General information

Secrets of growing champignons at home


What is a multizone system?

There are many ways to grow mushrooms: on beds, in packages, racks, containers, etc.. However, most of them are designed for large-scale production and, due to high capital investments, are not always suitable for small businesses. But the multizone system allows save production space by growing champignons in containerslocated in 5 rows on mobile racks. In addition, the organization of several technical zones increases the number of production processes to 5-6 per year.

Premises for growing champignons.

Many of you may have a logical question:

If this is such a profitable and highly profitable business, then why is it not developing everywhere?

Yes, because the whole problem lies in technology. It is the technology of mushroom cultivation, or rather its failure to comply, becomes the cause of all failures in this business for beginning mushroom growers. Unlike other types of agricultural production, the industrial cultivation of champignons requires strict adherence to technology, which is what we are going to do now.

The multizone system presented by me requires the following premises:

  1. Composting room.
  2. Compost pasteurization room.
  3. The room for seeding and cultivation of mycelium.
  4. Room for growing fruit bodies (mushrooms).

Composting room.

If year-round cultivation of champignons is planned, then the room for compost preparation should be heated, with air temperature within 12-16 ° C of heat. This condition is important to comply with, otherwise the compost will be incorrectly fermented, which in the future will sharply reduce the yield of mushrooms.

The second condition is the presence of powerful exhaust ventilation to remove ammonia vapors, which will be produced quite a lot during the compost preparation process. And the last condition is the centralized water supply for moistening the compost heap and sewage. The calculated area for such a room is calculated according to the following scheme: for preparing 1 ton of compost 20 m² of useful space is required.

Compost pasteurization room.

After maturation, the compost for mushroom cultivation must be pasteurized. This is done in order to kill all kinds of viruses, weed seeds and insect larvae. The chamber for pasteurizing the compost must be airtight and in no case be connected to other rooms by a common passage.

On a few mushroom farms, the pasteurization chamber is equipped with a steam supply system, but such equipment is usually ordered from foreign manufacturers, and it costs fabulous money by the standards of a small business. Therefore, for a small production the pasteurization chamber should be equipped independently.

Since we will grow mushrooms in containers located on mobile racks, it is quite simple to equip the steam supply system. All that is needed is a steam boiler connected to a steam storage tank and a pipe system outgoing from it, which pass under each row of racks. But, and how it all works, let's talk a little later.

And yet, in the pasteurization chamber, be sure to install exhaust ventilation. This is necessary to remove free ammonia, which is often present even in cooked compost and which is poisonous to fruit bodies (mushrooms).

The room for seeding and cultivation of mycelium.

The temperature of the air in the room for growing mycelium should be in such a range that the temperature of the compost in containers does not fall below 24-26 ° C heat. Also requires the presence of exhaust ventilation and maintaining high humidity, in the range of 95-100%.

Room for growing fruit bodies (mushrooms). In principle, the requirements for a room for growing mushrooms are no different from the requirements for a room for planting and growing mycelium. The only difference is the temperature regime, which, after germination of the mycelium, should fluctuate between 14-16 ° C heat. Well, plus the availability of such a room is that it allows you to increase the number of technological cycles of mushroom cultivation.

Agrotehnika cultivation of champignons.

As with the premises, the agrotechnique of champignon cultivation is divided into several stages:

  1. Compost preparation.
  2. Sowing and cultivation of mycelium.
  3. Growing fruit bodies.

As mentioned above, properly prepared compost is crucial for the future harvest of mushrooms. If everything is done according to technology, then the yield of mushrooms should be close to the following indicators: 1 ton of compost = 200 kg of champignons or 20% of the compost mass.

Main Components composting is straw and dung. Since artificially started growing mushrooms in the early 19th century, over time, a compost preparation recipe was developed based on horse manure. However, horse manure at the moment is a deficit, and often mushroom growers use the following compost recipe:

  • Straw - 1000 kg.
  • Chicken litter - 640 kg.
  • Urea - 5 kg.
  • Chalk - 15 kg.
  • Gypsum - 60 kg.

For mushroom compost is best to use. winter rye straw or wheat. The main thing is that after harvesting it should be immediately pressed into bales or rolls, namely: to have a golden color with no rot and mold and be with the minimum presence of weeds.

It is necessary to buy high-quality straw according to the grain harvesting season and immediately determine it for storage either in the covered hayloft or on a specially equipped platform with a concrete surface with a slight slope for drainage. At the site, the straw must be covered with any material at hand, protecting it from rain and snow.

There are no special problems with chicken droppings either, since there are plenty of chicken farms in each region. The only thing you should pay attention to when buying a litter is its composition and humidity. Ideally, it should be dry and clean, that is, without any additional impurities in the form of litter.

Preparation of components for composting.

In order to make compost, it is not enough just to mix straw and chicken manure with each other. Both must pass the initial processing.

Straw. The main problem encountered in the preparation of compost is the high water-repellent properties of straw, and in fact, without sufficient moisture, the fermentation process may not even begin. That straw absorbed water better, it needs to be crushed. This is done using a conventional feed grinder with a capacity of at least 200 kg / h. Next, the straw is moistened in two ways: put in a collar and thoroughly watered with water or placed in a container, where it is soaked for 2-3 days.

