Description and photo
Phrygian Cornflower very similar to its "meadow" relative. It has a branched stem, whose height is 1 meter, sometimes a little more. It is characterized by large baskets on which are lilac-pink flowers. They are represented by two types: funnel-shaped along the edge and tubular in the center.
Today, the chemical composition of the cornflower is not fully studied, but This plant is a treasure trove:
- pigment and cyanogenic glycosides,
- essential oil
- vitamins (ritin, ascorbic acid, etc.),
- trace elements (selenium, manganese, iron, zinc).
Healing properties of cornflower
The plant has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. He served as a diuretic, coped well with colds, fevers, and liver diseases. It is advisable to use flowers as an adjuvant therapy if you have the following diseases:
- swelling of different origins,
- biliary dyskinesia,
- cholecystitis and other liver diseases.
- Eye Fatigue Syndrome
- reduced visual acuity.
Collection and drying of raw materials
To use the cornflowers for medicinal purposes, the collection should be carried out during the flowering period: June - September. Usually medicines are made from flowers.
After collecting the edge flowers, you need to carefully sort out, remove the receptacle, tubular and faded marginal flowers. Then cornflowers should be put under a canopy, and you need to lay them out in a thin layer.
Store dried plants can be 2 years. It is possible to determine that the flowers were dried correctly by the following features:
- they have no smell
- they have a bright color,
- have a bitter taste.
The Phrygian cornflower, when properly applied, can help cope with many ailments. The main thing is to follow the recommendations of the doctor and not to self-medicate!
Phrygian Cornflower - description and photo
It is easy to confuse with meadow cornflower. The same powerful branched stem, growing a meter or more. Large baskets with lilac-pink flowers of two types are very similar - funnel-shaped along the edges, tubular in the center.
The stem is ribbed, often not green, but dark purple. On the tops of the stem and its lateral branches spherical flower baskets grow with a wrap of tightly pressed leaves, brown in color. These baskets are also collected in a common corymbose inflorescence. Differences from cornflower meadow very insignificant and not very noticeable.
The most important difference between these cornflowers is in their leaves. Actually, all our "pink" cornflowers differ from each other precisely in leaves. The Phrygian cornflower has lower leaves petiolate, sometimes dissected into large lobes. In this difference from the meadow is also not observed.
Stem leaves are different. They are sessile in both plants, but the Phrygian cornflower is much wider and larger than that of the meadow, up to 10 - 15 cm in length and 3 - 4 cm in width. Well noticeable mesh venation of the leaf. Pubescence on the leaves and stem, too, there is, but less than the meadow cornflower.
Living in more moist areas, the Phrygian cornflower is less concerned with the reduction of leaf evaporation. Hence, less pubescence. It is a perennial with a short thick woody rhizome in the soil.
It blooms from June to September. Beautiful honey plant. Beginning in July, the fruits ripen - achenes with short bristles on the end.
Separately, the medicinal properties of the Phrygian cornflower are not usually written. Close kinship with cornflower meadow, the resemblance of plants suggests that traditional medicine uses them similarly. I already wrote about this here.
On the relationship of these cornflowers says not only the appearance. Experts write (ex., Gubanov I.A. et al. Illustrated determinant of plants in Central Russia. v.3 ) that plants are capable of giving hybrids.
About the origin of the name. Gave it in the 18th century, Carl Linnaeus. It was he who called the plant Centaurea phrygia. Phrygia is a region in Asia Minor, known since ancient times. The territory of modern Turkey.
Linnaeus described plants not found in his Sweden, according to herbarium specimens. Probably, this copy was brought to him from Asia Minor (Phrygia). But it is quite possible that in those years the Phrygian cornflower was not at all so widely represented in Europe. Nevertheless, it does not grow in a real forest - only through shrubs, secondary light forests.
In no way can we count this cornflower as a weed. Moreover, it is consciously grown by gardeners for decoration. A beautiful plant, honey plant, and even with healing properties!
In a commentary on an article on blue cornflower, Alexander Kuznetsov explained the name of the plant by the fact that he was painted on portraits of Byzantine emperors - Basileus. But who knows, maybe they depicted not blue, but the Phrygian cornflower? The chain "basileus - basil - cornflower" and in this case can be traced quite clearly. And Phrygia and Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) are practically nearby.
