The popularity of balsams increases every day, respectively, and the number of fans increases. They are used both in home floriculture and in landscaping parks and gardens. For over 400 years balsam has been decorating our windows. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, this flower is gaining the status of one of the pets.
Balsamines are annual or perennial herbaceous plants with a rich stem and a fibrous root. There are approximately 300 species. Balsamines differ in shape: ampelous, climbing, bush upright, and there are also species resembling bouquets. Plant sizes range from 15 to 25 cm.
In balsamines, toothed or oval leaves of various green shades are distinguished. The fruit consists of a multi-seeded box. If you touch it with your hand, it will instantly open and the seeds will fall out.
Balsamines have a wide palette of colors. There are representatives with bright red, purple-pink flowers, monophonic or multi-colored color. For example, double and semi-double flowers reproduce the form of camellia, carnations or roses. In addition, in the same group, you can find buds with varying degrees of development: blooming, unblown and wilted. Carmine, red and purple-pink hybrids are widespread.
The plant grows well in moist fertile soils. Originally balsam was popular in tropical Africa, India, China, and then it spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Ampute balsam: description
This plant has an interesting nickname - Roly wet. He was so called because of the fact that on the edge of the leaves there are small drops of liquid. In another way it is called "light." Flowers of bright color shine on a background of green leaves. The plants of this species are perennials, they are very branched and have a thick stalk. Green or red-brown leaves of a small size oval. White, red or pink flowers are at the ends of the branches. If you follow the rules of care and planting, ampelous balsam at home can bloom for a whole year, and in summer they can decorate the terraces and flower beds. Balsamine does not like the bright day sun, he prefers a small partial shade. With diffused light flowers become more vivid color. Props or backstage protects the tender plant from winds and storms.
Balsam ampelnaya terry has many shaggy flowers. Elegant form of this variety is used for hanging baskets. This is a very branching plant, covered with flowers with shoots of 30–35 cm. It blooms from June to the very frost. The plant is grown in areas with diffused sunlight or in partial shade.
Balsam ampelny Acrobat is characterized by rapid growth. One flower is enough to create a luxurious hanging basket. He has a huge number of constantly updated colors. Perfectly tolerates rainy weather. Balsam is best grown in partial shade. It blooms from June to November.
Balsamines in the natural environment
In nature, there are many different species, for example, distinguish shrubs, herbaceous annuals and perennials. Some species grow to a height of two meters. All of them, without exception, are united in one family - balsamic. Reproduction of balsam in nature occurs naturally. In culture - from seeds. Ampal balsamines can also be diluted with cuttings. Zanzibar Island is considered the birthplace of this tropical plant. Back in 1596, the balsam was brought to Europe, where he quickly gained popularity. There also brought the first cultural species. There are three of them: garden balsam, New Guinea and Waller.
New Guinea Balsam
This species originates from Hawker's balsam, for this reason they are sometimes referred to as "Hawker's balsams". It blooms mostly in summer. The flowers are large, a variety of colors. Leaflets and shoots burgundy or purple. In flower shops you can find more than 80 varieties. In the United States in 1972, brought the first hybrid. They are grown at home or as an annual plant in the garden. Plants of this species prefer warm, tolerate the sun well and are not afraid of low humidity in the room, they are more enduring than other species.
This is an annual plant with a tender stem. It reaches a height of 70 cm, blooms all summer. The flowers are along the stem. You can find terry, simple or flower color flowers. Due to the fact that the plant has a very fragile stem, it is recommended to carefully choose a place to plant. Balsam should be covered from strong wind, rain and bright sun. Seeds of garden balsams are immediately planted in a permanent place, sometimes propagated by cuttings.
Reproduction from seed
Amppel balsam is fastidious to the conditions of detention; therefore, it is better to grow it to growers who have accumulated sufficient experience.
Balsam breeding begins with planting seeds. The soil should contain peat, sand, vermiculite and compost. Before planting the seeds, the pot and the soil are treated with a fungicidal agent to prevent the spread of fungal diseases. In addition, it is recommended to pickle the seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate - about ten minutes, then they are washed with clean warm water.
- the seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil,
- they are pressed into the ground by light pressure
- covered with sand,
- close the container with the seeds of plastic wrap,
- seed containers are transferred to a warm, well-lit place.
Seeds germinate at temperatures from +22 to +25 ° C. As soon as the first shoots appeared, the temperature is lowered to +20 ° C, and the film is removed. Balsam should not be placed in direct sunlight, as this plant has very delicate seeds that do not tolerate ultraviolet radiation. As soon as the first three leaves appear, the plant dives. The plant is recommended to replant in the garden in early spring (one hundred days after planting the seeds in the pot). Ampal balsamines, reviews of which are mainly devoted to growing at home from seed, are as follows:
- avoid drafts when planting
- the first shoots appear in about three weeks,
- plant seeds better at a great distance from each other, so that when picking you can easily divide the roots,
- a mature plant with dense branches and everything is dotted with beautiful flowers,
- Flowers look beautiful in hanging pots.
