There are many breeds of this royal bird, a description of their appearance is striking variety. It all started with the guinea fowl, and then came turkey, yellow, wild, griffon, blue, white, curly and many other breeds that differ in bright appearance, productivity, growth rate, character. France was the most interested in them, and now the French guinea fowls are spreading around the world.
The most famous French broiler chicken with gray speckled plumage. It has a rather large oval body, devoid of plumage with an elongated head, strong muscular wings, strong legs. Near the beak there is a bluish horny growth, the short tail is lowered down, and the back is inclined towards it. While moving, the bird's body, usually parallel to the ground, becomes almost vertical.
Broiler French guinea fowls are considered the best, but Zagorsky white-breasted broiler guinea fowers are not inferior to them. They have the same mottled back, and on the stomach, chest and neck there are loose white feathers that make the bird look like a fluffy oval. Siberian whites are not so fluffy, in appearance they look more like other hens, their legs and beak are pink.
Siberians are considered the most enduring and unpretentious, and the weight is gaining even faster than the gray-speckled French. Cream (or suede) birds are somewhat smaller in size, their productivity also lags behind. The same can be said about the Volga breed.
How much an adult guinea fowl weighs depends on the breed, breeding region and conditions of detention. Gray-speckled (French) broilers can weigh from 2.5 to 3 kg, blue broilers give a carcass up to 2 kg, and Zagorsk and Siberian ones do not exceed an average weight of 1.8 kg, Volga and cream are even less. But the nutritional and taste qualities of these birds are appreciated by connoisseurs so highly that French cooks often prefer half a kilogram carcasses. Raw meat looks like game, and after cooking - the most delicate chicken or turkey. The greatest egg production is shown by Siberian (150 eggs per year) and Zagorsk (140) breeds, the French guinea fowl brings 135 eggs, and the blue and Volga breeds - up to 120. The average egg weight is 50 g.
Content unpretentious birds
Guinea fowls are unpretentious, quickly adapt to the ambient temperature and conditions of detention, they practically do not get sick, quickly gain weight. Broilers for meat do not grow longer than 3–3.5 months. Birds are rather shy, like to move, they are constantly clawing.
They are usually kept on a deep bedding, the places of detention are protected by high nets, despite the necessarily trimmed one wing. When industrial content in the same compartment hold no more than 400 individuals. For young stock, the calculation of the area takes into account the impossibility of keeping more than 10 (maximum 15) chicks per square meter, otherwise the ducks may be sick because of such crowding. In the house on 1 square meter should contain one pair of adult birds.
The guinea fowl has a rather peaceful character, they easily get along with other inhabitants in the poultry yard, but in the event of a conflict they easily enter into fights and, as a rule, win. They like to feel free, walk, but the less movement, the faster the birds gain weight. After three months of age, broilers grow very slowly, so their further maintenance loses economic benefits.
Guinea fowls in their physiology are very similar to chickens, so they are also fed with mixed feed, be sure to use cereals, legumes, fish and meat and bone meal, yeast, mineral and vitamin supplements. When choosing food, it is important to consider the breed, region, conditions of detention, time of year. Tsar birds eat food at least 4 times a day, prefer wet masters.
They are usually kneaded not only in broth or milk, but they also use whey, yeast solution. No matter how guinea fowls are unpretentious in food, many do not like barley, fish meal, meat and bone meal. But these components are necessarily introduced into the diet, masking them with other components of wet mash.
Birds are very fond of greens, and on walks they eat every kind of grass, including spurge. It is important for health that the feed is fresh, especially in the care of chickens. Birds can get sick with an unbalanced diet, so its composition must be carefully considered.
In industrial cultivation, a small amount of an antibiotic is usually mixed in to feed, in order to rule out already rare diseases.
Guinea fowl french broiler, the breeding of which is only gaining momentum in our country, is a bad hen because of its fearfulness and arousedness. Her eggs are placed on other hens or they use an incubator. The ratio of females and males should be 5 to 1, it is better if the females are younger than the "cockerels" for a couple of months. They mate after a long walk, indoors, it rarely happens. Fertilized laying hens lay for 20 days after mating, they are harvested in the mornings, folded down with sharp tips, stored for no more than 14 days before incubation.
For incubation, take eggs weighing 45 g, check them for the presence of the embryo, and after 28 days get chickens. On the first day, they are given a boiled egg, a well-pressed cottage cheese, but they eat poorly, and they can only scatter food at all. After a couple of days, they prepare a mixture of cereals (oatmeal, barley, corn, wheat) with powdered milk. On the fifth day, small pebbles or shells are added, and after a week they are already being transferred to wet mash with greens.
