General information

Golden Delicious apple variety: characteristics, cultivation agrotechnics

The most popular among fruits in our country are apples; due to its taste and great content of beneficial to the bodyin, as well as the presence of various varieties (both summer and winter). One of the favorite for many winter varieties is the Golden Golden Apple Tree. About her and tell in our article.

Description of the Golden variety of apples

The variety was bred randomly when the Grimes Golden and Golden Reinette varieties were inadvertently crossed in 1905. This happened in the garden of the farmer Mullins (Clay district in West Virginia), so the original apple tree was called the Yellow Sapling of Mullins. Since 1914 after the tree was sold by the breeder and the rights to distribute to the Nurseries and Gardens of the Stark Brothers, they began selling it as an addition to the variety Red Delicious.

Golden Apple Fruits

Today it is the most popular variety of apples, not only in the United States, but also in other European countries, where entire plantations of trees have been created, allowing to grow these fruits on an industrial scale.

Advantages and disadvantages

Like any plant, apple trees of this variety have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The first characteristic may include such indicators as:

  1. Pretty tall frost and drought tolerance,
  2. High yield and productivity (with proper care more than 1 c from the tree),
  3. Skoroplodnost - it is possible to harvest the first crops from 2-3-year-old trees,
  4. The full ratio of quality and taste indicators fruits with international standards, as a result, their widespread use in the food industry, cooking and preservation,
  5. Long-term storage capacity under the right conditions, otherwise the fruits will begin to wither,
  6. High stability to the effects of a large number of different pests and diseases
  7. Frequent use in crossing with other varieties for hybrids. Examples of selections are such hybrid varieties as Priam, Freiberg, Korea, etc.

The second is characterized by the following indicators:

  1. Propensity to be affected by diseases such as powdery mildew and scab,
  2. With a large crop overload observed size reduction in fruits,
  3. Availability high yield frequency,
  4. Demanding care soil fertility
  5. Lower yields during the "aging" of the tree.

Landing secrets

Planting trees is carried out using semi-dwarf rootstock according to the 4 * 4m scheme. Pre-determine the indicators of the groundwater level, as the recommended depth of their occurrence should be a mark of 2.5 m. In the southern regions, the best time for landing is October, for the northern - mid-April. The best soil for apple trees is chernozem.

When planting Golden seedlings it is recommended to adhere to the rules.

The process begins with the preparation of the landing pitwhose size must be at least 1 * 1m and a depth of 0.7m. It is dug up 1 month before planting to ensure high-quality precipitation of the earth and fertilized with superphosphate, ash and potassium. In the middle of the pit, a stake is set, protruding 0.4m above its surface. It should be noted that the lower part of the stake is burned with fire in order to prevent rotting.

After the allotted time, a hole is made in the pit, at the bottom of which a black soil is poured. Further, a sapling is planted so that the peg is on the south side and the root neck of the trunk of the tree rises to a height of 5 cm above the ground. So that it does not settle down with the soil, it is tied to a peg. Then the landing site is plentifully watered (3-4 buckets of water) and covered with earth.

Apple care

The main care for plants is pruning, which is produced every year. It provides earlier fruiting and high yield, longer service life, protection from frostbite. The time of the process alternate, that is, first it is carried out in early spring before the formation of buds, then in autumn. To limit the growth of trees upwards and the active formation of lateral shoots, a vertical shoot is compulsorily trimmed.. Also, the growth is trimmed annually, and 1/3 of their length is removed from it. It stimulates the formation and growth of fruit branches.

For the formation of lateral shoots it is necessary to prune the vertical shoot

The next step in the care process is to thinning of ovaries and fruitsnecessary to prevent underdeveloped apples with low taste. To do this, during the formation of ovaries or fruits, it is removed in the middle, as well as apples with some defects. The intervals from one to the other beam must be not less than 0.1 m.