Growing balsam from seeds is not easy, but if you follow all the requirements, you will end up with a healthy and long-flowering plant that can decorate any room.
Balsam ampel: care
Balsam is grown, usually in small pots. If the capacity is too large, the plant will not bloom. Every seven days the plant must be fed. Copper, iron, boron, zinc, molybdenum and manganese should be present in the dressing. Balsam is poured every day, but not too much. Waller's Balsam ampelous does not tolerate stagnant water. Unlike seeds, a mature plant needs sunlight. If during the day there will be at least six hours of sun, then the plant will bloom a lot and for a long time.
As soon as the balsam has faded, it should be cut off and transferred to a cool place with a temperature not higher than +15 ° C, the frequency of watering should be reduced. New shoots, as a rule, appear by the end of winter, at this time balsam should be transferred to a warm room and increased watering.
In winter, the flower should be put in a bright cool room and watered moderately. If the temperature drops below +15 ° C, then black spots can appear on the shoots - bacteriosis. In this case, the plant should be watered with a solution of phytosporin or tetracycline antibacterial agents - 1 tablet or capsule per cup of water. The next way to save the plant is to scatter healthy shoots. Sour soil also causes the development of this disease. Dark colored varieties are more durable than light colored flowers.
Balsam ampelnoe, the cultivation of which we are discussing today, can cause some difficulties with improper care:
- The lack of light in the room - the flowers turn pale.
- A sharp cooling, dry or cold air, low humidity, dry soil - flowering stops, flowers and buds fall.
- Close pot, lack of nutrients in the soil - plant growth slows down.
- Low air temperature, insufficient watering - drooping leaves.
- Insufficient lighting, cold air, wet soil - rotting roots and the base of the stems.
Diseases and pests
In winter, ampelous balsam is susceptible to fungal diseases, especially gray rot. To eliminate this trouble, the plant roots are cleaned from the old soil and transplanted balsam into a new container with the soil.
If there is little humidity in the room, the plant attacks the spider mite. The initial sign is considered to be twisted leaves, which eventually fall off. To combat spider mites use special tools.
With the defeat of the whitefly, the leaves turn yellow. As a rule, it settles on the inner side of the lower leaflets. For the treatment of plants using the following drugs: "Fufanon", "Decis" and others.
A decoction of fresh balsam leaves is used as an adjunct to bladder stones and kidneys. Broth added to the bath will ease the pain in case of rheumatological diseases. For the treatment of wounds, ulcers and hemorrhoids make applications from the leaves. Tincture on the roots, flowers and seeds helps with overwork, relieves headache.
However, it must be remembered that the balsam is toxic and its chemical composition is not well understood, for this reason, therapy should be carried out very carefully. In case of overdose, the following symptoms appear:
Balsam is a herbaceous perennial plant, whose height ranges from 15 to 60 cm. It is rightly considered one of the representatives of the most long-flowering plants that can decorate both the house and the terrace or the plot in the garden.
Balsam Waller belongs to the perennial family, but can manifest itself as an annual. If the flower is grown as a houseplant, it is a perennial. However, in gardening, it behaves like an annual plant, since winter frosts are not able to endure. Did you know?Among the people, Waller's balsam is also called Vanka wet, since small droplets of moisture are formed on the tips of the leaves, or a spark because of bright colors.
The shape of the balsam bush can be upright, spherical, creeping on the ground or spreading, it depends on the variety. The plant has a thick well-branched stem.
Its color can vary from light green to purple. At the end of the stem are simple or double flowers, which can grow in inflorescences in several pieces, or alone.
Coloring colors depending on the variety can consist of up to 17 different shades. There are flowers with shades of red, white, pink, varieties with a two-tone color, interspersed or spotted in the center of the flower, as well as with motley petals.
Walser balsam is a fairly tall plant (up to 60 cm in room conditions). The foliage of this flower grows alternately and has a red central vein. The shape of the leaves can be lanceolate, whole or tooth parts. On the edge of the leaf are collected droplets of sweet juice that attract ants. Flowers come in various shapes (complex and simple), and their size varies from 2 to 6 cm in diameter. The buds are predominantly pink, but the hybrids may have different colors.
The plant has a strong root system, and in individual varieties of roots are collected in a single node. Although Walley’s impatiens is a representative of tall plants, however, some series of varieties do not exceed 30 cm in height. Penstemon, laureate, armeria, carnation pinnate and chionodox will also fill your garden with bright colors.
