What does any gardener and a big farmer want? A good harvest with a minimum expenditure of time and effort - the trend "lazy summer resident." And breeders are working in this direction - the ease of growing crops, unpretentiousness and, at the same time, abundance and quality of the crop. Such a crop is the Aleshenkin grape variety - even a beginner can cope with cultivation and enjoy the delicious taste of ripe berries.
The history of grape breeding aleshenkin
The Aleshenkin grape (“Alyosha”, “N 328”) in 1956 brought out and described all the characteristics of a variety of Soviet scientist-breeder P.Ye. Tsehmistrenko. And now, for more than half a century, the variety enjoys unchanged popularity, and its distribution area has expanded from the southern regions to the middle belt and even the Moscow region. The scientist crossed the Madeleine Angèveen table variety and a mixture of pollen from Vostok grapes. For excellent taste and appearance, “Alesha” is table grapes and can serve as a model of grape selection.Aleshenkin variety grapes on a bush close up
Description of the variety and berries, their features
Now let's talk about the description. The work of the scientist was aimed at creating a high-yielding hybrid with a bright sweet taste. Hence, all the main characteristics of the variety Aleshenkin:
- Grape bushes vigorous, powerful, sleeves bear fruit for 5-6 years. “Alesha” is distinguished from other varieties by the color and size of the leaves: medium-sized, medium dissected, five-fingered bright emerald greens, which are often characterized as phthalocyanine. The flowers are bisexual, two inflorescences develop on the shoot.
- Maturation term. Grapes are very early varieties.The ripening of the berries occurs 110-118 days after the appearance of the ovaries. The average active temperature index is rather low - 2000 o C. Harvest is usually started from late July to late August.
- Aleshenka's productivity is very high - up to 25 kg of selected grapes are harvested from one bush per season. Fruit buds are laid every year, which gives a guarantee of stable yields - of course, with the obligatory observance of the traditional rules of crop care.
- Clusters are very large, branched, slightly friable, cone-shaped. The weight of medium specimens is 500-700 gbut giants weighing 2 kg are not uncommon.
- The berries deserve special attention: a fairly large size - 25-30mm, weight - up to 5g, slightly oval in shape, of a magnificent amber shade with a light, slightly noticeable patina. In each brush, at least 30-35% of the berries are seedless, and the rest contain 1-2 small bones.
- The pulp of the berries is very juicy, crisp and super sweet - sugar content reaches 20% with an acidity of only 5-7 g / l. The taste is very pleasant and memorable - no wonder experts on the tasting scale rated it at 8.8 points.
The main positive qualities and disadvantages
Let's summarize and see what advantages the Aleshenkin grape has, What are the best qualities he inherited from his parent couple:
- high yields, the ability to get very abundant, early harvests,
- amazing taste, great crunchy texture of pulp,
- small content of seeds in the berries,
- excellent ability of the cuttings to root, and shoots - to active ripening, thanks to which it is possible to cultivate the variety practically throughout the entire territory of Russia, with the exception of the northern regions,
- harvest ripening even under unfavorable weather conditions.
Unfortunately, in this “barrel of honey” there is also its own “fly in the ointment”:
- low frost resistance the underground part of the plant, which is why it is recommended to graft cuttings to the rootstocks of frost-resistant grapes and cover the plants for the winter,
- brushes prone to pea - to avoid this, it is recommended to process the growth stimulator or carry out additional pollination of the inflorescences manually,
- not high resistance to fungal infections.
Sort Aleshenkin, considered an unpretentious culture, still has its preferences. In order for many years to receive generous yields of tasty, sweet berries, you must follow the rules of planting and growing grapes.
This variety grows very well under film covers without additional heating. Plant best seedlings or rooted cuttings. Place you need to choose an open, sunny, bushes to have at a distance of 1 m from each other. Planting should be done in spring so that the sapling can take root well before the onset of cold weather and avoid freezing of a young plant. It is necessary to carry them into the ground together with the ground in which it began to develop, into a prepared hole 80 cm deep and 70 cm in diameter.
