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Characteristics of the gooseberry variety - Date - photos and reviews

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Today, almost no garden plot can do without at least one gooseberry bush. There are so many varieties of this berry that they number in the hundreds. Gooseberry grows everywhere, from Vladivostok to St. Petersburg. Today we propose to recall the familiar, forgotten by many gooseberry date figs. In this article you can learn the rules of planting and care, read the description.

disadvantages

The variety is considered late, and the first harvest can be taken in mid-July, but the peak of ripening will be in mid-August. This can be considered as some inconvenience, but it is still possible to correct this minus by growing more early ripening varieties. What else do not like gardeners in gooseberries "date"? It:

  • demanding saturation of the soil, we need a stable feed,
  • weak resistance to some diseases, for example, to powdery mildew, spherekoteku, therefore it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying.

Gooseberry Care

It is necessary to cut branches steadily, remove excess shoots. Fertilizers produced potassium phosphate, can be applied humus. If the shrub is planted in fertile soil, then before the start of fruiting, that is, within three years after planting, you do not need to add fertilizer.

Disease prevention is mandatory. If powdery mildew is noticed, spraying with whey (one part of the whey is mixed with ten parts of water) or a special preparation can be done.

A brief description of the gooseberry "Phenicia"

Gooseberry grows in almost every garden. Summer residents and owners of personal plots, choosing a variety of this plant, are guided primarily by indicators of yield and size of berries. "Date" in this aspect is among the leaders.

The shape and dimensions of the bush

At "Phenice" the body of the plant, the bush is spreading, tall, up to two meters. Some culture lovers use this factor for growing on a trellis.

In order for “Phenicia” to show its merits in full glory, it needs to provide open space, as large as possible. It will also simplify weeding, feeding, mulching, harvesting.

The branches of the plant are powerful, thick. The foliage is thick and moreover it grows very quickly and is renewed. On the stems of "Date" there are strong sharp thorns, and on the branches of annuals there are none, many "thorns" on the stems of adults, two-year-olds.

Leaves and bloom

This gooseberry has beautiful, bright green, thick and glossy leaves. The tips of the leaves are rounded, the veinlets are deep, the size of the plate is average, but older plants can have a larger size and curl and wrinkle.

Peduncles of medium size, with small, downed greenish-white petals. Single-flowered brush, very rarely two- or three-flowered.

  • Berries "Date" - this is the main difference from his "brothers". With proper farming techniques, they weigh 15–20 grams.
  • Characterize the fruits by listing the following features:
  • Berries "bald", without edges, spherical or pear-shaped,
  • The light green flesh with a bulk seed bag is covered with a thick skin that varies from brownish to dark brown. In bright sunlight, the fruit may be thick black or purple in color.
  • In the berries of the gooseberry “Phenicus” sugar accounts for 10% of their total mass, although the flesh has a pleasant sour taste. The percentage of sugar content in fruits is affected by soil moisture and air,
  • The collected fruits have a pronounced aroma.

Commendable and not very good quality "Date"

Connoisseurs of fruit crops rate a grade of 4.8 points, out of a possible 5, for its characteristics. This fact makes it possible to attribute the gooseberry "Phenicus" to the most popular berry shrubs, both for amateur and industrial cultivation.

Dignity "Date"

  • With good care and competent agrotechnical techniques, the bush maintains high yields, which is an average of 25 kg of berries, for 17-20 years,
  • The ability of plants aged over 5 years to give large, up to 20 grams of berries,
  • The berries of the gooseberry "Phenice" in a mature state for a long time retain commercial quality and are suitable for long-term transportation, thanks to an extremely strong and dense skin,
  • Bushes tolerate harsh winters and periods of drought, as well as sudden changes in air temperature. This fact indicates a strong root system of the plant.

Soil, its loosening, mulching

In the fall, the soil in the berry should be dug up to a depth of 10-15 cm, the pristvolnuyu zone should be loosened by 5-7 cm. When digging, mineral and organic dressings can be applied to the soil.

In the autumn should mulch the soil. For this purpose it is best to use humus or peat.

If the plant is planted in fertile soil, then fertilizer is not necessary for three years.

