Brugmansia with marvelous bell-shaped flowers, exuding an excellent aroma, is an exotic shrub or tree plant from the family of Solanaceae.
The representative of the tropical zones of Central and South America is also known as the “angel trumpets”, to which he owes the bizarre form of inflorescences.
In a temperate climate, planting and caring for brugmancia in the open field require some time and attention due to the thermophilic culture.
Evergreen tree shrub, rarely a tree, with large flowers in the form of giant bells of various colors in nature reaches a height of 6 m. The drooping leaf plates are of impressive size. Due to non-frost resistance in the middle zone, the culture is grown in open ground only during the warm season.
Then mixed in the room - greenhouse, winter garden or apartment. Genus in the natural environment combines 11 species.
Among gardeners, brugmansia golden with yellow inflorescences and large, slightly lowered leaf plates are very popular, as well as tree brugmansia, which became the progenitor of many varieties with terry and longline inflorescences.
When to plant Brugmans in open ground
Brugmancia is planted in the garden after pre-hardening at the end of spring, when the threat to the culture of recurrent frosts finally passes. Hardening is carried out by daily moving the tub with a plant to fresh air and the gradual extension of its life on the street.
Planting is carried out on sunny, wind-protected areas with a nutrient substrate prepared by mixing garden loam with peat and humus in a 1: 2: 1 ratio, as follows: 1.
A bulk planting pit is dug up, at the bottom of which some sand is poured out to improve the drainage qualities of the soil. Bush falls into the hole along with an earthy clod.
The plant is buried, the earth is compacted, and the near-stem circle is slightly moistened.
Brugmansia: care in the open field
To preserve the high decorativeness of the culture, the Brugmansia garden flower needs careful care because of its tropical nature.
During the hot and sunny summer, the inhabitants of tropical forests should be watered daily and periodically subjected to sprinkling. If cloudy weather persists, it is recommended to moisturize Brugmancia at an interval of 3-5 days, as the tree around the circle dries out.
Due to the rapid growth rates, the first top dressing of the shrub with nitrogen-containing fertilizer takes place in April when the flower is in the tub. In the future, Brugmancia should be fed with complex mineral fertilizers with a high concentration of phosphorus and potassium twice a week. With the arrival of autumn fertilization is reduced.
In early spring and during the growing season, damaged, diseased and dried shoots are removed, spoiling the ornamental appearance of the shrub and selecting its vitality.
Important! When pruning, care should be taken to prevent the removal of Y-like shoots, which develop flower stalks.
With a decrease in temperature to 5 ° C, an exotic shrub needs to be transplanted into a tub and moved to a cool, bright room. Brugmansia does not have a pronounced stage of stagnation and continues to grow even in the winter, if it is provided with a temperature within 15 ° C, a long light day, systematic feeding and watering.
Fight against diseases and pests
Among the harmful organisms that can be noted in violation of the rules of care, there are: • whitefly, aphid and spider mite, which can be disposed of by spraying with an insecticide according to the manufacturer’s instructions,
• gray rot, which is also necessary to deal with when using a pesticide, but fungicidal action.
Flower breeding methods
Brugmansia propagated by vegetative methods and seed method.
The seed method does not guarantee the preservation of the varietal qualities of Brugmansia.
However, if this nuance does not matter much for the grower, then before performing the reception, the details of the procedure should be studied: • The disinfected capacity is filled with a light and nutritious substrate of a mixture of peat and sand in equal quantities.
• Seed material is sown in winter by embedding to a depth of 0.5-1 cm. • The container is covered with glass and transferred to a warm, well-lit place without access to the open sun with a temperature of 25 ° C.
• After germination, which can take from 2 to 7 weeks, the seedlings are sprayed twice a day, and the glass is removed.
• When seedlings form 1 pair of true leaves, they spike into separate pots filled with soil mixture for adult plants.
For reproduction of Brugmansia, young apical cuttings 15-25 cm long with a growth point in the upper part are selected in this way. The procedure is carried out in the late spring-early summer as follows: 1.
A tablet of activated carbon is dissolved in a container with separated water to disinfect a liquid. Cut shanks are placed in water. After 2 weeks of finding the cuttings in a bright, warm place, the root system should start to form at the planting material.
When the roots reach a length of 5 cm, the cuttings are planted in fertile soil, where rooted for 2-3 weeks.