After the Waller balsam fades, a fruit is formed, which is a seed box with many seeds. It has 5 leaflets that open during ripening.
Distribution and habitat
Zanzibar is considered to be the birthplace of Waller's balsam. This plant is also called Impatiens sultanii. It received such a name in honor of the ruler of Zanzibar, who ruled in the middle of the XIX century (it was during this period that this species was discovered). The most common balsam Waller received in countries with warm climates. It is also popular in places with a temperate climate. Did you know?The decoration of space with green plantings was very popular at the courts of Eastern rulers for a long time. In Europe, the same practice has spread in the Renaissance.
Use in landscape design
Walter balsam is used to decorate borders, create beautiful flower arrangements or decorative statues, vertical flower beds. Looks good flower in vases and garden containers. Also obtained beautiful screens with impatiensom. To create them, 4 pegs are used, which are driven into 1/3 of the ground. The resulting frame is covered with a large-mesh plastic mesh with black lutrasil.
The resulting structure is covered with earth, while two hoses are laid to ensure irrigation. When the ground is laid in lutrasil make slots and planted balsam bushes. When planting can be used as young plants, and already flowering. If you want to decorate your garden plot, we advise you to read about how to make an alpine slide, a bed of stones and wheel tires, a waterfall, a mixborder, rock arias, a rose garden, a dry stream, a fountain and gabions.
Gradually, the plants begin to grow and form a beautiful whole screen. Low-growing varieties are suitable for creating flower-type beds and rock gardens. Impatiens is also used to decorate terraces or other open spaces. Planted it in hanging flower pots or trays, as well as in decorative pots.
Growing and caring for plants
Many growers admire the long and abundant flowering of balsam, which more than compensates for the annual efforts to plant this plant. Enjoying the touchy as long as possible will help the right care. In this regard, let's consider the optimal conditions for good growth of this plant.
Conditions of detention
Impatiens is the best flower for beginner growers, because it does not require any special care. It can be planted in various capacities. For this ideal as a flower pot, and a balcony tray, pots or hanging basket. Check out the list of ampelous flowers for pots.
Green stands of impatience are exposed on the terrace or veranda, as well as on the windowsill or balcony. This flower can be used to decorate a garden, and plant it in open ground. The period of flowering impatiens in the garden continues all summer, and in the house - most of the year. It is necessary to carefully select the optimal place for a flowering handsome man, because direct sunlight will cause the soil to dry quickly. However, this touchy needs a lot of sun. In the front garden you can plant balsam under the crown of the tree.
It is worth planting Waller's balsam into open soil only after stable and warm weather has been established, when there is no threat of unforeseen frosts. In the middle latitudes, it is better to plant it only in mid-June, when most of the plants already formed their greens and began to actively bloom.
When choosing a site, it is also necessary to take into account the presence of drafts or strong winds. Such an impact may adversely affect the fragile branches of impatiens. In the process of planting balsam should consider the distance between the bushes. The optimum is considered to be 25 cm. At this distance, the bushes can overlap and create a more reliable protection from strong wind and rain, and also allow you to keep the maximum amount of moisture. Did you know?Previously, even individual celebrations were dedicated to the most revered flowers. For example, in ancient Greece there were holidays of lilies and hyacinths, and in Germany - violets.
Do not forget also about the timely removal of dry leaves and fading flowers. For the formation of a touchstone cap, it needs pinching new shoots. This will create a compact and lush shape of the bush.
If summer balsam grew in open ground, then it can be transplanted into a pot for wintering. It is better to do this in the fall, but after a transplant, the impatient cannot tolerate the dry and hot climate in the house.
Soil and fertilizer
Balsam grows well in the soil, the basis of which is peat. Можно использовать готовый субстрат с добавлением песка в соотношении 5 к 1 или смешать садовую почву, крупнозернистый песок и торф в равных частях.Some flower growers use such a mixture in the ratio of 2 to 1 for planting impatiens. It will be useful for you to read about what types of soil exist, how to improve soil fertility, how to independently determine the acidity of the soil on the site, and how to deoxidize the soil.
The soil should be close to neutral (5.5-6.3 pH). It is not recommended to add fresh organic matter (compost), as balsam reacts badly to it, in particular, it concerns young plantings. The soil should be light, loose, with good drainage.
During the budding period, it is necessary to start fertilizing 1 time in 10 days. Preference is better to give phosphate-potassium fertilizer. With the onset of autumn, the plant does not need additional nutrients, therefore, the feeding is stopped. Also, do not fertilize plants that have recently been transplanted.
Watering and moisture
Impatiens is a moisture-loving plant, therefore it needs abundant watering. In summertime, it is better to water the Waller balsam in the morning or in the evening, when the scorching sun is no longer so warm.