Litter. In order for the litter to be distributed more evenly in the process of cutting the compost, it must be dried and ground. For this purpose, use a professional grain crusher with a capacity of 500 kg / h. It is desirable that the grain crusher was equipped with a set of removable sieves. This will allow you to get a given fraction of the litter, that is, not too small and not too large.


In order for the fermentation process to take place evenly, all components must be stacked in layers according to the following principle:

  • the first layer - straw height - 25-30 cm,
  • the second layer - litter - height 10-15 cm,
  • the third layer is urea at the rate of 500 gr. per 100 kg of straw.
  • The width of the collar is from 1.5 to 2.5 meters, the height of the collar is 2-2.5 meters. In this case, each layer is slightly moisturized.

If you notice that after 3-4 days the burning process has not started, then cover the whole burt with plastic wrap, but not to the floor itself, otherwise the fermentation process will not start either without the influx of fresh air.

Perebivka - it is mixing of all components of the compost with the purpose of their uniform distribution and enrichment with oxygen.

The first backing is done for 7-10 days, scattering the whole burt in one even layer and pouring it with chalk and plaster. For the entire time of composting, 3-4 breaks are carried out and, accordingly, the shares of gypsum and chalk in the compost are calculated. When the collar is formed anew, care should be taken that the outer layers of the compost fall inside, and the inner layers, respectively, out.

It is clear that all work on composting involves high labor costs, and if this labor is not mechanized, then payment to workers will many times exceed the cost of all components of the compost. Therefore, it is more expedient to purchase a mini-tractor on a wheeled or tracked drive. The main thing is that it should be equipped with a shovel for digging the collar and a bucket in order to put the compost back into the collar.

If all the fermentation processes were correct, then on the 24-26th day the compost is ready for pasteurization. In this case, it should be a uniform, dark brown color, without an obvious smell of ammonia.

Compost pasteurisation

As mentioned above, pasteurization of the compost is very important, as it allows in the future to avoid various problems with champignon diseases, which also lead to a sharp reduction in yield and from which it is rather difficult to get rid of.

Once the compost is ready, they are filled into containers, placed on racks and placed in a pasteurization chamber. And here many are faced with such difficulty: how to equip this camera with a steam supply system.

We already know that this requires a steam boiler, a steam expander and a steam supply system in the form of metal pipes, passing under each row of racks. And this system operates according to the following principle: from the boiler the steam enters the expander, accumulates in it under a certain pressure, and with the help of a valve through the piping system flows into the pasteurization chamber. If steam is supplied directly from the boiler, it will be distributed unevenly throughout the pasteurization chamber, and the steam expander in this case simultaneously serves as its condenser. At the same time, the pipe system is not closed, as during heating, but it has holes located at regular intervals, through which the steam itself actually comes out, raising the temperature of the compost to the desired parameters.

That is, the temperature of the compost must be raised to 58-62 ° C heat and keep it in this state for 12-14 hours. In this case, I would like to note that before the very first pasteurization, an experiment should be carried out, namely: install one container at different points of the chamber and experimentally adjust the steam supply system.

Sowing mycelium.

After pasteurization of the compost and its cooling to a temperature of 25 ° C, the shelves with containers are placed in the chamber for seeding and growing mycelium, but first we will understand what mycelium is.

Mycelium - this is a kind of seeds of the future mycelium, from which fruit bodies grow, that is, mushrooms. There are two types of mycelium: compost and grain.

We will look at the sowing of cereal mycelium for several reasons:

  • First, the grain mycelium gives a more uniform and friendly harvest of mushrooms.
  • Secondly, the grain mycelium is stored much longer than compost, thereby reducing the risks of its low survival rate.

Grain mycelium should be purchased only from companies specializing in its production. Since its production requires not only professionalism, but also the availability of specials. laboratories and equipment to maintain high sterility. The best time to purchase a grain mycelium is a warm season, and the “fresher” it is, the better.

So, mycelium culture. The temperature in the room should fluctuate within 25 ° С of heat, the temperature of compost should be within 24-26 ° С. Grain mycelium just scatter on the surface of the compost at the rate of 500 grams. per 1 m² and immediately cover with a layer of compost 3.5-4 cm thick. At the same time, one rule must be observed - try to create as much as possible sterility in the mycelium seeding chamber.

The second point is the humidity of the air and compost. Both in the period of sowing and in the period of mycelium growth, the humidity of the air should be at the level of 85-90%, the humidity of the compost - 60%. So that during the growth of mycelium, the compost does not dry out, it is covered with paper or sacking and periodically irrigated. Watering should not drip by, for example, from a watering can, and by spraying water. At the same time strictly follow that the water does not fall on the compost, otherwise excessive moisture will kill the mycelium.

If everything is done correctly, then in 10-12 days the mycelium will grow, and when the upper layer of compost is lifted, it will look like white cobweb threads, which means that it is time to harvest the mushrooms.

Mushroom cultivation.