Reception is applicable in the springtime, when a healthy, well-developed escape of one-year-old age makes an incision, is treated with a growth stimulator and turns into moss.
Sphagnum is systematically moistened and completely removed after 2 months. The branch with aerial roots is separated from the mother plant and planted in light, nutritious soil mixture.
After 3 weeks of rearing, the new Brugmansia is ready for planting in a permanent habitat.
If Brugmansia turns yellow and leaves fall
Among the causes of yellowing and leaf fall on young shoots, there are two main ones: 1. Plant colonization by sucking pests that feed on leaf sap, which eventually begin to turn yellow and fall off.
2. Lack of nitrogen, which can be compensated by increasing the frequency of fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
All parts of an exotic plant are poisonous.
After this, the shoot must be cut, freeing it from large leaves and inflorescences. Next, the winding is removed and the moss is carefully removed without damaging the roots. Planted escape into shady places. While the new plant is gaining strength, the escape must be constantly sprayed.
Before sowing Brugmancia, seeds should be soaked in a growth stimulant solution for a couple of days. After that, the seeds are buried in light ground a maximum of 1 cm.
Crops are moistened, and the soil is heated by a plastic bag, the container with seedlings must be placed in a bright room. As a rule, the first shoots appear within 3 weeks after sowing.
Shoots need to be sprayed with warm water a couple of times a day.
When the fifth true leaf appears on the plants, it can be transplanted into a separate container. When the root system of young plants will be wrapped in an earthy clod, they can be planted in a permanent place in the open ground.
From the second month of life, young Brugmans should be fertilized with nitrogen, and after another four months it is necessary to switch to complex fertilizers. The first flowering during seed multiplication usually occurs in the second or third year.
Winter care for Brugmans
If you live in a region in which the air temperature falls below 5 degrees above zero in winter, it is recommended to move Brugmansiya to a warm room for the winter, as the shrub is not intended for growing in the middle lane.
As such a room you can use an apartment, a veranda or a greenhouse. Watering Brugmansia in winter is less intense than in the main season.
If the room is very dry air, the shrub must be sprayed. In addition, the room must be regularly ventilated. It is worth noting that Brugmansia does not bloom in winter.
The higher the air temperature in the room, the more intense the lighting should be.
In winter, these shrubs can partially shed their leaves. If the temperature in the room drops to 12 degrees, the plants can go to a state of rest, and there is not much light required. At the end of the winter period, when the buds on the plant begin to swell, it must be transferred to a brighter room, as this may affect its further flowering.
Possible pests and diseases
If the bushes began to fall buds, stretch shoots, turn pale leaf color, it means that the plant needs additional lighting. In addition, the buds of the plant may fall due to a sharp change in the conditions of detention or with excessive or insufficient moisture.
If the age is more than 3 years, and it has never bloomed yet, it is possible that there is a large amount of nitrogen in top dressings and fertilizers, which, as a rule, leads to foliage growth.
As for pests, the plants are most often exposed. spider mite attack. Most often, these pests attack plants with rare spraying. Therefore, spraying Brugmancia should be strong and abundant. Spider mite settles on the back of the leaf of the plant.
In addition, such pests can attack Brugmansia, like a caterpillar, aphid and slugs. If you notice these pests on your shrub, then you should begin processing the plant with special preparations a couple of times a week.
Brugmansia planting and care in the open ground wintering reproduction
Brugmansia belongs to the genus Datura. Depending on the species, it can grow as a shrub, and maybe as a tall tree, so most often it is grown in fairly large pots. Why in a pot, and not in open ground?
The thing is that this plant does not tolerate cold, so in winter it can freeze and disappear. As for the flowers, they can reach 50 cm in length, having the shape of a bell dropped down with ragged edges diverging to the sides. It has an alluring scent. With all this, do not forget that the seeds and flowers are poisonous.
Brugmansia species and varieties
Fragrant brugmansia grows very quickly and branches well. Inflorescences are white with greenish streaks, and pink in buds.
Brugmansia golden or yellow reaches 6 meters high. It has yellow, bell-shaped, wide open inflorescences. The leaves are large, soft and slightly dipped.
Brugmansia snow white grows in the form of a small tree with low growing shoots. It has velvety, oval leaves. The flowers are white (sometimes yellow and apricot shades).