During this period of the year, the balsam is watered two or even three times a week. If the plant feels a lack of moisture, it begins to lower the foliage and quickly fade. Watering is gradually reduced with the approach of winter.Important!Excess moisture leads to decay of the roots, which is why it is necessary to water the plant in the evening with great care. You must sufficiently moisten the soil, but avoid stagnant water on its surface.
If the balsam is in a dry room, then in this case it needs periodic spraying, which is recommended in the morning.
Relation to temperature
Balsam Waller - quite thermophilic plant that needs a stable ambient temperature. The best temperature regime is considered to be an interval of + 22 ... + 24 degrees in the summer period.
If the air warms up above +24 degrees, then it is necessary to increase the humidity, then Waller's balsam will grow well and bloom profusely. However, high humidity and low temperature (below +18 degrees) can cause yellowing of the leaves and rotting of the root system.
If the air temperature during the day varies within + 13 ... + 15 ° С, and drops below +5 ° С at night, then Waller’s balsam will not tolerate and the plant will die. Transplantation in the pot street poorly tolerated even under all conditions. You can get out of this situation by preparing cuttings in advance, which will be used as seedlings in the spring. Plants growing in the winter at home need to maintain a temperature range from +15 to +24 degrees Celsius.
Reproduction and planting
For reproduction of balsam can be used in two ways: cuttings or seeds. The first is used much more often, since it does not require much effort, and it is possible to prepare cuttings in the winter period. The second method is more common in gardening.
It allows you to grow touchy as seedlings or directly on the site where it will grow in the future. Let us consider in more detail each of the methods of reproduction.
Growing balsam from seeds can have two main objectives. The first involves the use of this plant as a garden or hedge. Such cultivation consists in landing directly to the ground. The second is the use of impatiens as seedlings for flower arrangements or for creating rock garden. Here we have in mind that the plant will continue to transplant. In this case, the seeds are sown in a plastic container that can be covered. We recommend reading about how to properly grow garden and room balsams.
If you sow plants in a container, then you need to prepare in advance a substrate that will be quite loose and nutritious. In the tank, where it is planned to grow impatiens, pour the land mixture, spray it well with warm water and add seeds. At the same time, they should not be covered with earth, but rather just squeeze a little. Important!The optimal distance for landing impatiens is 3-4 cm. If it is not maintained, then in the future it will be much more difficult to plant bushes. Such removal of bushes from each other allows for a transplant without damaging the young and fragile roots.Video: planting balsam seeds
The container with the seedlings is covered and placed in a warm, well-lit place. In this case, the temperature should be maintained in the range of + 20 ... + 25 degrees. Periodically, the lid of the container should be opened and wiped from the accumulated condensate. By removing condensate, you control the level of moisture in the hotbed.
After 2 weeks sprouts will appear, after which it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the room to + 15 ... + 18 degrees, so that the plant does not stretch.
When the seedlings grow up (seedlings reach 1 cm in height or 3-4 leaves will appear first), it can be immediately planted out of the container into the soil or pots. Growing balsam from seeds using seedlings, after 8-10 weeks after spitting, flowering can be observed.For planting Waller's balsam directly into open ground, the temperature should not fall below +13 degrees (at night). It is necessary to prepare a pre-selected area (well loosening the soil), oilcloth, which will cover the area, creating a greenhouse effect, and the seeds themselves.
Before sowing, the soil is well moistened and seeds are sown into it. It should be remembered that the distance between the bushes should be 25 cm. If it is planted more often, in the future it will be necessary to replant already grown plants.
After planting, the seeds are covered with a film and periodically aired, and after germination, the balsam is regularly opened, which allows you to gradually harden the young plants. When the flower gets used to the environment, you can no longer cover it. In the future, if time does not collect the seeds, the flower will multiply by self-sowing.
Balsam propagation by cuttings is the simplest and most common method. The best period for harvesting cuttings is considered to be the end of August. At this time, the garden plantations break off apical cuttings, which are placed in a container with clean water. Important!Before putting the shoots in the water, it is necessary to remove the lower leaves so that they do not start to rot.
About a week later, the cuttings will be able to please you with the appearance of young roots. After germination, they can be planted in separate containers. In winter, impatiens are grown as an ordinary houseplant, and with the onset of warm spring days without night frosts, it can be planted in open ground.
Video: cutting of balsam Waller The advantage of this method of cultivation is the rapid germination of cuttings, which even in winter are able to please you with beautiful and bright inflorescences. In addition, with the approach of spring, you can also prepare new cuttings of young shoots.
Possible difficulties in growing
Balsam is considered to be a rather unpretentious plant; however, some problems may arise with it in the process of cultivation. Most often growers complain that the impatiens are beginning to fade. This can be caused by two main reasons.
