Chicken meat is loved by people in all countries of the world. It is tasty, nutritious and easily digestible. Due to the low fat content, nutritionists recommend including it in the diet of people suffering from obesity, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases.
However, chicken meat can not only be useful, they are often poisoned.
How does chicken poisoning occur?
Chicken poisoning is caused by a violation of the process of cooking chicken meat or improper storage of ready meals from it. Chicken meat is an excellent nutrient medium for many pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, and therefore even a small violation of sanitary and hygienic norms during its production and processing can cause foodborne toxic infections.
When eating chicken meat that has not undergone complete heat treatment, you can become infected with salmonellosis, since chickens are frequent carriers of salmonella. In a thicker piece of meat, salmonella can retain its viability by boiling for several minutes.
Another cause of chicken poisoning is infection of meat by staphylococcus. Unlike Salmonella, Staphylococcus dies quickly already at 80 o C, but the enterotoxin produced by it persists even after prolonged boiling.
Other bacteria, such as E. coli, shigella, streptococcus, can also be the cause of chicken poisoning.
Getting together with poor-quality meat in the stomach and small intestine, pathogenic microorganisms secrete enterotoxin in the course of their vital activity. This substance triggers an inflammatory process in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, which disrupts the absorption of nutrients and water. As a result, gastroenteric syndrome develops. Enterotoxin also enters the general bloodstream, causing symptoms of general intoxication.
In pursuit of profit, unscrupulous producers feed chickens with special substances that contribute to their rapid growth and weight gain. These supplements are allowed for use in veterinary practice, but can cause an allergic reaction and poisoning in humans, although this is rare.
Symptoms of poisoning
The incubation (hidden) period in case of poisoning with chicken is short, from the moment of eating poor quality meat and the appearance of the first signs of the disease usually takes from 1 to 4 hours. The disease begins with a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, belching and nausea. After some time, other signs of poisoning are added to these symptoms:
- loose stools. Fecal masses are often offensive and frothy,
- pain in the stomach cramping character. After a bowel movement its intensity decreases for a while,
- headaches and muscle aches
- weakness, lethargy,
- lack of appetite.
With severe diarrhea, the human body quickly loses fluid and dehydration develops. His symptoms are:
- dry skin and mucous membranes,
- increased thirst
- low blood pressure
- dark saturated color of urine,
- decrease in diuresis (decrease in urine excretion).
First aid for poisoning
First aid for chicken poisoning is aimed at the speedy removal of low-quality product from the digestive tract, removal of toxic substances from the body.
First of all, the patient must wash the stomach. To do this, they give him to drink several glasses of salted water or a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. Then cause vomiting, irritating the root of the tongue with the fingers of your hand or the spoon handle. It is advisable to repeat this procedure several times, which will allow the stomach to be completely cleaned of germs and enterotoxin produced by them. Attention! Do not flush the stomach in this way children and unconscious people!
In order to bind toxic substances trapped in the gastrointestinal tract and in a natural way, the patient should be given a suspension of activated charcoal. For its preparation, you need to crush into a fine powder tablets and mix it with a small amount of boiled water. For every 10 kg of patient's body weight, take 1 tablet of activated carbon.
To reduce the manifestations of intoxication and prevent dehydration, the patient should drink more fluids (oral rehydration). It may be mineral water without gas, non-sweet and weak tea, but it is best to use the solution of Regidron. The liquid should be drunk in small sips, otherwise you can cause increased nausea and provoke vomiting.
When is medical care required?
Medical attention should be immediately sought in the following cases:
- signs of poisoning persist for more than two days,
- poisoning happened in an elderly man, a child or a pregnant woman,
- signs of dehydration have appeared and are increasing.
After examination, the doctor may prescribe a bacteriological examination of fecal and emetic masses, allowing to identify the causative agent of the disease and determine its sensitivity to antibiotics.
Drug treatment of chicken poisoning usually involves the administration of antibiotics and detoxification therapy. When violations of water and electrolyte balance is their correction by intravenous infusion of saline solutions. The appointment of enzyme preparations and vitamins is also shown.
Under the condition that the first-aid patient is provided to the patient in a timely manner, signs of chicken poisoning usually disappear within two days.
