
- Blue slate turkeys. This breed is not as well known as many others. This can be explained by the fact that it makes little sense to engage in the cultivation of Side sled turkeys. The maximum weight of adults is 5 kg, and the weight of females is even smaller, therefore there is no profitability in feeding them. The only feature of this breed is the blue plumage, which attracts attention and makes the bird beautiful. Birds can be used as decorative animals.
- Independence Hybrids of duck and turkey, which will be an interesting option for growing. Birds are unpretentious, which makes it possible to keep them in almost any conditions. The mortality rate is rather small. Birds have a small weight, but they gain it quickly enough. For several months, males can gain weight up to 6 kg, females - up to 4.5 kg.
Decorative blue breed turkeys
Indeodious Musk Ducks
Breeder need to decide on the choice of breed. You need to base your choice on your goals. If the breeding of birds should be a profitable business, it is better to choose turkeys of meat orientation. То есть, животных, которые набирают большой вес за короткие сроки.