5 cm of crushed stone are poured to the bottom of the pit, then 20 cm of the mixture (ground, humus, sand in equal quantities, 50 g of superphosphate and nitrophoska, a little wood ash), 10-15 cm of humus above, water well with hot water for shrinkage. Then the pit is filled with earth at 1/3, in the middle they drive in a peg to which the seedling is attached. The hole is covered with earth, slightly compacted and watered abundantly for the first 2-3 days, then reduced to moderate watering. The soil around is mulched with peat.Aleshenkin grapes at their summer cottage
Care for mature vines and young seedlings
The main care is pruning the vine, feeding the bushes and rationing the crop. Pruning produced in early spring (April), before the swelling of the kidneys. Remove damaged and diseased branches of plants, weak shoots. The vine is cut into 8-10 eyes or 6 eyes. Since the variety is high-yielding, in order to avoid overloading the vines, it is rationed by removing superfluous and double shoots.
Diseases and pests
Unfortunately, this hybrid is not resistant to typical pests and diseases: spider mite, marble crust, leafworm, fungal diseases, mildew, oidium. Therefore, twice a year, it is necessary to spray the grapes with the appropriate preparations - Topaz, Ridomil Gold, Fufaron, and Stroviy. The treatment is carried out in early June and is repeated in early July. For prophylaxis, the vine can be treated at the end of October when preparing bushes for winter.Caring for a young vine grapes varieties Aleshenkin
Hybrid Aleshenkin is considered one of the undemanding artificially bred varieties. With simple care, even in not the most favorable conditions, he will delight with exquisite taste, rich harvest.
It has two inflorescences with bisexual flower. Rooting cuttings good. The vine ripens even under not very good weather conditions. The lifetime of one branch is 5−6 years. Buds bloom every year.
Watering and feeding
In order for the sapling to settle down faster in a new place, after planting it needs abundant watering. Adult bushes are watered only during the drought period and in the autumn after harvest. With excessive moisture, the berries on the hands burst and their appearance deteriorates. The last abundant watering is carried out in the autumn after harvesting, thereby preparing the grapes for hibernation.
In drawing up the schedule of irrigation take into account the following features:
- Rainfall and air humidity in the region.
- Average daily temperature.
- The composition of the soil on the site.
- The proximity of groundwater.
Therefore, grapes planted on sandstones are watered more often, and growing on heavy clay soils - less often, and with plenty of water.
Aleshkin grapes are fed with fertilizers several times per season. This is done to ensure that the bushes are well fruited and bloomed. For better absorption, mineral and organic fertilizers are introduced in liquid form. Most often they are fed by turns.
From mineral dressings gardeners choose potash and phosphate fertilizers, and from organic matter - compost, humus. Feed as root and foliar way. Fertilizers are applied after irrigation in order not to burn the root system.
Due to the formation of the bush, increase yields and remove branches that no longer bear fruit. Alyoshenka’s grapes are pruned in autumn and spring, his sleeves are laid in a trench and covered from frost.
There are three types of trimming length:
- Short - leave no more than 3 eyes.
- Medium - leave 4−8 buds.
- Long - leave more than 9 eyes.
After 5−6 years, replace the old sleeve of grapes, for this spring pruning rejuvenating shoot. As in the third year, it will turn into a new young sleeve, the old one is cut down.
Diseases and pests
The Alyoshenkin variety was not an exception and every year it is attacked by pests, like its cousins. Therefore, it is necessary to take preventive measures in time. These include:
- Processing grapes with various growth promoters or spraying lime due to susceptibility of the variety to various fungal diseases.
- Spraying the bush with nitrafen or phosphamide solution to get rid of the spider mite. The insect is very small, it is difficult to see with the naked eye. It lives on the underside of the leaf. Mite tolerates frost.
- Treating the soil in spring or autumn with hexachlorane to get rid of the larvae of the marble crust, which destroy the roots of the leaf. With a weak defeat they are collected manually.