As for watering, he in the first year is needed 3-4 times per summer, as excessive wetting can lead to cracking of fruits. Water consumption - 3-4 buckets on the tree. After moistening the soil cover is mulched with humus. In the dry summer, the trees are watered until the buds open, 20 days after the end of flowering and the same period before harvest.

For the proper development of apple trees and obtaining a good harvest, fertilization is required. So, nitrogenous substances affect the growth, pollination of flowers, the formation of ovaries, phosphate - on the formation of fruit buds and the color of the fruit, potash - the growth of young shoots, etc. The ideal option for feeding is the alternation of organic and mineral fertilizers.

Top dressing is required for a good harvest.

The most popular organic fertilizer is manure.which is made every year in the autumn period. Nitrogen substances are used 2 times a year - in early spring and in the first half of the growing season, phosphate and potash are applied during the same periods, but not directly, but by sealing them into excavated grooves around the tree trunk and having a depth of up to 0.4m.

Before the onset of frost, the apple trunk is whitened with a solution of chalk or lime

Before frost, the trunk circle is mulched using humus, peat and compost. Apple trees are subjected to hilling and strapping with spruce or cane, and they are also whitened with a solution of chalk or lime.

Diseases and pests

Golden, like other varieties of apples are subject to various diseases, but most commonly found on them are scab and powdery mildew. For destruction use sprays such preparations as Skor, Topaz, Ridomil-Gold.

Pest Control with Chemical Spraying

Apples suffer from apple buds and aphids, and from moths and leaflets. They are also controlled by spraying with chemicals..

In summing up to the above, I wanted to say that Golden stands out among other apple varieties with its beautiful appearance and excellent taste, so we recommend having this variety in any garden.

Breeding history

The apple variety Golden Delicious was bred in 1890 in America, South Virginia, as a result of random crossing. To study the qualities of a new tree plot with it was purchased. The result was the breeding of many new varieties, the basis of which was the "Golden Excellent" (this is also called the apple). Now it is popular in many countries of the world.

Biological features

Winter variety. Fruits can be stored until May-April.

Among the advantages of the variety: yields are high, fruit ripening is early, transportability and storage at a high level, suitability for processing. Fruits do not fall off the tree. But the disadvantages are as follows: yields can be intermittent, the apple tree does not like drought and fruits with low moisture levels are poorly stored. The plant does not tolerate brown spotting.

Fruits are concentrated a lot beneficial substances: Ascorbic acid, P-active substances, pectins, ascorbic acid, sugar.

The variety “Golden Delicious” became the basis for the development of new varieties: “Jonagold” (addition “Jonathan”), “Starling”, “Royal Red Delicious”.

Tree description and pollinators

Description of the apple variety "Golden Delicious": tree of medium height, up to 3 meters high. An adult tree of circular form, wide, has a tendency to thicken. The crown of the young Golden Delicious is cone-shaped. Apple tree fruits abundantly, and because the branches always descend above the ground. The shoots are not very thick, curved, light brown with a touch of green. Pubescence is weak. The bark of the apple tree is dark gray. The foliage is elongated at the end, oval and smooth. The color is bright green. The flowers are saucer-shaped, medium in size, white with a tinge of pink, pistil column pubescent. Fruiting mixed.

Better to plant next to "Golden Delicious" pollinators: "Delicious Spur", "Idared", "Melrose", "Jonathan", "Wagner Prize". The apple tree cannot pollinate independently.

Fruit Description

Apples are large or medium in size. Form rounded near the stem, like a cone. Peel with slight roughness, dry and dense. Color first light green, and then becomes yellow-gold with a small amount of brown pigmentation, sometimes with a dull rosy from the sun. Weight is variable, depending on the area of ​​growth. For example, there may be about 140-170 g, sometimes less. The pulp is dense, white with a greenish tint color. Its color changes as a result of storage on a light yellow, and the dessert taste becomes spicy. Quality is not lost with proper storage all season. The aroma of the fruit is bright.