Cornflower blue - a medicinal plant of the Belgorod region. Annual plant of the Compositae family, with a straight, branched stem up to 60 cm high and a well-developed taproot. Cornflower flowers - a valuable medicinal raw material Collect marginal and partially tubular flowers, tearing off their hands. In medicine, cornflower flowers are used as a diuretic in diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract and are part of diuretic fees
Lit .: Rubinchikova TI Medicinal plants of the Belgorod region. Belgorod, 1986 - C 6.
Cornflower blue (Centaurea cyanus L.), which received its specific name in honor of the legendary centaur Chiron, who was considered by the ancient Greeks to be a mentor to many famous heroes of antiquity: Asclepius, Achilles, Jason, Hercules and others. According to legend, Chiron knew healing and used cornflower for healing Ran. Often found as a weed in crops, on fallow lands, along roads.
Cornflower Taliev (Centaurea taliewiiKleop.j. On the steppe areas of our region there is a rare plant - Cornflower Taliev. It is a perennial plant 50–100 cm high, with a thick rhizome. The whole plant is covered with sparse, bulging, rather long hairs. Outside and medium leaves are covered with sparse hair. with appendages in the form of a wide rim. The tuft of achene is 8–9 mm long.The leaves are pinnate, blooms in June – July with yellow flowers, fructifers abundantly, but many seed plants are damaged by insects. Usually it forms small populations, often 5–30 individuals. This is important! Vasilek Taliyeva is a rare species listed in the Red Books of Russia and the Belgorod Region (category IV rarity status is a poorly studied species).
Cornflower Russian (Centaurea ruthenicaLam.) Grows in steppes and on chalk outcrops. This is a perennial plant 50-150 cm tall. Unlike Taliyev’s cornflower, the Russian cornflower has bare stems, abundantly descended only in the axils of the basal leaves. Outer and middle leaflets of the wrapper without appendages in the form of a very narrow (up to 1 mm wide) border. Tuft achene long 4.5-6 mm. It blooms in June - August with light yellow flowers. Propagated by seeds. It is important! Cornflower Russian is listed in the Red Book of the Belgorod Region (rarity status category III is a rare species).
Cornflower Phrygia (Centaurea phrygia Lj is different in that the middle leaf wrappers at the top are constricted and black, fringed dissected appendages. Baskets up to 5 cm in diameter, leaf wraps at the top with film light brown appendages. tuft of bristles. It blooms from June to September. It grows in meadows, in light forests, on forest edges, in clearings, in thickets of bushes. Good Bleeding plant.
Cornflower (Centaurea jacea L.) is a perennial 20-100 cm high. Stems are erect, branched in the upper part, less often simple, often purple-purple. Flowers purple-purple or crimson. Blossoms from June to October. Seeds ripen in July - October.
Normal plant for the Belgorod region and Chernozem zone. It grows in steppes, on forest edges, meadows, glades, along roadsides. Can form monodominant thickets. Good honey plant. At the same time, hybrids of meadow and Phrygian cornflower may occasionally occur. Growing in our area and
Centaurea pseudomaculosa (Centaurea pseudomaculosa Dobrocz.). In the steppes, on the steppe and stony, mostly limestone slopes, this biennial, sharp-grained and non-cobwebby plant grows. Stems are erect, branched, 30-70 cm high. Stem leaves are pinnate, the final leaves are linear, 1-4 mm wide. The wrap is ovoid, 10–13 mm long and wide.
Wrappers with 5-7 veins. The appendages of leaflets with 6-9 pairs of fringe, dark brown. It blooms in July - August pink flowers. Fruits - brown achene with light ribs and short tuft.
Cornflower rough (voloshka) (Centaurea scabiosa L.) - perennial 40-120 cm tall, has a thick vertical root. Stems are erect, branched at the top. Leaves are dark green, rough downy downy, pinnately dissected. Cornflower rough in alfalfa crops in the floodplain of the Oskol River (v. Zarechnoye, Chernyansky District) Baskets are large, purple-violet, single, located at the ends of the shoots. Blossoms from June to September. The fruit is a large, elongate-ovoid achene with a tuft, ripening in July - October. A melliferous, rather ornamental plant that grows in meadows, in steppes, on forest edges, in clearings and in thickets of bushes.
Cornflower Marshall (Centaurea marschalliana j.) Has recumbent stems 7-35 cm long. Perennial herb with ascending branched rhizome. Flowering stems emerging from the axils of the basal leaves, densely covered with hairs. Flower baskets single. Blossoms in May - June. It grows in dry pine forests, in the steppes, on the sands. In our area, cornflower Marshall is most often found on outcrops of chalk and marl. Under these conditions you can also find a close look to it Cornflower Sumy (Centaurea sumensis LJ) Beloruschina mountain Cornflower (Centaurea montana h.), Cornflower beautiful (Centaurea bella L ./, Large Cornflower (Centaurea macrocephala L.), Cornflower (Centaurea dealbata L.).