During the recovery period, many patients report stool instability. This is due to the inflammatory process occurring in the intestinal mucosa. During the week, the inflammation subsides and the stool becomes shaped and regular. The treatment of such a complication consists in the proper organization of clinical nutrition - the patient is shown a diet table number 4 by Pevzner.
Significantly more serious complications cause dehydration. Against this background, there are major changes in the activities of almost all body systems. Dehydration is especially dangerous for young children, as it can lead to the development of hypovolemic shock, causing the formation of acute renal failure.
Preventing chicken poisoning is much easier than curing its effects. In order to eat chicken dishes only benefit and enjoy the following rules:
- buy chicken in stores,
- Before starting the preparation, the bird should be thoroughly rinsed under running water,
- heat treatment for a sufficient time so that there is no trace of blood on the cut of the meat,
- Store ready chicken dishes only in the refrigerator in a sealed container, the storage period should not exceed 48 hours.
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The most common causes of chicken poisoning are:
If chicken meat is infected with salmonella, it can lead to serious illness. Bacteria of this virus are found both in domestic carcasses and in store-bought ones. Even a healthy, at first glance, bird can be infected with this infection, and if the raw materials for the dishes are not subjected to sufficient heat treatment, the person can become infected.
2. Food toxicoinfection.
This infection develops due to the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms from the environment. This happens when a bird is kept at an appropriately elevated temperature. If an infection has occurred, this product cannot be consumed.
Thorough washing and cooking chicken with many spices in this case will not help. The poisoning of a grill chicken purchased in the store happens most frequently, since pathological bacteria do not disappear even when heat treated on a spit.
3. Today in the media you can often hear that food contains a lot of additives. The chicken in this case is no exception. To increase the mass and volume of the chicken, the pulp is pumped with liquid with substances that help keep it inside the carcass. In addition to its direct purpose, these supplements are the medium for the reproduction of infection.
4. It is also not an exception that the meat of any poultry can become an allergenic product for those prone to allergic reactions.
What is poisoning?
Poisoning is a complex disorder of the body as a result of the ingestion of a toxic substance. In the process of intoxication, the work of many systems and organs is disrupted.
Poisoning can have the following effects depending on the type of poisons and the amount:
- Super acute intoxication. This type affects the central nervous system, there is an acute violation of coordination, convulsions. Death to the feathered comes within a few hours.
- Acute intoxication. The organism is once or briefly exposed to intoxicants. In acute form, the clinical picture is very pronounced. Acute poisoning occurs as a result of a large number of potent substances.
- Chronic intoxication. With this form, the body for a long time is regularly exposed to intoxicants (in small quantities or weakly acting). The clinical picture may be expressed or absent.
Toxic agents can be:
- poor quality, contaminated, expired, spoiled feed,
- poisonous plants and seeds,
- acids and alkalis,
Intoxication is accompanied by the following clinical picture:
- weakness, apathy, lethargy and depression,
- increased anxiety and irritability,
- convulsions, paralysis, limited movement,
- lack of response to external stimuli,
- lack of appetite,
- changes in defecation (diarrhea, sometimes with bloody impurities, discoloration of feces to green or yellow),
- increased thirst
- general mortality.
Depending on the type and dose of the toxic agent, the symptoms may vary. Due to inexperience and ignorance, the poultry farmer may not pay attention to the strange behavior and the atypical state of the bird, which signals the first stage of poisoning.
It is at this stage that the intoxication can be eliminated more easily, faster and with less damage to the health of the chicken. Usually after the onset of the action of a toxic agent, the bird tries to retire, clogs up in a corner, crested, refuses to eat, and stops responding to stimuli.
Further the digestive upset is connected, gradually the bird weakens. In severe cases, motor activity is disturbed in the form of convulsions and paralysis.
In any case, when an alarming clinical picture is found, it is necessary to analyze the food and conditions of detention in order to calculate the cause of the poisoning. If possible, always contact an experienced veterinarian.
Toxic chemicals can reach the feathered in various ways. Sometimes they get with food, in conditions of unsanitary conditions in the house can form a lot of toxic substances as a result of vital activity of birds (ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide).