The first is excessive watering and, as a result, rotting of the root system. If you regularly fill in a flower, it is better to use a pedestal with pebbles where water will be poured. In this case, the plant will receive exactly the amount of fluid that it needs. Another reason may be a recent change in location. Eliminate this problem is simple - it is only to return the flower to its original place. If the impatiens begin to turn yellow or fall leaves, then you should pay attention to the humidity in the room, as this is a clear consequence of dry air.
The fall of the buds may indicate a dry air or soil. And in the case when the inflorescence is not formed for a long time, we can talk about an excess of nitrogen or growing balsam in the wrong pot.
Pests, diseases and prevention
If you follow the basic rules of caring for impatiensom, he rarely gets sick. However, in case of any problems with the plant, it is necessary first of all to reconsider the conditions under which the balsam is contained.
This will help to identify the main causes of the disease, they may include wilting, abscission of leaves and flowers, as well as the absence of buds. The appearance of black spots on the shoots means that the air temperature has dropped to a dangerously low rate, or the plant suffers from bacteriosis. In this case, it is better to treat it with special means (for example, “Fundazole”) or with simple tetracycline antibiotics per 1 tablet per 250 mg of water. But from pests, alas, nature did not protect him.
This flower was chosen by the whitefly, aphid and spider mite. In the fight against these pests can help special drugs (for example, "Neoron" or "Aktellik"), which can be purchased at a flower shop.
If you notice that the leaves of the impatiens have become sticky or deformed, then it is worth urgently processing the plant from the aphids. To do this, you can use a soap solution. However, if this treatment does not help, then you should use more effective drugs ("Fitoverm", "Aktara", "Akarin" or "Karate"). Waller's Balsam is a beautiful plant that can be grown both at home and in the open field. The use of this flower in landscape design allows you to decorate any area, it is also well suited for creating flower carpets or vertical compositions. Beautiful buds in combination with unpretentious impatiens make it an ideal plant for beginning gardeners.
Description and types of plants
Impatiens, Balsam or Impatiens belongs to the Balzamin family. This is a low shrub native to Southeast Asia and Africa. Its characteristic features are:
- height is about 60 cm
- leaves - small, whole, with a uniform green color,
- the location of the leaf plates - on long petioles, opposite or whorled,
- stems - juicy and transparent.
Feature of impatiens - long flowering. Simple or double flowers appear in May and maintain beauty, replacing each other, until October. The shape of the opened impatiens' buds is irregular. Flowers are single or combined into inflorescences.
The culture has more than 400 subspecies, different in type and color of petals, size and height of the bush, leaf shape. Impatiens ampelnoe is a variety called Tamarind. Indoors in suitable conditions, the plant can continuously blossom for more than one year in a row. The bushes are lush, and the buds are relatively large. In hanging pots tamarind forms a solid leaf-leaf ball with shoots, falling from the edges of the pot. Impatiens ampelous has many hybrids and two main varieties:
- Purple Blue (color of petals from red to deep crimson).
Attention! Culture is grown in a room format, carrying out in the summer under the open sky.
At home, impatiens grows in difficult climatic conditions in a not very rich, but loose earth. The plant feels great in slightly acidic soil. Its planting is carried out by seeds. The optimal timeframe is March, if the balsam grows in the house, or April, if you plan to take it outside. For a basis take a usual universal soil from a specialized shop. If you do not have it, you can prepare the mixture yourself from the following components:
Now you can proceed directly to the landing:
- Prepare a pot or pot - not wide, but deep (about 8 cm tall). This wish is connected with the peculiarities of the structure of the impatiens root system.
- Lay a drainage layer approximately 2 cm thick at the bottom. For example, from expanded clay. Do not forget that there should be holes in the bottom of the tank.
- Treat the substrate with a solution of phytosporine. This will be an effective preventive measure against the black leg.
- Prepare impatiens seeds, keeping them for a day in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Dripping seed is not necessary. Just place it evenly on the surface and press down slightly.
- Narate a container with a film or glass to create a greenhouse effect. Watering for the first time limit the treatment of the spray. Covering material 1-2 times a day should be opened and removed from it condensate.
Choose a well-lit window sill for impatiens, without direct rays of the midday sun. Seeds will germinate in about 3 weeks. Balsam has good germination. But if the seedlings did not hatch, you need to sow the soil again. On the street, in the summertime, hang a pot with impatiens in partial shade. This is important because the leaves of the flower quickly give away moisture.
Attention! In no case do not allow falling on the green precipitation.
Care for impatiens
The rest period of this decorative culture is almost imperceptible. All the care measures that you take in the summer are equally needed in the winter. For example, make sure that in winter the ambient temperature does not fall below +12 ° C. The optimal range of this parameter is + 22 ... 25 ° С.