Brugmansia blood red very tall tree, in nature capable of reaching 12 meters. It has very expressive orange flowers with yellowish streaks and red edging. This type of Brugmans is more resistant to winter, but, nevertheless, it is also better for her to winter indoors (especially for young ones who have yet to get stronger).
Variegated brugmansia (multicolored) This species differs from others in the largest cream flowers, which in some cases can reach up to half a meter. The shape, like the others, is tubularly bell-shaped.
Brugmansia tree the most famous species, has many varieties derived from it. In nature, it grows like a 4-5 meter tree, although there are small specimens (up to 1.5-2 meters). Among them there are varieties with double or tiered flowers of different colors.
Watering is an important part of plant care. In the summer watering should be daily, and on hot days, and twice. Exceptions are days when it rains. In general, make sure that the soil in the pot does not dry out.
In addition to watering, spraying is also important. But do not allow moisture to open buds.
Replanting a young plant is necessary annually. Changing the pot to a more spacious (2-3 cm more). When choosing a material, preference is given to plastic (with drainage holes in the bottom) rather than clay. Pots should not be small, since the earth there dries out much faster, which is fraught with wilting leaves.
Leaving in the winter implies warming, since the brungmancia is afraid of frost, it is brought into the room. In this case, it can continue its flowering. The dormant period of this species is not explicitly expressed, therefore, if the conditions of detention are comfortable, then the bloom will probably last the whole winter. For example, you will need additional lighting, as it gets dark earlier in the winter.
Irrigation mode can be maintained if you maintain a comfortable temperature in the room. If the room temperature is low (5-10 ° C), then watering should be reduced. If the lighting is sluggish, then most likely, in this case, the leaves will fall off, but closer to spring, new buds will begin to appear and additional lighting will be required.
Brugmansia seed growing
Not the most reliable method of reproduction, since there is no certainty that a plant grown from seeds will be of the same variety (heredity is not preserved). But still this method is the place to be.
Sowing is carried out in the period from January to March, in a light substrate, from above the seeds are sprinkled with the same composition of soil 1-2 cm thick, moistened and covered with glass or film. Control the temperature in the range of 20-25 ° C, in bright but diffused light.
After two weeks, you can observe the first shoots, after which the glass (film) is removed. It is necessary to ensure sufficient humidity of seedlings (spray 2-3 times a day), while avoiding over-wetting of the soil. Only when the leaves appear 4-5 leaves, you can begin transplanting in a separate pot.
But still this is not the final “place of residence” of the flower. Only when the roots completely fill the entire pot (evidence of reliable rooting), can it be transplanted into a permanent pot.
Brugmansia breeding cuttings
Propagation by cuttings - the most reliable and common method of reproduction. To do this, at the end of spring (early summer), take fresh shoots with apical buds, and cut off a length of 20-25 cm (lower leaves removed).
They put in the water, after adding activated carbon, the leaves are sprayed so as not to fade, cover with a plastic bottle or a jar and remove to a bright warm (not lower than 20 ° C) place.
When the roots become about 5 cm, cuttings can be safely transplanted into the hills with the prepared substrate: peat, perlite, sand (2: 1: 1). After 2-3 weeks rooting will occur and the plant can be transferred to a permanent pot.
Diseases and pests of Brugmans
- Whitefly, spider mite, gray rot the cause of the appearance may be the stress of a sudden change in the mode of care and maintenance.
For example, only a purchased plant should not be immediately replanted, even if you have a more beautiful pot that fits into the overall interior. Not earlier than in two weeks, such manipulations can be carried out.
Treatment: Topaz will help get rid of gray rot, Actellic will help get rid of the whitefly, and Fitoverm or Agravertin will remove ticks. Young leaves turn yellow and fall off - nitrogen starvation. Add fertilizer to the soil.
What does brugmancia look like?
In nature, plants take the form of low trees or spreading shrubs with semi-woody pagons growing up to 3-11 m.
The leaves are large, from 10 to 30 cm in length and 4-18 cm in diameter, placed alternately along the stem. Their edge is solid or roughly serrated, and the entire leaf plate is covered with fine fibers.
Luxurious tubular flowers of impressive size - from 14-50 cm long and 10-35 cm in circumference of the open corolla.
Their colors vary in different palettes: snow white, cream, lemon yellow, apricot, pale pink, crimson, light green and terracotta red.