It is also possible that particularly curious chickens can find some toxic substances on the site. Often intoxication occurs as a result of improper use of medicines, disinfectants, paints and varnishes. Next, consider the most common types of toxic agents of chemical nature.
Caustic alkali is a water-soluble alkali metal hydroxide. Most often, it is poisoned as a result of inadequate ventilation of the poultry house after being treated with slaked lime or caustic soda (caustic soda).
Signs of intoxication:
- difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, choking,
- swelling of the eyelids, head, neck,
- conjunctival inflammation,
- redness of the beak and earrings
- decrease in body temperature.
Arsenic poisoning most often occurs during careless storage of pesticides or accidentally eating baits to kill rodents. Depending on the amount of substance eaten, there may be acute or chronic poisoning (with frequent small doses).
The clinical picture of acute intoxication:
- cyanosis scallop, earrings,
- lower body temperature
- drooling, difficulty swallowing,
- pain on palpation of goiter,
- dilated pupils,
In chronic poisoning, the manifestations are as follows:
- diarrhea (fecal watery, painted white, sometimes with blood impurities),
- depletion and weight loss.
An effective remedy against arsenic poisoning is Unithiol. This substance acts as a specific antidote for arsenic. For veterinary purposes, "Unitiol" is available in powder form. For oral administration, chickens are prepared with a 10% solution: 1 part of the powder is diluted with 9 parts of water, the course of treatment lasts 8-10 days. In the absence of this drug, you can apply a solution of potassium permanganate (1:20). Give orally every 15 minutes for 1-2 days.
Copper and zinc
Zinc poisoning occurs as a result of exceeding the dosage of the element in feed additives, as well as during long-term storage of feed in galvanized containers. Zinc has a negative effect on the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, disrupts redox processes, accumulates in the internal organs, which inevitably leads to violations in their work.
In the case of chronic intoxication the following symptoms are observed:
- growth retardation
- lack of appetite and thirst
- muscle weakness
- depressed state.
For recovery from the diet you need to eliminate any feed containing zinc, and add the mixture with copper and iron.
Copper poisoning occurs due to exceeding the dosage of the trace element in additives, in case of accidental ingress of copper salts inside as a result of careless storage. Copper is found in many pesticides, fungicides. With copper intoxication, exhaustion, dystrophy and stunting (in young animals), anemia are observed.
In chronic poisoning, you must exclude feed containing this element. In the acute form, a 40% glucose solution (0.5 ml / kg body weight) or Uniol intramuscularly (4 mg / kg body weight) can be administered intravenously over 10 days.
Food poisoning is another frequent phenomenon that can have very serious consequences for birds. Intoxication occurs as a result of storing food in improper conditions, near toxic chemicals, when feeding spoiled food (especially of animal origin), when accidentally feeding poisonous plants.
The clinical picture is manifested after only a couple of hours from ingestion. When severe intoxication birds usually do not live longer than 2-4 days. Often the cause of poisoning is the feeding of feathered salted fish. A deadly dose of 3-4 g / kg is considered.
- increased thirst
- decrease or lack of appetite
- rapid breathing
- convulsions, paralysis and paresis, impaired coordination,
- loose stools
- severe depletion of the body.
To normalize the condition, you can unsolder the birds with a 10% glucose solution for 2-3 days. Chickens should be given as much as possible to drink, if the bird does not drink itself, the liquid must be injected through a probe.
Beneficial effects of flaxseed decoction for poisoning with sodium chloride. To prepare the mucous infusion of flaxseed, pour raw materials with hot water (1:30), insist half an hour, shake. Give instead of water for three days.
At first glance, a rather unusual intoxication. Occurs when feeding a rotting or boiled and slowly cooled root. When cooking beets and prolonged cooling in the vegetable nitrites are formed. Particularly dangerous in this regard, dining red variety of root vegetables. It is also dangerous to give spoiled beet tops.To prevent intoxication, feed only feathery fresh, clean, high-quality beets and tops. If you give boiled vegetables, you need to follow the rules of cooking: cook for no more than 3-6 hours, then drain and rinse, cool for a short time.
In case of severe intoxication, a solution of methylene blue (0.01 g / kg body weight) should be administered intravenously once.