It is interesting! About cornflowers there are many legends and traditions. In ancient Rome, cornflower was called cyanus - blue, in honor of the blue-eyed youth who collected these flowers for wreaths and garlands. According to another version, the Latin name centaurea (centaurea) is translated as one hundred yellow flowers.
Eastern Cornflower (p. Slonovka, Novooskolsky District) The Russian name of the Cornflower plant is associated with the legend of Vasil, the only son of his parents. Mermaids conjured a young man, tickled to death and turned into a flower that looked like his blue eyes. Cornflower enjoyed the popularity of the Germans. A hundred years ago, cornflower was an obligatory flower on all holidays. In Belgium, miners pinned a cornflower to their chests during strikes. In Sweden, a wreath of cornflowers is included in the image of the state emblem.
During excavations in Egypt, a perfectly preserved wreath of cornflowers was found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. According to the horoscope, cornflower belongs to those born in July. In magic, it is considered the grass of charm. In the old flowers of cornflowers used to dye the wool blue.
It is important! Cornflower is a medicinal plant. The flowers have a diuretic, choleretic and antimicrobial properties. Used in diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, liver, bile ducts. Included in the diuretic fees. In folk medicine, cornflower flowers are used as lotions for eye diseases.
Source: Flora of the Belgorod Region / Chernyavskikh V.I., Degtyar O.V., Degtyar A.V., Dumacheva E.V.
Stems rough at the top from small sharp tubercles, smooth at the bottom, together with leaves sparsely cobwebby-pubescent. The leaves along the edge and underneath are covered with rather thick, very short bristles. Worms are ovate or oblong-ovate, 15-18 mm long and 10-14 mm wide. The appendages are whitish, with a dark brown, ovate-triangular spot at the base. Pale pink colors. Stalk above or below middle b. m. strongly branched. Radical and lower stem leaves b.ch. twice pinworm, the rest (except for the whole apical) pinnately dissected, their segments from narrow linear to linear-lanceolate, less often narrowly oblong, whole-edged. The outer and middle leaflets are wrappers with large, membranous, oily-shiny, translucent, almost rounded, weakly serrated appendages along the edge. The flowers are yellowish (cream) or pale pink. Achenes 3.5-5 mm in length. The leaflets of the wrapper on top with a membranous, somewhat torn, entire or slightly jagged appendage, sometimes completely solid, without appendage.
Information on biology and ecology Biennial with taproot 25-65 cm tall. It blooms in June and July. Usually lives in open areas or less hilly sands, sometimes in pine and oak plantings. Fruits abundantly, but the seeds are badly damaged by insects.
Distribution and occurrence. Center (Volzh.-Don: Voronezh region. - Khrenovsky bor, Belgorod region. - Korochansky district. Endemic.
Limiting factors. Sandstitch sanding: the species does not withstand shading and competition with weeds and more active sandy species, whose numbers increase as a result of human activities.
Necessary measures for protection. Inclusion in the list of protected plants and strict control over the state of populations.
Security measures taken. Included in the list of protected plants and protection within the reserve "Belogorye".
Description and difference from related species. The plant all or in the lower part is covered with sparse, bulged, rather long hairs. Outer and middle leaflets of the wrapper with appendages in the form of a wide border. The tuft of the achene is 8–9 mm long. Stems mainly in the upper part of a little branchy or simple. The leaves are pinnate, their segments are from oblong to linear, along the edge of a cartilaginously sharp toothed serrated, sometimes lobed. Outer and middle leaflets of the wrapper without appendages or with appendages in the form of a membranous, translucent, entire, usually b. m. torn border, inner leaflets with larger, membranous, ovate or oblong appendages. The flowers are yellow. The difference from the Russian cornflower (S. ruthenica) is that the latter has a bare plant, only with abundant woolly pubescence in the axils of the basal leaves. Outer and middle leaflets of the wrapper without appendages in the form of a very narrow (up to 1 mm width) border. Tuft achene 4.5-6 mm length. Information on biology and ecology. Perennial plants with thick rhizome. 50–100 cm in height. It blooms in June and July. Usually grows in steppes, on deposits, stony slopes. Fruits abundantly, but a lot of seeds are damaged by insects. It forms small populations, often 5-30 individuals.