The pleasant smell from single or bunched in twos or more flowers spreads in the evening.
Seeds are sown in January-March in containers filled with light, loose soil to a depth of 0.5-0.8 cm, lightly (so as not to wash), watered and covered with plastic wrap or glass.
The containers are placed in a well-heated room, where the thermometer's indicators are kept within 20-25 degrees of heat, and with sufficiently bright light.
If the planting material turned out to be of high quality, the shoots will not delay to appear already on the 10th day, otherwise - in 40-45 days.
Когда всходят сеянцы, пленку снимают, их часто опрыскивают из пульверизатора, но не переувлажняют.
После образования 5-го настоящего листочка растеньица пересаживают в отдельные горшочки и подращивают до момента высадки в открытый грунт.
Следует акцентировать внимание на том, что бругмансии, выращенные из семян, зацветут не раньше, чем на 2-й или 3-й год и вряд ли идентично сохранят признаки сорта.
In this way, the plant is propagated throughout the growing season - from spring to late autumn.
Slightly lignified fragments of branches 15-20 cm long are cut, the lower leaves are cut off, leaving only 2-3 upper ones, then the lower section is immersed for a few minutes in the solution of the rocker and buried in a moist peat-sand mixture.
From above cover with a transparent cellophane package.
Rooting lasts for a month.
With the advent of new leaves at the top of the cutting, it becomes clear that it has passed successfully, and the seedling is transplanted to a permanent place in the garden.
When it reaches a height of 30 cm, pinch the tip for better branching.
Florists with the experience of growing Brugmans assert that cuttings take root easily in ordinary water.
How to multiply Brugmansia layering?
In spring or summer, a strong, semi-woody shoot of the previous year is selected in the upper part of the crown, which is about to bloom or even bloom.
A triangular incision is made across the stem, about a quarter of the thickness of the branch, covered with a root or another root-stimulator and wrapped in moist moss.
On top, everything is wrapped with plastic wrap and secured firmly on the stem, but so that it remains possible to regularly moisten the moss.
After about a month and a half, the roots are formed, and the film is carefully removed, and the layers are cut off from the mother plant and planted at a permanent place of growth.
Choosing a place in the garden
The recommendations in this matter are unambiguous - the more bright sunlight, the better for the plant.
In shaded places, the Brugmansia flower is pulled out, the buds form unrelatedly, and sometimes refuse to bloom at all.
It is advisable to choose a secluded corner in the garden, where the bushes will not be exposed to gusts of wind, capable of patting the leaves and inflicting decorative damage.
The soil at the planting site should be rich in humus, permeable and loose, but not acidic - the pH level is allowed in the range of 6-7.5.
On the eve of planting in an open ground, the plant is hardened in the open air.
To do this, it must be gradually taught to keep outside the room where Brugmansia hibernated, first make a short time in the garden, each time increasing the length of stay.
In order to plant Brugmancia in open ground, a hole is prepared in the selected place.
Its dimensions should be commensurate with the circumference of the root system.
The depth of the hole digs 10-15 cm longer than the length of the roots.
The entire soil is chosen from the pit, a small amount of it is mixed with humus, and a little peat or sand is added to loosen it. The mixture is poured to the bottom and watered.
The plant in the recess is positioned so that the root neck is at the same level as in the container.
Watered above, then sprinkled with dry soil, if desired, mulch dried grass or sawdust.
During the growing season, Brugmans is plentifully watered under the root, in the heat of the heat - and several times a day.
Spraying should be done carefully - the plant welcomes the increased humidity of the surrounding air, but water droplets, falling on the flowers, can leave traces in the form of red spots and reduce, thus, their decorative effect.
Equally important is the composition of irrigation water. Brugmansia welcomes hard water.
If the tap water is sufficiently soft, once a summer the stem of the trunk is shed with lime milk: 10 g of slaked lime is diluted in 10 liters of water.
Closer to fall, watering reduces their abundance as well.
Shrubs love a lot and often eat, so from the moment they are planted in the open ground until the very autumn, they are fed every ten days with complex mineral fertilizers for flowering plants.
Since the beginning of the formation of buds make potash-phosphate fertilizers.
The plant is especially sensitive to the lack of these components: yellowing of the leaf plates is observed, and if the situation is aggravated, the foliage falls off.
Alternately with the mineral complex contribute organic.