The body is oblong, oval, located horizontally, about 40 cm long. The head is feathered weakly, the face is bare, bluish-white in color, the average size of the pinkish beak is slightly bent down, and under it is a purple leathery voice bag.
The body is harmoniously developed, the chest is deep, the back is wide, the upper line slopes down the slope from neck to tail. The legs are strong, dark gray, almost black.
Gray speckled guinea fowl
The head of a gray speckled guinea fowl is decorated with a small horny growth of gray or brownish color. The neck is long, graceful with elongated silky feathers of asphalt-gray tone with an ashen or bluish tint. The wings are strong, rounded at the ends, the tail is small, directed downwards.
The plumage is dark gray, with bright pearl flashes, which makes the bird particularly attractive. On the wings of the expressive transverse stripes. Earrings are small, rounded, bright red.
Adults guinea fowls weigh 1.7-1.8 kg, the weight of the crown printers, which are slightly lighter, reach 1.6 kg. Gray speckled breed matures slowly, capable of reproduction not earlier than 8 months. At the same time, the spring hatching bird will start to rush in spring - at the age of 9-11 months.
Two months young stock weighs about 800-900 g with an average cost of 3.5 kg of concentrated feed. The bird is slaughtered at the age of five months, when the carcass has formed, but the meat has not yet become tough.
The French guinea fowl rushes seasonally - for about six months, during this time it lays 85-90 eggs with a very strong shell, a kind of pear-shaped, elongated at one end. The safety of eggs ranges from several months to six months without loss of quality.
Peculiarities of gray-speckled content
They sit on the guinea fowls reluctantly and only over the age of two years. If the bird wants to become a hen, it shows excellent maternal qualities, carefully warming, feeding and desperately protecting the chicks from any danger.
The output of young animals is medium - up to 60%, the survival rate is high, under good conditions and full nutrition you can raise 100% of the broods.
Guinea fowl perfectly eats garden-garden pests, including the Colorado beetles, which are actively used by experienced poultry farmers. In addition, they are excellent foragers and feed well in the fields after harvesting crops.
The bird is distinguished by courage and, noticing anything unusual, does not run away, but looks at the object with interest and loudly reports the find, whether it is a rat, a snake or a lost nestling.
The owners note the amazing sensitivity of guinea fowls, their ability is constantly on the alert, announcing the surroundings with a loud cry at any danger. In terms of guard qualities, this bird surpasses all poultry, including the famous geese, which, as you know, saved Rome.
Experience the contents of guinea fowls
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History of origin
Crosses of gray-speckled guinea fowl are bred in France. The main goal of breeders was the breeding of birds with good meat qualities. Broiler guinea fowl reaches a weight of 4 kg. At the same time, the bird fully preserved the high egg production rates inherent in gray-speckled guinea fowls.
Description and appearance
Exterior of guinea fowl broiler gray-speckled:
- The main feature is the blue plumage on the neck of the bird. The main color is gray-speckled or pearl. Plumage thick. The color can vary from darker shades of gray to moderate gray,
- the body is large, oval. The body length is 1.5 m. When walking, the body is held vertically. The chest carina is weakly expressed, the chest is wide, convex. Not plucked small legs of gray color. The tail is small, directed downwards.
- The head is small, rounded with a bone shade of a dark shade. The neck is elongated, thin. There are small earrings scarlet.
- the weight of the males is 3–3.5 kg and the weight of the females is 3.5–4 kg,
- meat yield reaches 80–90% from the carcass,
- egg production - 120–130 eggs per year,
- egg weight - 45 g,
- shell color - cream,
- egg fertility is above 90%
- hatchability - 70–80%,
- survival rate of young stock - 95–98%.
Necessary conditions for the content
Guinea fowl - unpretentious in the nutrition and maintenance of birds, which are quite self-sufficient for most of the food on the summer range. Broiler content requires a high-calorie diet and a sufficient amount of minerals. In the wild, guinea fowls live in undergrowths and shrubs, feeding on vegetation, berries, seeds, and insects. Guinea fowls do not harm the beds, because they do not loosen the soil in search of food, and benefit by collecting insect pests.
The peculiarity of the French cross - aggressiveness to strangers. Therefore, guinea fowls should have a bird house separate from other birds. For a herd of 5 females you will need 1 male.
Arrangement of the house
Wild guinea fowl live mainly in Africa in a very hot climate, but despite this, birds tolerate low temperatures perfectly. Requirements for the house:
- accommodation - the sunny part of the site. It is desirable that the house was protected from the north winds by other buildings or trees. The area of the window - at least 10% of the total area of the walls, should go to the south side - birds love to bask in the sun,
- 1 bird must be at least 0.5 square meters. m square. The room should be insulated and protected from drafts - the cooks are susceptible to drafts. Air temperature should be at least +15 ° С. Be sure to have ventilation
- the height of the perches is about 40 cm above the floor. Perches are round or square slats with a section of 4x5 cm. The distance between adjacent slats is 30–40 cm.