Water treatments "Phenicia" loves, and responds to them with gratitude. However, the owner should not take a great interest in water; during a rainy summer, the plant may not need watering.

Important fact! If the gooseberry "Phenicus" is in still water, it can be damaged by fungal diseases. A plant needs only two irrigations a week with one bucket of water.

Of course, in case of severe drought, the intensity of irrigation needs to be increased. This also applies to other gooseberry varieties.

Pruning bushes

Even a person far from gardening understands that if you do not follow the plants, do not prune the branches, the bushes will soon turn into thickets. As for the "Phenice", for the summer season it gives a lot of shoots that require streamlining.

There are other reasons explaining the need for pruning:

  • Overgrown bushes, impenetrable to light, become a hotbed for the development of insects and diseases,
  • Each branch in a thickened bush receives fewer nutrients, which reduces the yield and quality of fruits,
  • Long shoots descend to the ground, take root, and after a couple of years a huge bush stops producing fruit at all and serves only as a home for pests and diseases.

To avoid such trouble, the bushes need to give shape, using competent technology pruning. The main thing is the timeliness of the operation.

Spring pruning "Phenicia", when the plant is still "asleep", is considered the most effective. But in this case, you need to "catch" the moment. The flow of the plant begins early.

Oleg Nikolaevich R., 66 years old, an amateur gardener from Lipetsk

Gooseberry Phenic I grow for many years. This is undoubtedly a good variety in all respects. But people in our country love to find "cons" in any product, things, as well as in the plant.

So I want to note some lack of dates - this is his late maturation - the end of summer. And yet, the gooseberry Phenicia is poorly opposed to powdery mildew, but this applies to almost all varieties.

Vitaly, Kursk Region

I have been friends with Finik for 6 years, during which he did not burden me with his whims. Cared for bushes responsibly, used only warm rainwater for irrigation, regularly fed, loosened the soil, mulched. In gratitude for the attention Phenicus for all 6 flying did not hurt, insects did not disturb him, the bushes gave a good harvest.

In conclusion

Let us sum up what can be useful from the information provided. A person who wants to lay the berries, and selects the culture, will need such general information about the gooseberry "Date":

  • In the comments of fans of “Phenicia”, they are equally positive and negative: in some the plant is opposed to powdery mildew and insects, in others it suffers from aphids and diseases,
  • "Date", generally unpretentious, to the soil standard requirements,
  • The undoubted advantage over other varieties - the ability to grow "Date" on the trellis,
  • It is possible to argue about the taste of fruits, but the preparations of them are excellent,
  • "Phenicia" is in the top of large-fruited and high-yielding gooseberries.

Useful properties of berries

What is the benefit of this berry culture? Shrub berries contain:

  • Serotonin
  • Minerals: iron, copper, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, molybdenum,
  • Vitamins B1, B2, PP, A, E, folic acid.
  • Pectin,
  • Biological active substances: anthocyanins, flavans,
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Gooseberry helps with constipation
  • Useful for kidney and bladder disease,
  • Breaks down fats
  • Cleans the blood
  • It has anti-edema properties
  • Strengthens blood vessels
  • Normalizes metabolism
  • It prevents the appearance of cancerous tumors.

Popular varieties

There are many varieties of gooseberry. But breeders still do not stand still and bring more and more new varieties. The most popular are those varietiesthat do not have thorns. But many gardeners make their choice, relying also on the height of the shrub, taste, color and size of the berries.

The most popular varieties are the following:

But consider in more detail only two types: Phenic and American.

Characteristic gooseberry Phenic

This variety of berry bush has become known since the times of the USSR. And he fell in love with a gardener for large fruits and high yields. The berries have an oval shape and a pleasant aroma. The color of the berries is dark red, and the taste is sweet and sour. As it was said above, the fruits of the Phenice variety are very large. One berry reaches a mass of twenty grams.

The skin of the berries is dense, so they tolerate transportation very well and hold onto the bushes for a very long time, that is, they do not crumble. After maturation, they can be on the bush for about two weeks.

