The birthplace of one of the most beautiful plants - the Pafiopedilum orchid (photo below), or Lady's Slipper, is considered to be New Guinea, China, India, Asia, the Himalayas and the Solomon Islands.
Back in 1869, the first and very successful artificial hybrid of Pafiopedilum was developed, which laid the foundation for the creation of new plant varieties. Nowadays there are about 100 species of plants and more than 1 thousand hybrids.
Orchid Pafiopedilum, description
Paphiopedilum translates as "the shoe from Paphos" - the city in which the goddess Venus was born. The peculiarity and main decoration of the plant is an unusual flower, similar to a woman's shoe. In America, this flower is called "moccasin flowers", and in England - "slipper".
Pafiopedilum is a ground orchid, family orchids, sympodial. The presence of a displaced apical bud is its feature. From it comes a pseudobulb with a sleeping kidney and the plant is developed. In Pafiopedilum, instead of a pseudobulb, a rosette is formed on the roots. Leaves oblong, belt-like. May be leathery, soft and juicy, depending on the conditions and type of plant.
Flowers of different colors, but mostly white, green, brown and yellow shades prevail. Petals dense with wax bloom or covered with a fluff.
Pafiopedilum, which bloom depends on the type and variety, pleases flowers for several months.
The flower has six petals, one of them differs from the others in size and shape, and it is the "slipper of Venus." From the rosette of the leaves of the plant, an erect peduncle rises, on which are many-flowered and one-flowered inflorescences.
The orchid Pafiopedilum is demanding to the high humidity of the earth and the air in the apartment, a slight shading and heat transfer quite calmly. It copes easily with short-term drought due to succulent and leathery leaves that are able to accumulate moisture.
The roots of Pafiopedilum have such that differ from other plants with an unusual structure. Orchids can exist on other plants and trees, feeding on them through their roots. They serve as the main indicator of flower health. Pafiopedilum is always sold in transparent pots so that it is easy to determine the condition of the root system and the need for watering the plant.
If the roots have acquired a light gray color, then the plant must be watered. A container with a flower is immersed in a container with water at room temperature. Healthy roots are green.
The plant in the process of growth appear aerial roots. And their excess amount (more than two) is due to increased humidity as a result of errors in irrigation. The roots rot, and the plant can die when there is too much water.
Location in the apartment
An ideal place is considered to be the window sill by the window facing the east. On the south side, the plant should be shaded from direct sunlight, especially on summer days from 10 to 17 hours. The bright light damages the orchid: the leaves form burns, the edges of the petals become pale, the orchid stops blooming. It is undesirable to put Pafiopedilum near heating devices. Windows in cold autumn and winter days, on which there are pots with orchids, do not close the curtains.
Paphiopedilum (Orchid family), which has leathery leaves, needs more light than a plant with soft leaves. Before the formation of buds, the pot with a flower is turned from time to time so that the stem and the leaves do not bend.
For lush blooming orchids need a light day for 16 hours. With its lack of photosynthesis decreases. In such cases, artificial lighting comes to the rescue. Fluorescent lamps are located 15 cm from the plant. You can increase the light in the following way:
- wash the windows
- wipe the dust from the leaves,
- place the plant in the room where the light walls and ceiling.
Pafiopedilum is not as whimsical to heat as some orchids. For its growth, the temperature in winter is + 13-16 0 С, the maximum summer can reach +24 0 С. The plant will die if the thermometer reads below + 8 0 С or rises above + 32 0 С.
Pafiopedilum (photo below), which has speckled leaves, grows well with moderate heat and dim sun, and with green foliage loves cool content. In inclement weather and in winter both plants prefer low air temperature. To control the temperature around the plants should install a thermometer.
One of the conditions of abundant flowering of Pafiopedilum is the obligatory observance of night and daytime temperatures by 5 degrees. You can lower the temperature by airing, watering or spraying the plants (without getting on the flowers). When performing water procedures it is necessary to ensure that the water was boiled, filtered or rain at room temperature. Moisture, which will remain in the sockets of the leaves, clean with a napkin to protect them from rotting.
The optimum moisture content for this variety of orchids - from 40% to 60% - can be maintained if the plant pot is put on a tray with moistened pebbles.
Fresh air is necessary for the successful cultivation of Pafiopedilum, therefore the room should be aired periodically, not causing drafts. Around the orchid is recommended to put the fan, including it on a slow mode.
One of the causes of the death of orchids is overwetted soil. Watering Pafiopedilum and spraying is carried out in the summer in the morning once or twice a week, and in the winter - no more than twice a month. Before watering Paphiopedilum, you need to check the soil moisture with your hand and decide whether it is time to water or you can still wait.
How to water?
For watering orchids use a watering can. Substrate moistened with water until then, until it appears in the pan. You can use another method. The pot with the plant is immersed in a container with water to the level of the soil and keep it there until the surface of the soil becomes wet. After completing the procedure, Pafiopedilum is taken out, allowed to drain and put in a permanent place.
Pafiopedilum: home care. Top dressing
You can feed only perfectly healthy plants. In the flower shop they buy fertilizers for orchids and water them with plants in accordance with the attached instructions.