How to choose seedlings when buying

It is recommended to buy seedlings in nurseries or special stores. Sick and unsuitable samples can be sold on natural markets and even from private traders. Of course, to make sure the quality of the goods will never hurt. The quality is excellent if:

  • roots are quite developed,
  • a three-year sapling has 3-4 skeletal branches up to 60 cm long and roots up to 40 cm long,
  • There are no signs of disease, damage, especially at the site of vaccination.

If you take an annual plant, you need to prepare for the independent formation of the crown.

A seedling can be bought with a clod of soil on the roots, and this will be a plus, as in this state the plant will take root faster.

Location selection

On the choice of location depends on the health of the tree, and hence a good harvest. On the plot for the golden apple there should be a lot of sun, which is easy to achieve by planting a tree on the west side of the garden. A light loamy and carbonate-sody soil is preferable, in contrast to sandy and calcareous. Although for this variety, it can be any. But if the soil is clay, be sure to add sand.

Acidity should be absent or be in small quantities. Elevation and groundwater at a distance of 2 m from the surface is desirable. It is also important that pollinating apple trees grow nearby.

Site preparation and seedlings

On the site should not earlier grow fruit trees. When choosing a place, the following should be considered: it should be sufficiently illuminated, the land should be fertile, or it is necessary to provide for the correction of the barren with fertilizers, and the place should not be open to the northerly cold wind. Another important point: there should be enough space for a developing crown (3 m between the trees). To plant the plant, a pit 1 m wide and 1 m deep is prepared for 3 weeks or a month so that the soil can sit down and be compacted.

In Golden Deliciousness, before planting, the top and the kidneys are pinned upwards. So you can prevent the growth of unnecessary shoots up. 5-6 buds with sideways left for the skeleton.

Process and scheme

In the prepared pit put fertilizers. For example, up to 1 kg of charcoal, up to 2 kg of superphosphate, 1 or 2 buckets of humus, as well as up to 15 g of potassium sulphate. Next in the pit put a number to hold the trunk. An apple tree with open roots should be dipped in a growth stimulant solution for approximately 1-2 hours.

When planting a tree, the root neck should remain above the ground at a distance of 5 cm. The pit is covered with earth, and the plant is shaken to evenly distribute the earth. Next, the trunk is tied to a peg and poured over 2 buckets of water. At the end, the top layer is mulched with humus and compacted slightly. Every 3 days after planting the tree should be watered using up to 4 buckets of water. Saplings with the earth or in containers just put in a hole and covered with earth.

Recall: the distance between the pits should be 3 m.

Seasonal care features

Growing "Golden Delicious" forces gardeners to ration the number of ovaries and flowers, as the fruits shrink with a huge number of them. And branches as a result of overload break. But this technique is only one of many, whose task is a good harvest and the health of the tree. From seasonal care depends on what the taste and weight will be apples.

Soil care

After planting the trees need to especially carefully remove the weeds. It is necessary to water a tree several times a year, not forgetting, because this variety does not like drought. First watered before blooming buds, then after flowering at the end of 3 weeks, before harvesting for 3-4 weeks, and, finally, during the leaf fall.

To loosen the soil is important every spring, especially when the tree is young. Mulching is carried out after watering, planting, in order to increase the yield. To this end, occupy the area around the tree with green fertilizer. The radius can be from 30 cm to 1.5 m. It is good to sow nasturtium under the apple tree as a green fertilizer.

To please the harvest, the soil is constantly fed with organic matter and mineral fertilizers. Every year make manure or compost. Manure is introduced in the autumn, sometimes with the addition of superphosphate and potassium salt. Twice a year, in the spring and autumn, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, it is possible superficially. The urea solution is considered to be a good top dressing for the beginning of spring; in summer, sodium is useful in the composition of any fertilizer.