Other nuances of impatiens care:
- Watering - moderate. Land in a pot should not dry out or hold moisture for a long time. In spring and summer, the volume of watering should be increased. Water impatiens need defended, slightly warm water.
- Humidity - depending on the situation. Under normal temperature, it is good if it is moderate. However, the hotter the room, the more water must be in the air. To do this, green impatiens sprayed. Such a measure is vital to the flower.
Impatiens ampelny - excellent material for decorating terraces, balconies, garden arbors. Proper cultivation will ensure the culture health, rich color of greens, as well as long, bright and large flowering.
Growing balsam: video
Lighting and location
On the south window at the height of summer the flower should not be held or need to create him protection from the scorching rays of the sun. Perfect east and west window. Summer balsam make a balcony.
A flowering plant will be a great decoration for the garden, but it can not be planted in the sun. Light penumbra will do.
For planting ampella balsam, it is necessary to prepare a loose, slightly acidic substrate.. You can prepare it, if you take an equal amount of such components:
Ready soil composition can be bought in the store. Put some sand into the pot before using it. It is necessary for the rapid removal of excess moisture from the soil. If this is not done, the root system of young plants will rot.
How to care?
Balsam ampelnoe - moisture-loving culture. It differs juicy and moisture-filled stems. With a shortage of water the flower will not disappear, but will lose elasticity and shed the lower leaves. In the summer to provide abundant watering. The ground should always be wet. In winter, reduce moisture, preventing the drying of earthen coma. Stagnant fluid in the pan is harmful, as it is fraught with rotting roots and stems.
It is necessary to make dressing every 2 weeks, starting in April and ending in August. Mineral fertilizers for flowering plants are excellent for this. Make sure that nitrogen fertilizers are not in excess, as this will lead to rapid growth of stems and inhibit the formation of flowers.
The plant responds positively to Kemira. This fertilizer, which contains the following components:
Common diseases and pests
In winter, ampel balsam is affected by fungal diseases.and especially gray rot. To eliminate this trouble, you need to clear the roots of the plant from the old soil and transplant it into a new container with soil.
If the humidity in the room is low, then it is fraught with the attack of a spider mite. You can determine this by twisted leaves. They eventually fall off. Eliminate spider mites will help such drugs: Aktellik, Neoron.
The plant can infect the whitefly, due to which the leaves begin to turn yellow. Insects settle on the inside of the lower leaves. For treatment use Fufaron, Decis.
History of origin and description
Accurate information on the origin of the balsam is not. It is only known that the subtropics of North America and Africa are the homeland and habitat. Impatiens was brought to Europe in 1596, after which it became very popular. The most decorative is considered to be the amulet balsam of Waller Terry. He is the "parent" of many hybrids. Impatiens is a perennial plant, but is often cultivated as an annual.
- Abundant flowering.
- Juicy, brittle branched stems up to 60 cm.
- Reddish brown leaves.
- Shoots 30 cm in length.
Inflorescences appear early. Flowering lasts throughout the year. So many flowers that they cover all the leaves. Flowers in diameter are 5 cm. They are single or gather in inflorescences. Consist of 5 sepals and five-membered corolla, connected in pairs or individual petals.
Цветоножка длинная. Плод – коробочка. Корневая система мощная и прорастает в дренажные отверстия при нехватке места.
Здесь можно посмотреть фото бальзамина:
В комнатных условиях
Бальзамины любят умеренную влажность. В жару их нужно опрыскивать, чтобы цветы не увядали.
Температурный режим летом – плюс 25-26 градусов. In winter - not below plus 10-12 degrees. Temperature conditions can not be dramatically changed if the pots with plants are in the garden. They are brought into the house before the onset of cold weather. Ampal balsamines need bright sunshine, but they must be protected from direct rays in order to avoid leaf burns.
- Moisturize twice a day - in the morning and in the evening.
- Use only distilled or boiled water. Be sure to warm.
- Do not let the soil coma dry out. If the ground is dry - put a container with a flower in a large bowl of water and leave until the soil becomes wet.
- In the summer to provide abundant watering, in the winter - to reduce moisture.
- Ensure that there is no stagnation of water - the root system will begin to rot.
With a lack of liquid in balsam development slows downflowers wither and fall.
Ornamental culture is fed every 2 weeks from April to August. Use special fertilizers for flowering plants. For example, Kemira. It contains iron, copper, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium. For abundant flowering apply Kristanol once a week (1 tbsp. L / 5 l of water).
The culture is transplanted into another pot when the root system does not fit in the drainage holes. The procedure is carried out in April or May. If the rhizomes feel comfortable, replant the plant is not necessary. After transplanting, pruning is done: shorten long stems, pinch the tops.