Distribution and occurrence.3. (Black.), V., K. Endemic. - In the steppes, on rocky slopes. - In the Belgorod region: Veydelevsky (okr. P. Bely Kolodez) district.
Limiting factors. Excessive grazing, weak competitiveness with respect to weeds. In many places where it was previously noted, disappeared.
Necessary security measures. Inclusion in the list of protected plants and strict control over the state of populations.
Security measures taken. Listed in the list of protected plants and protection within the protected areas network.
In ornamental gardening it is customary to classify cornflowers on several grounds. The first divides the representatives of the genus into annuals and perennials.
The one-year-old, in particular, includes the well-known blue cornflower (aka field cornflower, blue cornflower, and garden cornflower), which created an association of cornflower with blue in the masses. Among the cornflowers of this species are also found biennial plants.
Long since their blue flowers, lost in the crops of rye, have attracted the attention of flower growers, even taking into account the fact that they are, in fact, weeds. Their beauty is so pronounced that already in the distant 16th century the plant was cultivated. In the natural environment, the color of the funnel-shaped marginal flowers is bright blue, while among the varieties there are a variety of colors - pink, red and others.
In addition, terry and semi terry variety forms, which differ in the number of widely tubular flowers, are bred. Cornflower terry also has a wide color range - there are bright blue, purple, dark purple and other colors of the variety. Flowering blue cornflower continues from early summer until the arrival of frost. The plant is generally not demanding in courtship.
В британских фирмах (а англичане — ярые приверженцы простоты и природной близости во всем, что касается цветов) можно подобрать практически любой сорт, отвечающий личным требованиям и предпочтениям. Также синие васильки являются составным компонентом семенной смеси мавританского газона.
Василек мускусный — чаще одно-, иногда двухлетник, растущий в восточном Средиземноморье. Побеги ветвятся, увенчаны одиночными светло-желтыми корзинками. Flowering lasts from June to September.
Cornflower sprawling refers to biennial plants. Its shoots are strongly branched. The main interest in this species is chained flowers rather rare, as for cornflowers, color - white. They form small baskets at the ends of the twigs.
Perennial cornflowers are characterized by undemanding and almost complete immunity to disease. To understand how best to use them in your flower garden, you need to know that they are divided into 2 groups:
Cornflowers with a taproot or short rhizome. They tend to form dense bushes and grow slowly.
- These include Cornflower Russian (light yellow inflorescences with a diameter of up to 7 cm, flowering period - July-August, is in demand in mixed flower beds, as an element of the 2nd plan),
- Bleached cornflower (one of the most beautiful, with spectacular bright pink flowers and beautiful foliage, used in England to compose mixborders),
- Cornflower (inflorescences are bright purple, up to 4 cm in diameter, the shoots are straight branchy purple, flowering period - from mid-summer to cold weather),
- Phrygian Cornflower (blooms since July with purple-pink corymbose baskets for one and a half months),
- Grungy Cornflower (with spherical single baskets, purple-lilac on the edge, lighter in the middle zone, blooming from July to August and being the second following the blue cornflower in its melliferous properties)
- Taliyev's cornflower (the rarest species listed in the Red Book and found only on the territory of the European part of Russia, the shade of flowers is creamy yellowish, blooming occurs in the middle of summer).
And cornflowers that form root processes or horizontal rhizomes. Actively grow with the formation of clumps and thickets.
- These include mountain cornflower, characterized by a stable decorative effect throughout the season and special beauty at the time of flowering from June to August. In 6-cm inflorescences baskets are blue, more precisely - purple-blue with a deep shade. Like the blue cornflower, this species has long been used in culture (since the middle of the 16th century).
Cornflower planting and care
Cornflower in a natural environment prefers open fields. He is not afraid of the cold, and he loves the light very much, so for growing it is necessary to choose a place well lit. This applies to both the one-year blue cornflower and perennials; the more sun the site has, the better, and even strong heat in this case suits more than half shade.
A lot of light is needed above all the foliage, which should receive it evenly throughout the volume, and therefore in compositions of mixed type blue cornflower (and some others) should be placed in the foreground (even taking into account varietal differences in height), and thickened plantings for the most part do not fit.
In addition, for the comfortable development of these plants need a certain space equal to approximately half a meter between instances of medium and high varieties. With such a distance, mutual darkening is practically excluded.