By the end of August, the dose of fertilizer is reduced, and in September, the feeding is finally stopped - the plant should prepare for a rest period.
Preparing for the winter
In warm regions, where winters are frost-free, Brugmansia is left in the open season for a cold period of the year, covering with spruce branches.
However, in temperate latitudes with frosty winters, when the temperature drops to 15 degrees below zero, the plant after leaf fall is dug and rolled into a flower container with a volume of 10, 15 or 20 liters.
Particularly large specimens are planted in tubs or 40 l containers.
Some flower growers gently move the plant with a large lump of earth into a box covered with plastic inside, wrap it around the trunk and secure with tape.
Around the coma pour nutrient pochvosmes in the composition:
- 1 volume of loam,
- 1 volume of rotted humus
- 2 volumes of lowland peat.
Brugmancia winters in the basement without lighting with a temperature of 5-8 degrees Celsius or in a lighted cool room, where the thermometer's indicators are maintained within 10-12 degrees above zero.
The earth lump is sometimes moistened, not allowing the final drying.
If the plant overwinters in a warm room with the preservation of the crown, care for him carry out, as for a room flower, in compliance with the regime of watering and fertilizing.
Shrubs, moved in September from the garden to the premises, cut: the branches are shortened by about a third of the length.
Important! Pagon with Y-shaped branching, in any case can not be deleted. On them spring flowering shoots are formed. If they are cut, flowering may not occur, and you have to wait until new stems grow, branch out, and only then will buds form.
In the spring, when the plant is brought into a warmer room in order to wake up the growth points, remove damaged and diseased or dried twigs.
The latest term for pruning is mid-March.
Saplings grown from seeds are pruned only after the first flowering, when enough ramifications are formed.
After flowering in place of the withered rims, oblong green fruits are formed, which are cut off so that the plant does not spend its strength on their development to the detriment of the formation of new buds.
Pests and Diseases of Brugmans
In the conditions of open ground, the plant suffers from the invasion of aphids, whitefly and spider mites, therefore it is necessary to regularly inspect the internodes, the lower part and the sinuses of the leaves.
In case of detection of pests, treat affected Brugmans with biologics or insecticides of systemic action, for example, spray with Bioreid, Actellic, Fitoverm, Bio Insect, Plant Spray, with a strong lesion - Antiklesch quadro or similar in composition.
During the dormant period, if the plant is stored not in a dry, but in a damp room with low temperatures, the wetted brugmansia becomes covered with spots of gray rot.
Treatment with an appropriate fungicide, such as Topaz, will come to the rescue.
Sometimes, fortunately, not too often, various specks of uncertain color and intensity appear on the leaves, the strokes are long and very short, the leaf plates curl or simply deform in an unnatural way.
Without a doubt, Brugmansia is affected by one of the viral diseases that cannot be cured.
It remains only to destroy the plant, so that other instances of the garden collection are not infected.
Popular types of Brugmans
In the culture there are several types of spectacular shrubs, unfortunately, still relatively rare in the countries of Eastern Europe:
Brugmansia golden (Brugmansia aurea) - with soft pubescent colors of various shades of yellow.
Brugmansia fragrant, or fragrant (Brugmansia suaveolens) is a fast-growing and strongly branching plant with large snow-white flowers, the tubes of which are light green streaks.
In buds are deceptive - they promise pink flowering.
Brugmansia is variegated, or multicolored (Brugmansia versicolor) - with the longest “gramophone” colors, painted in different shades of cream, milky and ecru.
Brugmansia bloody (Brugmansia sanguinea) is one of the tallest and cold-resistant shrubs in the genus with stunningly bright orange funnel-shaped flowers bordered by fiery scarlet edging.
Brugmansia treelike (Brugmansia arborea) - with snow-white tubular corollas, is considered extinct in nature.
It differs from other types of autofertility, i.e. ability to form normal seeds during self-pollination.
Why is Brugmansia dropping buds?
In dry and hot weather with insufficient watering, this phenomenon is not uncommon. Shrubs are very moisture-loving.
Although they store a certain amount of moisture in the stems and branches, but during the heat it spends it quickly and requires replenishment - frequent and abundant watering.
Brugmansia in bloom is a real queen of the garden, which you never get tired of admiring and admiring.
To grow such a miracle on your site is not at all burdensome for a hardworking grower.