The variety is late ripening, vigorous and high-yielding. Berries begin to ripen only at the end of July. Eight kilograms of gooseberries can be collected from one bush, and up to twenty-five kilograms from an adult bush. Fruiting shrub begins in the third year after planting, and the period of its fruiting is twenty-five years.

Berry shrub Phenic tolerates low temperatures. It can withstand frosts down to -32 degrees. It also does not tolerate high soil moisture, but in dry land it may die. This shrub variety is prone to powdery mildew, which scares many gardeners. But it's not a problem. If you follow the rules of cultivation dates, there will be no problems.

Rules for growing gooseberries Date

  • You can not plant next to the currants.
  • The distance between the gooseberry castes must be at least one and a half meters.
  • The shrub does not tolerate acidic soil, therefore, before planting the seedling, it is necessary to add lime to the soil.
  • The soil where the berry bushes will grow should be fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers, and after planting the soil should be mulched with humus.
  • To the yield of shrubs did not fall spend timely pruning and feeding.
  • Feeding should be done twice a season. For this suitable infusion of rotted manure, phosphate and potash fertilizers.
  • Pruning should be done in early spring. Remove dry, old, diseased and old shoots.
  • To prevent pests and fungal diseases from attacking the shrub, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments. For this procedure, suitable drugs such as Fitoverm, Topaz.

Botanical description of gooseberry African

The African gooseberry, which is a medium-growth, high-yielding, winter-hardy, fast-growing and bushless shrubs.

Fruit shrub begins in the second year after planting. With one bush can collect up to twelve pounds of berries. The fruits are black in color., average size and oval shape. The taste of fruit is excellent, sweet and sour, a bit like the taste of currants. Harvesting is not difficult, since there are no thorns on the bush. Berries make excellent jam, compote, jam and jelly.

Gooseberry African is not afraid of powdery mildew and aphids, which pleases gardeners. So that the yield of berry bushes does not fall, it is necessary to conduct feeding, watering, pruning and spraying in time.

Rules for the care of gooseberry African

  • With the onset of autumn you need to feed. For this, rotten manure, potassium chloride, superphosphate is introduced into the soil.
  • After autumn feeding the soil should be loosened.
  • The second feed held in the spring. It is better to feed was liquid. You can prepare it from ammonium nitrate and mullein.
  • Pruning the bush to start from the second year after planting. Remove dry, diseased and weak shoots. Do not forget to thin out the bush, it should not be thick, so it can reduce yields.
  • So that the shrub does not hit the anthracnose, spraying the boron mixture twice per season.

Gooseberry breeding methods

Gooseberry can be propagated by cutting. This should be done in the autumn from September to October. Take a few sturdy old shoots cut off the tip of them. Dig a small hole and place an angle of cutting into it so that only two buds are left above the ground. A year later, the cuttings will give the roots and they can be dug out, and then transplanted to a new and permanent place.

There is another breeding method - horizontal tap. This is done in the spring before bud break. Around the bush make a small groove, young branches bend down to it and fix them in this position. After some time young shoots will appear from the lateral buds. When they reach fifteen centimeters they need to be covered with earth. In the fall, shoots can be dug and transplanted to a permanent place.

Thus, the gooseberry is a very healthy and tasty berry. Each variety differs from each other in the taste of berries, their size and ripening. The rules of planting and care for all varieties are almost the same and not very complicated. If you follow them, you will be satisfied with the harvest.

Features of growing

Gooseberry Phenicus is highly demanding for location. He does not tolerate a neighborhood with a currant and does not like crowded bushes. Neighboring plants should be located at a distance of at least 1.5 m from each other. Strongly developed root system expands in breadth. Also, the crowding of the bushes can lead not only to a decrease in yield, but also to an increased incidence of powdery mildew.

The main requirement of this crop for the soil is its neutrality; it does not like acidic soils and will not grow on it. Therefore, before planting a bush in the ground make dolomite flour or slaked lime. When planting, organic-mineral fertilizer is added to the pit, and after planting the soil surface around the seedling is mulched with humus. Fruiting begins at the age of 3 - 4 years.