For the most part, cornflowers are very resistant to drought, including, of course, the popular blue species, which can bear even long periods in dry ground.
But this is less true for rarer annual cornflowers (for example, for meadow cornflowers), which is important for light soil moisture.
Bodyac is also a representative of the Astro family and has healing properties. It is grown during planting and care in the open field without much hassle, but you should be careful because this is weed. Recommendations for growing and removing this plant can be found in this article.
Soil for cornflowers
Lush and long flowering period is ensured by planting cornflowers on high-quality ground, pre-treated and medium-nutrient.
Numerous and most dimensional flowers are obtained where the land is fertile, not oversaturated with humus, drained and neutral in performance. Calcareous or acidified soils are not favorable for cultivation, as well as compacted, too dry, dry, stony.
For this part of the care, it should be noted that the land should be systematically weeded and slightly loosened when the cornflower is young, and mulching makes it possible not to carry out even these minimal procedures.
Transplantation of perennial cornflowers is carried out from the 10th to the 30th of August. The selected specimen should be dug, cut to a height of 10 cm from the root, and the root system should be washed with water.
If it is necessary to divide, divide with a sharpened knife into a couple of delenok, including several daughter buds. Before planting, soil is compacted with soil, spreading fertilizer with a 5-cm layer.
Fertilizer for cornflower
Cornflowers are not needed for fertile soils; moreover, they can adversely affect development if there is an overabundance. Mineral nutritional mixtures make only at the initial stage of flowering, and only in a small volume equal to half of the dose indicated on the package.
Under no circumstances should these procedures be systematized, even when grown for cutting. Repeated non-concentrated dressing is allowed in case of problems with flowering, manifested in a sharp reduction in the number of flowers or a delay of the second wave.
Giving a cornflower aesthetics and sophistication is reduced to pruning of faded flowers. If you forget about it, the next year there may be a not very pleasant surprise in the form of overgrown everywhere where no cornflowers are. Pruning is carried out, following one of the 2 proven methods - high and low.
The first involves cutting the stems under the inflorescences, and the second - all entirely with a residue of about 10 cm. The upper trimming (high) is safer and allows you to get a neater and fluffy shrub, avoiding the danger of getting bald spots in the flower garden.
Cornflower seed growing
Cornflowers are propagated by sowing seeds or by grafting. If the cornflower is biennial or perennial, both methods will work, whereas the one-year can be propagated only by seed.
The sowing of seeds of annual cornflowers is produced in early spring, perennial - in the autumn, after which they will spend the winter well under the cover of snow. Roots / cuttings of perennial forms are divided from the last days of August to the first September.
Diseases and pests
Cornflowers do not undergo attacks of pests and practically do not get sick. In those rare cases where their health deteriorates, the cause must be sought in the care (and more specifically in the excess soil moisture). Having noticed the darkening in the form of spots on a blue cornflower, it is necessary to take measures to eliminate the disease known as fusarium.
Processing with basezol, spraying plants with cow dung infused for 3 days (1: 1 with water), sprinkling foliage and stalks with ash help them to get rid of it. The treatment of perennial species looks different - the affected zones are cut and burned, thereby preventing the recurrence of the disease.
Cornflower blue healing properties
The marginal flowers of cornflower contain glycosides, flavonoids, vitamins, mineral salts, coloring and other compounds. Drugs that include cornflower blue are used as diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic and antimicrobial agents.
Its choleretic, relaxing, wound healing and analgesic actions are also expressed. With it, relieve spasms of smooth muscles of internal organs, improve appetite and digestion in general.
Infusion made from flowers, effectively affects inflammation and microbes in the treatment of conjunctivitis, night blindness and blepharitis. To prepare it, you need to take 1 teaspoon of cornflower flowers and pour boiling water (200 ml).
Before you start to use it, you must let it brew for 1 hour and strain. Take in a volume of 50 ml 3-4 times a day for 20 minutes before meals.
Cornflower tincture on vodka
For hepatitis and diseases of the biliary ducts, infusion of flowers is used. For 30 grams of the upper parts of the cornflower, you will need 300 milliliters of high-quality vodka (diluted medical alcohol will do).
Tincture should stay in the dark for at least 15 days, while it must be shaken every day. In its finished form, take 30 drops before meals.
In cases of urination problems associated with inflammation in the kidneys, they are treated with a decoction of cornflower petals.
It is prepared as follows: two tablespoons of vegetable raw materials pour 250 ml of boiled water and boil for 10 minutes. You can take a tablespoon up to 6 times a day.