- nest settles in the most shaded part of the house. Size - 40x30x30 cm. It should be as natural as possible. It is possible to take eggs from the nest only when there are no guinea fowls in the house, leaving several eggs in the nest, otherwise the birds will be carried elsewhere. One nest is enough for 6–8 females,
- the thickness of the litter on the floor is at least 20 cm. Ingredients: peat, sand, sawdust, straw. Please note that birds can peck sawdust, and then the litter will have to pour. Replace contaminated litter is necessary at least 1 time per month,
- artificial lighting is mandatory for winter time, because the birds are carried only during the daytime, and their reproductive apparatus reduces its activity in the dark,
- feeders - 1 to 5-6 individuals. The feeder is filled to 1/3 so that the feed does not crumble. Form - oblong, so that large birds do not interfere with each other.
Clean and disinfect the room
In order for the birds to be healthy and have maximum productivity indicators for the population, it is necessary to take care to minimize the incidence. The source of infection can be droppings, parasites, worms and other pathogens. General requirements for disinfection:
- cleaning the house from litter - at least 1 time per quarter,
- disinfection from parasites - 1 time in half a year,
- general cleaning and disinfection with the treatment of perches, walls, etc. - at least 1 time per year,
- wash water bowls and feeders - weekly.
Nests and equipment are treated and cleaned in the open air. Metal surfaces are treated with a gas torch. Walls - lime mortar. Perches are stained. Drinkers and feeders are disinfected with a 2% solution of soda with calcium and water.
Complex disinfection with modern means affects the fungus, viruses, sources of infection and bacteria.
Among the most popular drugs:
- "Ecocide C"
The size of the covered courtyard of the covered type (grid with a roof) must be at least 2 square meters. m 1 bird. The floor of such a courtyard is carpeted with a bed of sawdust, hay, sand, peat, straw. In such a walk, birds can be in winter or in rainy weather. The height of the grid is 2–2.5 m. Free range should correspond to the natural landscape as much as possible - the undergrowth zone: shrubs, glades, tall grass. Guinea fowls in the shrubs can rest and make nests. Birds adore well-lit areas and can stay in the sun for a long time. Good eat berries, plant seeds and insects. Mandatory source of clean water on the range - drinking bowl.
What to feed
Throughout the daylight hours, guinea fowls feed on any feed. The diet includes:
- grain mash,
- industrial feed,
- dry cereal mixtures
- food waste.
Dry cereal mixtures include corn, oats, wheat, millet, barley. It is very simple to adjust the composition of the grain mixture: you need to see which bird grains peck badly and exclude them from the diet. The ratio of grains and green fodder should be 1: 1. Daily feed rate - 200 g per 1 bird. If the birds are kept in cages, then it is necessary to add grass meal, meat and bone meal, animal proteins to the diet. The power scheme in the cells is four times. Additionally, shells, salt, and chalk are included in the diet to supplement the diet with minerals. In a separate trough place small gravel.
The optimal feeding system for an adult herd is the combination of various feeding methods.
- without walking - 4 times a day,
- with walking - 3 times a day.
On walking in the period of abundance of grass and insects, guinea fowl can provide 50% of the diet.
The diet of an adult guinea fowl includes:
- wheat - 25–30%,
- barley - 15%,
- peas - 10–15%,
- corn - 20–25%,
- soybeans - 10%
- sunflower meal - 5%
- fish meal, chalk, yeast, vitamins - 5%.
Fish meal and grain are especially important during the laying period, they provide the body with essential elements. Additionally, the diet should be germinated grain, chalk, shellfish. Wet mash is prepared in skimming or whey, it enriches the nutrition of animal protein. On the day of the mash should be about 20-30% of the total mass of food. The daily feed weight is about 200 g. The daily water intake is 250 g. You need to feed the bird at the same time so as not to cause concern.
The feeding scheme of chicks, depending on the stage of development, looks like this:
- Nestlings up to 1 month old are in the house. Since broiler guinea fowl belongs to meat types of birds, the optimal weight gain is provided by industrial feed according to the scheme: “Prestart” - “Start” - “Fattening” - “Finish”.
- Daily chickens eat boiled finely chopped egg and curd. The feed rate is 10–12 g. The water rate is 3 g. On the first day, the chicks eat little, so the feed must be high-calorie.