To preserve high yields for a long time, it is necessary to timely feed and trim gooseberry bushes. Feeding is carried out mainly by the addition of phosphate and potash fertilizers, as well as humus.

In that case, if the bush grows on fertile soil, up to the beginning of fructification (3 - 4 years after planting) do not produce top dressing. Young plants that have only entered into force are additionally fed with rotted manure as an infusion twice per season.

It is necessary to timely trim the bush, remove weak, sick and old shoots. Excessive thickening can lead to premature mildew, as well as lower yields. Pruning should be carried out either in early spring (before the start of sap flow), or in the fall, after leaf fall.

For the prevention of diseases and attacks of pests, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments. At the first symptoms of pest damage, a triple (with an interval of 2 weeks) treatment with a biological product like Fitoverm, which is absolutely safe for humans, can be eaten on the second day after the bush has been treated.

In order to postpone the moment of powdery mildew as far as possible, it is necessary to regularly treat bushes with Topaz-type products, experienced gardeners recommend spraying with whey (dilute 1:10 with water), milk fat covers the plant surface with foil and powdery mildew spores die without oxygen .

Despite the presence of significant deficiencies in this type of gooseberry, gardeners bred it for many years and many consider it a variety, the so-called national selection.

Many believe that this variety "has always existed in Russia."

Opinions are divided. Those who do not like to pay too much attention to plants do not want to grow Phenicia because of the potential difficulties with the prevention of powdery mildew and regular pruning. If you do not comply with these conditions, the presence of gooseberries Phenicia can be a source of problems, and he himself - to infect other plants with a sphere library, and also become impassable thorny jungle in the absence of pruning.

But all of its shortcomings are more than compensated for by excellent weather resistance - the ability to survive severe frosts, which is a very important advantage in the climatic conditions of Russia. This variety gained special love for its amazing yield, size and taste of berries. This is a reward for the grower for all his torment in the process of growing and caring for Finikom.

Description and characteristics

To date, it is not known by whom and when the cultivar “Phenicum” (aka “Goliath”) was bred. Некоторые полагают, что он появился в результате народной селекции на территории Западной Европы. Сорт относится к позднеспелым, крупноплодным и высокоурожайным, морозостойким.

Кусты мощные, раскидистые, сильнорослые, требуют достаточно много места, вырастают до 200 см. Shoots are thick and strong, can be straight or curved, along the entire length, except for the tops, covered with single spikes. The leaves are dark green, medium in size, may be smooth or wrinkled. The root system is well developed, reaching up to 2 m in depth, which is why the gooseberry easily tolerates small moisture deficiencies. During the flowering period, the bushes are covered with small green-white flowers.

One of the main advantages of this variety is berries. They are characterized large sizes: on one-year-old shoots - up to 25 g, on older shoots - reach 15 g. Unevenly painted in a beautiful wine color, regular round shape or pear-shaped.

The skin is dense and thick, covered with a light wax coating, due to which the berry lasts a long time both on the bushes (up to 3 weeks) and during transportation. No pubescence. The flesh is colored yellow-green, the acidity is mild, the sugar content is average. Berries are very tasty, have a strong aroma.

This variety perfectly tolerates long-term transportation, has a good quality, is suitable for fresh consumption and is considered the best grade for technical processing (berries retain their shape when canned) and making jam, marmalade, marshmallow at home. For this, the berries are harvested slightly immature. Widely used as a filling for baking, table use, homemade wine, the highlight of which is an unusual ruby ​​color.

The main characteristics of the variety

The following typical features are typical for the variety:

  1. Disease and Pest Resistance. Since the variety is very old and non-hybrid, it is characterized by a typical disease of all berry crops - American powdery mildew, or field library. In order to prevent infection, it is necessary to plant bushes only in well-lit places. In general, the immunity of the “Phenic” variety is below average. However, the variety has good resistance to pest attacks.
  2. Drought tolerance. It is resistant to short dry periods, but long-term drought is destructive for the plant, especially during the formation of ovaries and the ripening of berries.
  3. Frost resistance. The variety is highly resistant to frost, tolerates temperature drops to +30. +35 ° C.
  4. Gestation period. The variety is late ripening; in the last decade of July, the berries are at the stage of technical ripeness, full ripening begins in the second half of August.
  5. Yield. Makes up to 8 kg from one bush for a season on condition of good agrotechnology. However, the yield of "Date" can be increased to 20-25 kg with proper care. Fruiting begins in 4-year-old bushes, the peak of productivity occurs at the age of 8-10 years, lasts up to 25 years.
  6. Transportability. The berries are well preserved during transportation due to the thick skin and natural wax coating. Well suited for technical processing.