There are frequent cases of potato poisoning in early spring and summer, when germinated, green and spoiled tubers get into the feed for birds. They are very dangerous for birds because of the high concentration of glycoalkaloid solanine.
In case of poisoning, the clinical picture appears after a couple of hours:
- the bird is crested, the general condition is depressed,
- lack of response to stimuli,
- fast breathing
- high temperature
- stiffness, convulsions and paralysis.
If you suspect poisoning with poor-quality tubers, you need to wash the bird's goiter with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate, then decorate flax seeds (use the above recipe).It is necessary to consult with your doctor regarding further treatment.
A very dangerous disease of birds, especially for young. Poisoning occurs as a result of eating substandard plant and animal feeds infected with fungi of the genus Fusarium. Falling young birds may occur 1-3 days after eating food, adult chickens die after 7-10 days.
- depression, weakness, drowsiness,
- lack of appetite,
- blue scallops and earrings
- ruffled feathers
- bloody diarrhea,
- necrotic mucosal lesions.
If you suspect fusariotoksikoz should immediately stop giving the affected food, replace the litter in the house. For treatment, you should consult with a veterinarian for the selection of a laxative drug, you can also remove the bird with 1% soda solution and flax decoction for 2-3 days.
Meat and fish feed
Sources of poisoning can be various animal products: meat and bone and fish meal of poor quality, poorly processed incubator waste, spoiled meat and fish, stale raw meat.
Symptoms in case of animal feed poisoning are as follows:
- lack of appetite,
- bloody diarrhea,
- lowered wings
- ruffled plumage,
- gross violations of the central nervous system (paralysis, convulsions), impaired coordination.
If you suspect this type of poisoning, it is urgent to exclude feeding with animal products, water the livestock with a solution of potassium permanganate (0.1%) and decoction of flax seeds according to the above recipe.
Plants and seeds
Usually poisoning plants and seeds - an infrequent phenomenon, as the birds themselves well distinguish edible greens from dangerous. However, if the territory for walking grows poisonous grass, it is possible that one day it can be eaten by birds.
Before letting chickens on the run, carefully inspect the area and, if necessary, remove such plants from the root:
- agrostemma (cockle),
- black nightshade,
- black henbane,
- potato inflorescences,
Intoxication in birds can occur as a result of the action of many substances. The result may be very different: from a slight malaise to a fatal outcome of a significant part of the population.
In order to prevent mortality among chickens, it is necessary to strictly monitor the quality of feed, keep them under all the rules, prevent the feeding of poor-quality leftovers, and keep toxic chemicals in inaccessible places. Sanitation will also reduce the risk of intoxication among birds.
Symptoms and treatment of poisoning in chickens
Chickens can easily eat wild berries, poisonous plants that grow on bird grazing sites. After the rain, these plants grow chaotically in the most unexpected places, so the breeder may not notice the danger. Birds are not particularly versed in the diet, and this is especially true of chickens, which peck everything that at least somehow resembles food.
Eating moldy grain, sour mash or old, spoiled feed, can easily cause symptoms of poisoning and intoxication. Grains can be treated with chemicals to protect against insect pests. Careless processing can destroy the entire flock of chickens.
Often poisoning caused by contaminated water. If chickens drink water that has accumulated after the rain, then it is possible that chemical substances from other sources enter it. Such water washes plants, drains from buildings and washes them in its own way, absorbing various amounts of toxic substances.
Poor quality cleaning of a chicken coop with the use of potent substances can poison chickens. The same applies to the disinfection of the house. You should not increase the dosage of disinfectant. It is important to adhere to the instructions for the drug.
The breeder needs to recognize the main symptoms of poisoning in order to save the birds from death. The manifestation of intoxication can have the following signs, namely:
- lethargy, apathy, drowsiness,
- loss of appetite,
- strong thirst
- wobbly walk,
- excretion of liquid stool
- respiratory failure,
- the release of foam from the beak.
At the first sign, you should try to isolate the bird away from a possible source of poisoning. You can try to otpaivat chickens with slightly salty water with the addition of a small amount of sugar or use absorbents, for example, activated charcoal. It is good to remove toxins from the body of the bird. Consultation with a veterinarian or ornithologist will not interfere.