- After two weeks from the bud break, the bushes are sprayed with insecticidal preparations (Talstar, Zolon) to get rid of another unwanted pest - a two-year-old leafworm.
- Bushes are processed three times a year (when the shoots reach a length of 13–18 cm, before flowering and when the fruit is the size of a pea) with Topaz, Ridomil Gold, and Stroviy to get rid of mildew and oidium. These are the most dangerous diseases of the Aleshenka variety. It affects all parts of the bush and destroy the fruit in a few days. The most favorable condition for their development is considered the air temperature over 30 degrees and high humidity.
This grape has an unusual name - Alyoshenkin. The famous Soviet scientist, breeder, academician, war veteran Peter Yefimovich Tsekhmistrenko named him so in honor of his grandson. This variety is also called Alyosha, or quite prosaically - No. 328.
In the State Register of the Russian Federation a variety was introduced under the name Aleshenkin dar (code 9553098). Such a variety of names sometimes causes disputes between gardeners about whether one variety is in question.
Petr Efimovich is the author of a dozen sorts of fruit trees, and in 1956 this grape came out of his hands, the result of more than twenty years of work. Academician Tsekhmistrenko lived and worked in Volgograd, where it is hot in summer, but the winters are harsh. Therefore, the variety bred in these southern regions can tolerate frost down to -26 ° C.
Description and characteristics of grapes Aleshenkin
Aleshenkin - table grapes. Experts rate his taste quite high - 7 points. Contains a lot of sugar - 16%. The brushes are large, rather loose. The average brush weight is 552 g, but sometimes it reaches 1 kg or more. Berries are light green with a pleasant yellowish tinge, covered with a waxy coating. The skin is thick but edible. There are few seeds, usually one or two, and 40% of the berries are completely devoid of them.
The harvest ripens very quickly, in 110–115 days. Productivity can reach 25 kg from a bush under optimal conditions, but usually 8–10 kg. Aleshenkin has characteristic five-fingered leaves that distinguish it from other varieties. Although grapes are considered to be cold-resistant, but the underground part suffers more from frost, so in winter it is necessary to cover bushes.
There are enthusiasts who manage to get a harvest even beyond the Arctic Circle. But this, of course, in the greenhouse.
Large bunches of Aleshenkin grapes ripen very early - at the end of July
Grapes like sunny places, protected from the wind, especially the north.. Best suited southern slope. It first of all gets warm in the spring, water does not stand there. Grapes do not like waterlogging, in which case fungal diseases can affect it.
Alyoshenkin is moderately resistant to diseases, but it is saved by the fact that in temperate climates the pathogens do not feel very good either, so the grapes are barely sick when the agricultural technology is observed. It is very good to plant grapes under the protection of walls - a building or a fence that will close it from the wind. In addition, the building, warming up for a day in the sun, will warm the plants at night, giving off its heat. But it must be borne in mind that rainwater should not be draining from the roof onto the plants.
The soil of grapes prefers fertile, light. It does not tolerate marshy and saline lands. He does not like sour soil either - it is necessary to add lime. All soil preparation activities are best done in the fall. In the spring, before planting, one should dig up the ground so that it is saturated with oxygen and dries out a little.
Spring and summer care
In the spring, after lifting the shelter, the vines need to be tied to the trellis, and even before the appearance of buds to hold the first dressing. For this is suitable infusion of chicken litter. It is mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 2, insist a week, then the infusion is diluted in a ratio of 1:10. This solution is made under the plants at the rate of 1 liter per bush. It does not need to be poured directly under the root, it is better to make a circular groove and pour the fertilizer into it.
To improve the taste of berries it is useful to make potash fertilizers. The most affordable is ash. It is made either in a dry form at the rate of 1 bucket per plant, or in the form of an extract (pour water and insist 3 days).
The very first dressing can be done even before the snow melts, scattering granulated superphosphate at the rate of 40 g per square meter.