Optimal timing

You can plant gooseberries autumn and springThe choice of the season will depend on the climate in your area. Many gardeners prefer autumn planting, because over the winter the plant will be able to settle well, the soil near the roots will thicken, overgrown roots (weeds) will form at lower positive temperatures, and in spring the plant will quickly grow. In autumn, the gooseberries should be planted from mid-September to mid-October. Calculate the time needed in such a way that before the first frost was at least 2 weeks.

When spring planting is very important to plant seedlings before bud break - right after the snow melts. For different regions, this may occur throughout March; in April, planting of seedlings is no longer done. Remember that during spring planting the germination and survival rate of the crop is much lower.

Choosing a place

As we indicated earlier, the Date gooseberry is particularly susceptible to American powdery mildew, however, it is possible to reduce the risk of infection and reduce possible damage if properly planted. To plant a crop, you need to choose places that are well warmed by the sun and protected from strong winds. In no case can not plant a plant in the lowlands, near water, in shady places. Also thickening of landings is not allowed. Remember that the plant is very branched and has an extensive root system, this should be taken into account when calculating the place for planting.

It is best to grow crops loamy and sandy fertile soil, with a neutral or slightly acidic pH. Soils with high acidity must be treated with lime. The soil should be nutritious, loose, with high breathability.

Stepwise landing process

It is necessary to plant bushes on a cloudy, windless day. Preparation of holes should begin 2-3 weeks before planting, seedlings also need to be purchased at least 10 days in advance. In practice, the gooseberry planting consists of such stages:

  1. Previously, the soil at the site of planting should be dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It must be cleaned of rhizomes and weeds, it is especially important to remove the wheat grass. Next, you need to make the following fertilizers (based on 1 sq. M.): 7-8 kg of manure, 2 kg of potash fertilizers, 4-5 kg ​​of phosphate fertilizers.
  2. Dig holes up to 40-60 cm in depth, 40 * 40 cm in size. It is important to separate the upper and lower layers of soil into separate piles. Given the size of an adult bush, it is important to keep the distance between rows and bushes: bushes should be at least 1.5 m apart, between rows should be 2 m. In this form, the holes are left for 2-3 weeks.
  3. The seedlings are soaked in a solution of the drug to stimulate the root system.
  4. After a specified time, proceed to landing. The topsoil is mixed with the following substances: a humus bucket, 200 g of superphosphate, 2 g of potash fertilizers.
  5. 1/3 of the soil mix is ​​poured into the pit so that a slide forms along the center of the pit.
  6. The seedlings need to find the root neck, a layer of soil should cover it when planting 6-10 cm.
  7. Seedlings are placed vertically in the center of the hill, the roots are straightened. Next, the plant is filled with the remaining soil mixture, and the top is covered with soil from the second heap (barren soil).
  8. Then the ground is slightly compacted, the plants are watered at the rate of 10 liters per bush. The soil must be mulched with sawdust, peat or humus with a layer of 10 cm.
  9. The shoots of the bush can be slightly trimmed, leaving 4-6 buds on each lash.

In this form, the gooseberry remains to winter, the subsequent care of the plant begins in the spring. If the winter was rather cold and little snowy, the plant can be additionally warmed with any covering material.

Video: Gooseberry planting

Support structure

Since the bushes of this variety grow very large, powerful and branchy, they need supports. It is most convenient to construct supports from metal or plastic pipes, wooden beams and picket fence. Around the perimeter of the bush usually 3-4 racks are driven in to a height of 50-70 cm, wooden strips or metal pipes are mounted horizontally on them. The depth of hammering the supports should be sufficient for them to bear the weight of an adult plant.