In the open ground
Rules for the care of garden balsamines:
- Regular watering in the evening, especially in the heat.
- Mulching the soil to preserve moisture in it.
- Weeding and removal of withered flowers.
Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied twice a month., fed with ash solution. It is advisable to apply liquid fertilizer to the leaves. To bush had a beautiful shape, you need to regularly pinch the tops of young branches.
Before the onset of frost, balsamines are dug up and planted in a pot. They will continue to bloom at home. At the end of budding shoots are cut and put the plant in a cool room with a temperature of not more than + 15 degrees. The rest period lasts during January and February. In late February, shoots appear on the embalm. The flower is watered heavily and transferred to heat.
Popular balsam Waller. Gardeners also propagate hybrid varieties of plants. Iron-monged grows as a large shrub: its height can reach 1.5 m. The view of the Balfour is not so large: its height reaches 1 m. Regardless of the variety, the plant requires attention. It must be regularly watered, protected from cold and drafts. Read more about the varieties and cultivation of garden balsam read here.
- New Guinea. This is a small house plant: it is often compared with Waller's balsam. The “Novogvineysky” type is a hybrid, it has large flowers, the color of these flowers can be pink, white, purple, and crimson. There are multicolored views of the New Guinean Balsam. The plant is distinguished by bright bronze-green leaves. On the territory of our country it began to spread recently. The seeds of this plant are not sold in Russia, however, you can find adult cultures. This hybrid is thermophilic, it is in great need in the light. New Guinean Balsam is grown at home. The plant is determined in a large concrete pot: in early May, it can be carried out on the summer terrace,
Balsam requires watering, but the soil should not be over-moistened. For this plant is ideal peat substrate.
- garden common in Europe and Russia: her homeland is India. Garden balsam can be found on the territory of Southern China. The plant began to grow from the mid-16th century: at the same time, he came to America. Garden balsam is notable for its fragility. This annual plant reaches a height of 75 cm. It has branched rich green leaves, large flowers. The flowering period begins in June and ends when frost occurs. Fruits grow in the form of small boxes with small seeds. When these fruits begin to ripen, they can be destroyed at the slightest touch. Seeds remain viable for 8 years! Garden balsams react poorly to temperature changes. When frosts come, they get damaged. In this regard, seedlings should be grown in early summer. The plant can be bought in a store, and its seeds are rarely marketed,
- iron-nosed. The plant began to spread in the middle of the 19th century. Its base has characteristic glands. This species is annual, its height can reach 2 m. The flowers have a bright saturated color, you can often find species whose flowers resemble butterflies. Iron balsam actively scatters seeds: for this reason it often turns into a weed. This species attracts insects. It is worth noting that some insects infect the fruits of the plant. The leaves of a balsam ironnose grow in the shape of eggs and reach a size of 15 cm. The flowers are distinguished by a bright saturated color. They can be purple, white, dark red. This species begins to bloom in summer: flowering continues until frost. Seeds should be planted in early May.
- Balsam balsam grows in exotic countries. This plant is not grown in our country. Balsam balsam is common in the Himalayas. Its approximate height is 1 m. The flowers of this species are large, bright. Seeds can be bought in Europe. Balsam balsam is common in Spain: locals plant it in large barrels. It is worth noting that this species is the least fastidious of all. It fructifies well. Balsam Balsam - a beautiful indoor plant. Its seeds are sown in April. For planting, you must choose the land with a small amount of fine sand. It is important to say that the seeds of Balsam balsam do not always germinate.
- «Neotroda ordinary ”is distinguished by its high stem and golden yellow flowers. The plant prefers moist fertile soil. Flowering lasts from early summer to early autumn. Balsam ordinary has medicinal properties,
Its crushed leaves are added to medicines with anti-inflammatory effects.
- "Small-color" has small flowers, gardeners refer this plant to weeds. The flowering of small-color balsam begins in late spring, continues until the onset of frost. This species can be found in Siberia and some European countries. It is worth noting that his flowers are homely. If the small-color balsam grows on sandy soil, flowers do not form.
- "Sultanovidny" - a medium-sized plant with rich green stems. It has very variegated flowers (mostly bright red). If you provide this plant with constant care, it will bloom throughout the year. The approximate height of the stem is 40 cm. The leaves are large, long with bright edges.
- "Golden" is a perennial. Its approximate height is 1 m. The stalks of the plant are powerful, one can say fleshy. The leaves have venation, they are medium green in color. View "Golden" has very interesting flowers: they are yellow with small red stripes.