- The diet of the first week - feed "Prestart", containing corn, soybeans, wheat, fish meal, vitamins and minerals necessary for growth and weight gain. It consists of antibacterial drugs and coccidiostatics that protect the chicken body from infections. Feed the chicks "Prestart" up to 10 days of age. The feed rate is 15–35 g. “Prestart” does not contain antibiotics or growth stimulants, therefore it is safe for livestock.
- The next 10 days, the chicks are fed "Start". The feed rate is 40–75 g. A scheme for increasing the amount of food is given on the package with mixed feed. "Start" is aimed at strengthening the immunity of the chick and the development of the skeleton. Комбикорм в рационе цыплят не отменяет присутствия в нём свежей зелени, вареного яйца и творога. Отличным дополнением к питанию является пророщенное зерно – около 10 г на 1 птенца в возрасте больше 2 недель.
Задача «Откорма» — формирование мышечной массы птицы. В это время в рацион входят зерно, жмых, травяная мука, рыбная мука. Норма корма достигает 125 г к возрасту 50–60 дней. Норма воды — 250 г.
- the first week - 8 times a day during daylight hours with an interval between feedings of not more than 2 hours,
- second week - 6 times a day,
- by the end of the first month of life - 5 times a day,
- the second month before slaughter - 4 times a day.
Wet mash is given 1 time per day and consists of crushed grains, fish meal, dairy products. Hash prepared immediately before feeding. The feed rate is about 30 g. At the finishing stage of poultry maturation, mixtures with the presence of cheese protein are mandatory. Their presence in the diet should be at least 15%. Feed the birds only feed can not be. Guinea fowl receives less essential amino acids, grows worse and gains weight more slowly.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of guinea fowl broiler gray-speckled:
- large weight - up to 4 kg
- good egg production - up to 130 large eggs,
- high nutritional quality of meat and eggs,
- quick mass gain in youngsters,
- birds rarely get sick and tolerate cold,
- are an ecological way to control pests of the garden / vegetable garden,
- unpretentious to the conditions of detention
- picky in nutrition.
- birds do not tolerate high humidity
- very noisy
- aggressive towards strangers
- for egg-laying they choose very secret places and change them as soon as they notice the danger.
Poultry farmers reviews
To get a bird with high productivity, it is enough to provide it with minimal care and high-calorie food. It is also profitable to grow guinea fowls from an economic point of view - their eggs and meat are more expensive than chicken, and the cost of maintaining guinea fowls requires much less.
Description of broiler guinea fowl
Broiler chicken guinea fowl - the result of crossing a chicken and a turkey, so it is guessed by features of both, originally from France. External characteristics of guinea fowl:
- The oval-shaped long body is covered with gray-speckled feathers,
- Bright little head of blue color with scarlet inclusions,
- Neck without plumage with thin skin through which muscles are visible,
- Hook-like beak, powerful paws,
- The rounded wings are tightly pressed to the body.
During movement, the body acquires an almost vertical bias.
These birds are rightly called "royal" because of their sophisticated appearance. They have long-term African roots, expressed in the following:
- Increased disease resistance
- Poor nutritional habits,
- Excessive caution, cowardice,
- Permanent galdezh,
- Lack of aggression.
There are several breeds of broiler chickens, differing in productivity and resistance to diseases:
- Gray-speckled French guinea fowl - the most common species originally from France. In this country, scientists first became interested in an unusual hybrid, and it was from here that it spread throughout the world. It gives 135 eggs per season, its meat is colored scarlet due to the high content of hemoglobin in it. French broiler chickens stand out with the following data:
- Large strong body, weight up to 3 kg,
- Small egg-shaped head,
- Rare plumage, graceful thin neck,
- Blue growth under the beak and a small tail, rounded down - a key feature.
- Zagorsky white-breasted guinea fowls are distinguished by the fact that their tummy, neck and breast are painted white and covered with loose thick feathers. To taste the meat is very similar to chicken. Increased egg production - the female gives 140 eggs per year. Eggs are medium in size, smaller than those of French broilers.
- The Volga variety, faster than the others, is gaining mass, therefore breeding is especially beneficial. It gives from 120 eggs per year.
- Siberian white guinea fowls are distinguished by white color of the body and pink color of the beak and paws. A characteristic feature - red earrings. They quickly acclimatize, unpretentious food. Due to their high stamina and growth, they are very much appreciated by breeders The female gives from 150 eggs.
- The blue variety received this name because of the unusual color effect that appears on the feathers. A black collar is wrapped around the neck. The bird weight does not exceed 1.5 kg. Despite the fact that it is not prone to leukemia, the ability to survive is weak.
- Cream guinea fowl (suede) is almost not in demand due to low productivity and low weight.