Preventive treatment

  • It is necessary to spray with “Topaz” for the prevention of powdery mildew, after flowering chlorine copper oxide is suitable. You can also feed the tree phosphate and potash fertilizers.
  • Brown spotting can be prevented by watering the soil moderately and constantly, as well as digging the soil before winter.
  • For the prevention of scab important sanitization of branches.
  • Pests, like diseases, require careful prevention.
  • Karbofos protects against green aphids. And you can save a tree from an apple mite, tearing off the old bark from it and spraying the place with a solution of Karbofos. Green aphids and apple mites can be disposed of by burning foliage.
  • To prevent damage to the apple-colored beetle, the trunk and old branches are freed from the old bark.
  • A 3% nitrofen prevents leaflets. Or you can use prophylactic in the period before the blooming of the kidneys.

Cropping and crown formation

Regular crown formation is necessary, and the shape must be given spherical. The least that can be done is to do thinning, rejuvenation by pruning and sanitary care. First of all, it is necessary to remove strongly growing branches and vertical ones, separate last year. All this will allow the variety to be complete.

You can prune in the fall and spring. In the spring, in order to mainly remove frozen branches, and in the fall, dry and rotted. Even in summer, pruning is possible so that light is available to the fruit. After frost pruning can not be.

Protection against cold and rodents

They dig up the soil in late autumn, fertilize it and water it. Pristvolnye circles mulch. Young plants are whitened with clay, and old ones with lime can be added with copper sulfate and wood glue.

To protect against rodents and along the way for insulation, the trunk is whitened and covered with everything that can be useful: paper, cloth, burlap, branches of spruce. It is good to use polyethylene foam for pipe insulation. Before winter it is better to warm the plant. Although they say that it is cold-resistant, it still loves heat. During the thaw it is necessary to compact the snow in the diameter of the wheel circle.

Under the right conditions, Golden Delicious, which has conquered the whole world, each year will provide your family with sweet, fresh fruits and a variety of preparations from them. Enjoy!

What kind is it?

Variety Golden Delicious treats to winter look of apples.

This variety has a distinctive positive trait - long storage apples.

This preserves all the external and taste properties of the fruit.

Therefore, this apple can be bought all year round, even in summer, when the new crop is still ripening.

Description varieties Golden Delicious

Consider separately the appearance of the apple and the fruit itself.

The height of the tree reaches medium sized. The trunk of the apple tree is covered with dark blue bark.

The crown of the tree itself is painted in a dark green color and has a cone-shaped shape that reminds many gardeners semblance of a pyramid.

Apple crown thick and branched. Since the variety is Golden Delicious quite prolificthen over the years the crop crown becomes sprawling and spherical shape.

Apple leaves are bright green color are oval. On the leaves themselves are clearly visible brown veins. The surface of the leaves is “mirror”, that is, glossy, and the edges are jagged.

Inflorescences of small size, like a saucer, have white color mixed with pinkish streaks.

The fruits of this sort of apple are medium in size, have roundedin places conical shape.

On average, the weight of one fruit is 150-200 grams.

The apple itself is covered with a dense, dry peel of a golden or bright yellow shade, on the surface of which light black or brown blotches can appear.

Fruits located on the south side crowns may be purchased slightly reddish.

The seeds of the fruit are small brown. The flesh of the apple is slightly greenish, juicy and sweet to the taste.

The following varieties can also boast with juicy and tasty fruits: Orlovsky pioneer, Ekranny, Bolshoy Narodnoe, Orlinka and Aromatny.

Natural growth region

A minor disadvantage of this variety is low resistance to low temperatures, and, as a result, its main growing region is south.

This variety is actively grown in the southern regions of Russia.

Adaptation to other regions is going well, but gardeners can not always count on a big harvest.

As a rule, the harvest is small-fruited, and the fruits themselves lose their juiciness.

Apple trees planted in high humidity regionssuffer from a disease like powdery mildew.

Yield

Golden Delicious has an average fruit ripening period. Crop harvested once a year. Peak gathering accounted for at the end of September.