- Niamiam balsam grows in Africa. It has original flowers: they look like birds to something. Petals of this species are inconspicuous, however, the sepal is large. Sepals may be yellow, red, two-tone. Balsam Niamiami likes a warm climate, he reacts badly to a strong wind and needs protection from the sun's rays.
Selection of seeds for sowing
Growing a garden balsam from seeds is the most common method of flower reproduction. Small seed boxes clearly react to the touch and impact of the external environment, in connection with this, garden varieties easily multiply by self-sowing. Seed material is better to collect with whitened boxes.
Seeds can crumble to the ground and spread throughout the garden in a chaotic manner. In order to avoid such a problem it is necessary to tie the fruits with gauze. Keep in mind, a balsam is very prolific and the first shoots will appear quickly. For sowing, you can choose seeds that have already turned 2 years old, that is, they may not be the freshest. The fecundity of the seeds of amber balsam is maintained up to 7 years.
If you saw the first shoots in your garden, you need to start caring for them, otherwise the plant will become a weed.
Which soil is better
Pick up spacious drawers: they should have several drainage holes. Depending on the species, balsams can be grown at home, in the open field or in greenhouses. The plant loves light soils with peat. It is desirable that the selected soil has a neutral PH. 10 g of peat and the same amount of sand can be added to the soil.
The peculiarity of the balsam is that it does not need organic fertilizers; young seedlings also do not require such prikormok. For growing plants suitable loose, light soil. Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to disinfect it: use a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Before planting, it is desirable to sift the soil. Balsam has a short growing season. In late spring, seedlings are planted in open ground.
If you are going to grow a plant in a greenhouse, you need to sow the seeds in mid-April.
How sowing is carried out
Loose soil is poured into containers, it needs to be leveled and moistened, however, it is not necessary to compact the ground. Seeds are poured on the ground surface (not thick), the optimal distance between them is 4 cm. Amppel balsam, as well as Waller's balsam, needs light. Seeds are picked up over the ground and covered with a small amount of sand. Alternatively use sifted soil.
Seeds should not be completely covered with soil. After sowing, moisten the ground: use a spray bottle. Seeds are covered with a loose transparent film: they will grow within 2 weeks. At the end of the week you will see that some of them are coming up, while others are not.
To get a sufficient number of seedlings, you need to put the seeds in a warm bright place. They grow well, if the air temperature is kept within + 23 degrees. If you put the seeds in a cool room, they will grow poorly. Containers should be placed in a bright place, but young seedlings should not be exposed to the "aggressive" rays of the sun.
The soil should not be dry. But if you just cover the seeds and forget about them for a week, the future seedlings will fall ill.
Seeds should be aired. The film should be lifted every day for 7-10 minutes. In a couple of weeks you will see small seedlings. In order for them to grow better, it is necessary to lower the level of humidity in the room, airing - increase to 20 minutes. At this time, it is not recommended to remove the film: the plant will gradually get used to the new conditions.
Initially, the film rises slightly, then after 4 days it will be necessary to completely remove it. The temperature drops gradually, eventually it should reach + 16 degrees. Seedlings are determined in a cool room. It is important to periodically spray the soil. If the growing season is slow, you can carefully treat the seedlings with a weak urea solution.
How to care for a young plant
Early seedlings need to dive, that is planted in larger containers. The seedling is transferred along with the earthy ball. Peat pots are ideal for picking. Plants are transplanted with caution: try not to damage their earthen room. Remember that the rhizome of young seedlings sensitive.
After a dive, the plant moves to an even cooler room. Balsamine requires moderate watering. The soil should not be overmoistened. It is useful to harden the seedlings: the right time is the beginning of May. The plant must be taken out into the garden and kept there all day. The optimal hardening time is 2 weeks. Then balsam planted in a permanent place.
Planting in open ground is carried out at the end of May: at this time frost is unlikely. Balsamines grow poorly even if the air temperature drops to + 7 degrees. In this regard, the seedlings need to be planted in late spring.
Plants grow well, if you observe the optimal distance between seedlings. If you chose large species, the distance between the seedlings should be 30 cm, for smaller species the distance is 25 cm. These plants also need sunlight, they are best planted in partial shade. Place for landing should have a small branched shadow. As for fertilizers, it is better to abandon organic matter altogether. The best solution would be complex mineral compounds. You can use them 1-2 times per season. Read more about the types and technologies of use of mineral fertilizers, read here.
It is important to remember that balsams love fertile soil. After planting, you can pour the seedlings under the root, and then - to spray.
In conclusion, we note that the balsam does not need fertilizing. The main thing is to water the plant in time and not to allow sudden temperature changes. Depending on the type and conditions of growth, flowers can bloom for a year or several months. The flower can be grown in pots, and can be placed in garden beds as an annual crop. Read more about the technology of the formation and care of garden beds, read here.