When the bushes reach a height of 1.7 meters, you need to pinch the tops. Leaves, shading inflorescences are removed. In the case of a dry summer, a circular groove needs to be made around each bush so that the water does not spread when it is watered and falls directly to the roots. With increased humidity, especially on heavy, clayey soil, drainage ditches should be dug in order to avoid fungal damage.
Forming a bush
The growth of the bush must be controlled. It should not be allowed to grow too much, as this will complicate care and reduce yields. There are many ways to form a bush. For growers who do not have experience in growing grapes, a pruning system created in the middle of the 19th century by the Guyot grower may be suitable.
- In the fall of the first year, the young shoot is cut shortly, leaving two eyes over the surface of the soil or from the site of grafting.
- In the autumn of next year, one of the resulting shoots is cut shortly, leaving two eyes (replacement knot), and the second is longer, from 4 eyes. It will be a fruit vine.
- Next fall (3rd year), the seed-bearing vines with all the shoots are cut out, and from the shoots grown on the replacement knot, a new replacement knot and a new fruiting vine are formed.
In areas with a temperate and cool climate, fan-shaped bush forms are popular. In this case, the first two years pruning is done in the same way as with the Guyot method, and in the third year, 3–4 strong shoots with a thickness of at least 6 mm are selected on the bush, each cut to a length of at least 50 cm and the trellis is tied to the bottom wire. And the shoots located on the sides, make longer, and located in the center - in short. In this way, several "sleeves" or "fruit links" are formed.
The vine usually bears fruit for 6 years, then it becomes too thick and it is difficult to lay it in a trench for wintering. Therefore, the old "sleeves" are cut down, replacing them with young shoots.
Pruning grapes is a very important agrotechnical event.
For a successful wintering of grapes, the vines are removed from the trellis, tied, bent to the ground, pinned and covered with a moisture-proof material. This should be done in dry weather so that excess moisture does not get into the shelter. The optimal time for wintering is from mid-October to mid-November. The average daily temperature should be around 0 ° C. If it is too warm, a greenhouse will be created under the film, which will damage the vine. The film is covered with earth, and mulched on top.
It is very good if in winter there will be a lot of snow in the area where the grapes overwinter. To do this, you can carry out snow retention improvised means.
In the spring, the mulch is removed after the snow melts, and the film a little later, when the plants start to grow. In this case, if covering material transmits light, it is necessary to ensure the access of air to the shelter.
Pest and disease control
In hot and humid climates, there is a great danger of powdery mildew, which is false (mildew) and real (oidium). These diseases occur quickly and lead to a rapid discharge of leaves and fruits, so they must be promptly treated. Used for spraying the bushes special preparations Strovy and Efal.
For the prevention of oidium, treatment of bushes with such means as Jed, Thiovit, Topaz, and also garden and colloidal sulfur will be required.
In rainy weather they use Abiga-pik, Oxyhom, Thanos, Dylan.
Aleshkin grapes can be attacked by such pests as the marble crustacean, spider mite, and biennial moth. To combat them use chemical and agrotechnical methods. Garden waste in the form of dry leaves, weeds and broken branches must be cleaned, as this is a good environment for the development of insect larvae.
For the prevention of fungal diseases to which this variety is prone, it is good to spray the stems of grapes with lime mortar.
Preparation of grapes for wintering
Despite the frost resistance of the variety, its root system in the northern regions needs warming for the winter. After harvesting and pruning in autumn, the vine should be laid for winter.
We must wait until the average daily temperature is no higher than 0 degrees, so that the laid and sheltered vine does not blot out. The bush should be completely dry, so it is better to perform this manipulation in sunny and windy weather.
The procedure for hiding the vine for the winter is as follows:
- Cut vines removed from the trellis in trenches.
- Cover the vines on top of covering material and sprinkle with earth.
- Lay a layer of mulch on top.
- In winter, make sure that the sheltered vine is covered with a layer of snow.
- In the spring, when all the snow has gone, the mulch layer is removed.
- Shelter film is removed after the end of spring frosts.
- In late May, the vine climbs to the trellis.