Basics of seasonal care

Seasonal plant care is not much different from the care of other berry crops. The main processes: watering, fertilization and soil care, pruning and spraying.

Variety "Phenicia" without damage to health suffers short dry periods, but in no case should not allow complete drying of the earthy coma. But waterlogging is even more damaging to the plant. To determine the level of humidity, take a handful of earth in your hands: if the soil feels wet to the touch, it easily crumbles under the touch of your fingers, but at the same time it does not stick to your hands from over-wetting, then everything is fine.

Regular, timely watering will contribute to the normal formation of ovaries and berries, good ripening of the crop. It is necessary to water the bushes on average 2-3 times a month depending on weather conditions. The soil should be moistened to 40 cm, for this around a bush at a distance of 30 cm from the roots dig a trench to a depth of 15 cm and pour 2-5 buckets of water depending on the size and age of the bush. Water must be separated from the summer temperature. Be sure to water the plant during the formation of young shoots and ovaries (late May - early June), as well as during the formation of berries and ripening of the crop (late June - early July).

Soil care

After watering the soil is necessary loosen, weed and mulch. As a result of these procedures, the "breathing" of the soil and roots is improved, and the moisture evaporates more slowly.

The first loosening should be carried out after the snow has melted, since during the autumn-spring period, as a result of rains and melt waters, the soil becomes excessively compacted. In dense soil, moisture evaporates faster, and the roots lose their normal air circulation. After the first procedure, loosening can be done every time after watering, but at least once a month. You must wait until the moisture is absorbed into the soil, and begin to loosen. In the root zone, loosening is carried out with the help of chopper or hoe to a depth of maximum 4 cm in order not to damage the roots. Under the bush, you can dig up the ground a little with a shovel to a depth of 10-12 cm. This procedure is combined with the removal of weeds.

At the end, the ground must be mulched with a layer of freshly cut grass, peat or compost 8 cm thick. For young plants, it is useful to mulch not only the root zone, but also the row spacing. At 100 square meters. m will need about 50 kg of peat or 30 kg of manure. Such a mulch will serve as an excellent fertilizer during the subsequent digging of the soil.

The basic rules of fertilizing culture:

  1. If during planting a sufficient amount of fertilizer was applied, then during the first three years it is not necessary to add additional potash and phosphorus substances. At this time, you can feed the bushes with nitrogenous fertilizers according to the instructions (in early May and after flowering).
  2. From the second year and during the whole period of bush life, in the autumn digging, the following supplements are added to the soil: 10 kg of mullein, 50 g of ammonium nitrate, 150 g of wood ash, 80 g of superphosphate.
  3. In the summer, before harvesting, you can make organic supplements. For this, a litter solution of 1: 4 is prepared, then this slurry is diluted with water to reduce the concentration by a factor of 10 and poured under a bush.

So that the shrub does not become impassable thickets, was healthy and brought a lot of harvest, be sure to hold spring and summer pruning. The most suitable moment for the formation of the bush are the spring months, before the onset of active vegetation. Also pruning should be carried out in summer or early autumn, after harvest.

In the first year, you need to remove all weak branches, on the remaining shoots leave up to 4 healthy buds, and cut the tops. By this time, up to 6 full-fledged healthy shoots should be formed on the bushes. Starting from the second year and then throughout life in the spring, weak, damaged branches at the roots should be removed, and last year's shoots should be shortened by 1/3. During the summer, it is necessary to immediately remove the shoots damaged by infections or pests so that the ailment does not spread.

We have already mentioned that at the peak of productivity are branches of the 6-8th year of life, however, it is important to ensure that there are shoots of different ages on the plant, otherwise the yield of the plant may change at times from year to year. After the bush has reached 10 years of age, it is necessary to regularly remove all old, not fruit-bearing shoots damaged by age.

Winter cold protection

"Date" perfectly tolerates severe frosty winters, so if the temperature in your area does not drop to -35 ° C, you can do without special protection. But for the shelter of young plants can be used hilling - the root of the plant should be tucked in with a layer of earth up to 10 cm. In very snowy, especially frosty winters, additional protection from any covering materials can be used.

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