After the mycelium has grown to the desired size, the compost is filled with another coating layer 3-4 cm thick and reduces its temperature to 14-17 ° C heat. Such a decrease in temperature serves as a signal for reproduction to the mycelium, and after 17-21 days after that, the first fruiting bodies (fungi) appear.

The optimal composition of the cover layer should be close to light sandy loam, but how to make such a soil, read the article on growing flowers in a greenhouse article. Also, do not forget about wetting the soil by spraying water on it.

If you follow the above-described technology of a multi-zone mushroom cultivation system, the average yield of mushrooms will be 20% of the compost mass. In this case, the mushrooms will grow in waves: the first wave - 3-4 days, the second wave comes a week after the first and so for 1.5-2 months. Up to 70% of mushrooms are harvested just from the first two waves, and the further process of growing mushrooms becomes unprofitable, since it is more profitable to prepare another batch of compost with a seeded mycelium by this time.
As a result, the whole process is divided into the following time stages:

  • Compost preparation - 24-26 days.
  • Growing mycelium - 10-12 days.
  • Mushroom cultivation - 30-40 days.
  • Total: 64-78 days.

From which we derive the following figure: by the time of sowing mycelium, you must lay a new batch of compost, thereby increasing the number of cycles per year up to 5 times. In this case, it is desirable for you to equip all the necessary facilities.


Ideally, it is better to make containers of stainless steel, this will greatly facilitate the work when disinfecting them. But since such equipment is too expensive, the containers for compost can be made of wood. The size of the box: length - 70 cm, width - 40 cm, depth - 30 cm. By area, such a container will be equal to 0.3 m², and it will include up to 35 kg of compost, based on 100 kg of compost per 1 m².

If 5 such containers are placed on the shelves, then 3 shelves with 15 containers will occupy only 1 m² of usable space, and to fill them you will need 525 kg of compost. For example, if your room for the forcing of mushrooms is 50 m², then for each cycle you need to prepare up to 27 tons of compost.

And this is where all the advantages of a multi-zone, container system for champignon cultivation are manifested, since, as a result, a 4.5 m² of beds is released per 1 m² of usable area.

You already know how to grow champignons and what you need to do this, and now let's get to the most important thing - how much money can be earned from this.

Growing in bags

Small and medium producers use the method of growing mushrooms in bags. It is popular for the reason that in this case it is possible to breed mushrooms without special steaming. If we compare this method with others, then we can note its efficiency as compared with the container and shelf cultivation system.

One of its main advantages is the ability to protect the crop from various parasites. As for the negative aspects, we can note the need to use physical labor for packing bags with compost, carrying them in the proper place.

Mushrooms on the shelves? This is reality

Today, another champignon growing system at home is very popular - on the shelves, it is also called Dutch. The whole process of work is mechanized due to the presence of special equipment. Of course, the cost of such equipment is quite high. Therefore, it is rational to choose a similar method if you are planning a large-scale production.

Shelf system can be called an improved system of growing in the beds. But the main advantage lies in the rational use of the premises and the possibility of using special equipment. And then successful sales are guaranteed.

Champignons in blocks

Another method of mushroom cultivation, whose popularity is increasing every year, is in special blocks. This system has become popular due to the fact that the purchase of compost for growing mushrooms is usually pressed into blocks that are very simple and easy to use. In addition, they can be used in the shelf and container systems.

How to make compost for champignons

To properly prepare the compost, you need to pre-soak the straw for a day. Not dry, but damp straw should be laid in the correct layers (three or four). During laying, these layers need to be moistened again, because they dry out. Обычно на каждые 100 килограммов сухой соломы уходит до 400 литров воды.

К этой заготовке добавляют полкило суперфосфата и 2-2,5 кг мочевины. Все ингредиенты перемешивают 3-4 раза, в первый раз добавив гипс, во второй — суперфосфат, в третий — мел (до 5 кг) и гипс (до 8 кг). The secret of good compost is that it is thoroughly mixed. Then the cultivation of champignons will take place in a comfortable environment for these mushrooms. It is important that the compost is well ventilated, then it will be of high quality.

At 300 kilograms of this substrate will get a fairly large mycelium - up to 3 square meters.

Mycelium of champignons

Growing champignons at home is optimal with the help of a good high-quality mycelium. It must be tested, sterile, grown not in anywhere, but in licensed laboratories. Mycelium is grain and compost. The first can be stored in polyethylene for up to six months. Storage temperature of grain mycelium is up to 4 degrees plus.

But compost mushroom mycelium is stored at a temperature not higher than zero degrees. Then he will last up to a year. If the temperature is high - up to 18 degrees (room temperature, it is possible to grow champignons at home only if mycelium is stored for no more than three weeks.

The calculation is as follows: up to 400 grams of grain mycelium per 1 square meter of mycelium, this is up to 100 kilograms of substrate. And up to 500 grams of compost mycelium on the same area of ​​the mycelium.

As you can see, the conditions for growing champignons are very different. Due to this variety of methods, anyone can choose the most suitable option for growing mushrooms in the climatic conditions of their area.