First fruits This variety gives already in the second year of landing. The volume from one tree reaches 65 kilogramand in fertile areas it reaches and 80 kilogram.

For the first 7 years of the growing season, the tree produces many fruits., and then fertility depends on weather and climate. At the age of ten, yield averages 230 quintals per hectare.

The main advantages are:

  • High fertility,
  • Resistance to storage
  • Early fruit harvest
  • High transportability.

Planting and care

When planting any fruit tree, it is necessary to take into account such factors as the right time and place. This is a guarantee that your apple tree will bear fruit well and will delight you with its fruits.

Plays an important role and Seedling preparation for planting Watch this video.

However, any variety has its disadvantages. Golden apples are no exception. Negative properties:

  • if the tree is not cut off periodically, the fruit will decrease in size,
  • does not tolerate drought,
  • Apple is prone to periodicity of harvest,
  • the tree is prone to brown spot and powdery mildew,
  • with low humidity fruits are poorly preserved.

Thus, there are more positive qualities. For excellent taste and the ability to transport fruit, as well as a long period of storage Golden apples have gained worldwide popularity. The precociousness, high yield and quality of fruits make the apple tree a favorite among other varieties.

Mistresses love this fruit for many options for cooking desserts in cooking. Doctors recommend with metabolic disorders and for diet. Golden Delicious apples will appeal to everyone.

Gardeners reviews

Since 2003, I have been growing Golden Delicious apples in my plot. Very fruitful, proven and well-proven variety. Fruiting every year, regular. Apples are juicy, sweet.

Excellent variety for 10 years pleases. Still has a flaw. The variety is very high-yielding, so that it has a marketable appearance, it is necessary to thin out, otherwise the fruits become shallow, they do not gain their color, and there is no taste.

I love Golden apples, I grow many varieties on my huge plot. Among them are the Millennium, Rangers, Spur and Duchess. For them, the Vladimir region is probably quite a northern region. But while there were no problems with overwintering.

History of the variety

Golden Delicious (another name for the variety is Golden Excellent) is originally from America. The variety was obtained in 1890 as a result of unintentional crossbreeding.

A plot with a tree in Southern Virginia was acquired by interested parties to study the qualities of a new apple tree. It turned out to be interesting in terms of selection - on the basis of Golden Delicious they brought out a huge number of other varieties. The fame of the caramel aroma of apples quickly spread, and soon these trees began to plant large areas for a delicious harvest. After many years, the variety has not lost its popularity, it is grown with pleasure in many countries, including Russia.

Description of the apple tree Golden Delicious

Apple tree srednerosly, no more than three meters in height. A young tree has a cone-shaped crown, for an adult it is wide, rounded, prone to thickening. Because of the abundant annual harvest, the branches are sagging. Skeletal branches from the trunk depart at an acute angle. The bark of the tree is dark gray. The shoots are of medium thickness, curved, light brown with a green tint, slightly pubescent, with large lentils.

The leaves are oval, wide, elongated at the ends, smooth, bright green color. The scape is long. Stipules of medium size. TType of fruit bearing mixed. The flowers are medium in size, saucer-shaped, white, with a light pink tinge, with a long pubescent column of pistil. The stigmas are located at the level of the anthers.

Medium size tree with thick and spreading crown

Fruits of medium and large size, rounded-conical shape. The skin is dense, dry, with a light roughness. Weight depends on the region of cultivation of apple trees. For example, in the southern regions the mass of fruits is 140–170 g, in other areas it is slightly less.

The color of apples at the beginning of ripening is light green, then gradually acquires a golden-yellow color, sometimes with a slight brown pigmentation. Often when ripe on the sunny side a pink blush appears. The flesh is white with a light greenish tint, dense. When stored becomes creamy or light yellow, more tender and spicy. Taste is sweet, aroma is saturated.

Golden Delicious treats winter varieties, since the fruits are well preserved until April, and sometimes until May. Enjoy delicious and healthy apples can be all winter.