In the springtime, nitrogen fertilizers are required for plant growth, potassium is needed for flowering in the fall, and in the winter, indoor flowers stay dormant and are not fed. The composition of complex fertilizers, in addition to those listed, includes other components:
- phosphorus strengthens the root system
- potassium contributes to the formation of flowers
- trace elements improve leaf color.
Suitable content temperature
In the group of this variety there are heat and cold-loving varieties. They can recognize by tone flower:
- Bright inflorescences characterize thermophilic varieties,
- Leaves elongated intense green color - cold-loving look.
Before flowering lovely papiopedilum necessary recreate the rest period with an optimum air temperature of 10-15 degrees. If the accepted temperature fluctuations do not create, then you should not expect flowering.
This orchid is very susceptible to overshoot. For optimal growth and growing season, temperature fluctuations can range from 18 to 25 degrees:
- In winter, the bar should not fall below 10 degrees,
- In the summer, do not rise to 33.
Comfortable level of air humidity
Pafiopedilum loves moist air without leaf spraying. Optimum humidity - from 45 to 70%. If water drops fall on the fragile leaflets, then ugly spots will form on them.
High levels of moisture support expanded clay, placed in the pan. At the same time make sure that the bottom of the flower did not touch the waterpoured into the pan. For this purpose, a pot with growing papiopedilum is placed on an inverted saucer tray.
The degree of illumination of the room
This kind of orchids adore scattered light, the direct rays of the sun, they can not stand. On the south window a delicate little shoe pritenuyut. Keep the orchids outside the window is also not advised, because then they will require 12 hour lighting.
Current lighting conditions change gradually so that the perennial has time to adapt to the new environment. Move them out of the shade in the sun every day for 3 weeks.
The optimal place to place an orchid - home window sills:
- And western windows.
Orchid Venerin Slippers do not need to put on the south window.
Some subspecies feel great in the northern part of the house. room space, which contains a perennial plant, requires frequent ventilation, in the summer it is placed in the garden.
To start flowering
To ensure the orchid lush bloom, you need to create a 16-hour daylight. You can do it with fluorescent lamp. With a lack of light reduces the level of photosynthesis, artificial lighting will help speed up the beginning of flowering.
To increase the flow of light, washed window frames, wipe the dust from the leaves, place the perennial in a room with light walls and the same ceiling.
First steps after acquisition: transplant
After the acquisition, you must carefully examine the orchid, to identify here the areas damaged by the disease or pests. After buying a florist performs the following manipulations with orchid:
- The newly acquired plant is placed separately from other inhabitants of indoor plants. After that, you can safely introduce the new orchid to its neighbors,
- If you find white-coated bark in a papiopedilum pot, they should be discarded immediately.
- Do not expose perennial at once to the sun, gradually accustom,
- If there are no drainage holes in the pot, they can be pierced with a hot nail,
- At the beginning of the adaptation, it is better not to disturb the orchid with a transplant immediately after the acquisition, it is better to wait for growth,
- To maintain moisture, wipe the leaves with a moistened cotton pad.
All these recommendations will help the orchid adapt faster to a new reality.
Watering and feeding
Immediately after the acquisition, we are not in a hurry to water the orchid, wait a period of 7 days, to completely dry the ground. For an orchid Venerin slipper, it is important to adhere to the optimal mode of watering, not to allow drying or rotting of the roots, because the perennial simply does not tolerate.
The frequency of irrigation depends on:
- Selected soil
- And the degree of moisture of the air.
Water the perennial with distilled water with a minimum salt content, it is very critical for him. Water the plant in the morning to dry out all the water droplets in the sinuses.
Lady's slipper is susceptible to excess feedings, so they do it not so often - 2 times a month. In this case, alternating organic matter and mineral fertilizers, make half of the dose.
To feed an orchid is necessary during active growth.
Feed the plant need only with active growth, during abundant flowering this is not required. In winter, perennial needs feeding once a month. To eliminate the increased formation of salts due to fertilization, we do a monthly washing of the substrate.
Ways to stimulate flowering
To bloom papiopedilum, it is important to observe the temperature drops of the room. For varieties that have leaves of intense green tone, it is important for beautiful flowering observe certain temperature conditionsdifferent in day and night.
These species prefer the heat of the day, combined with the coolness of the night:
- In the daytime, the air temperature should be within 24 degrees,
- At night - from 10 to 12 degrees.
Varieties blooming variegated, require warmer air at night - from 15 to 17 degrees. At the same time, we make sure that the room is not too hot, otherwise there is a risk of losing the fragile orchid forever.
Lady's slipper will delight you with magnificent flowers. Follow basic care for him, and the result in the form of lovely flowers will not take long. To stimulate flowering, it is necessary to observe the irrigation regime, to prevent the soil from drying out, the water stagnation in the outlet under the pot.
After a long period of rest at the beautiful papiopedilum flowering period begins. From the middle of a strong rosette appears peduncle. Depending on the shape of the perennial, it can be only one flower.
He will stand on the spike 2-4 months. With proper care, the plant will be pleasing to the eye for 6-7 months. It is important for novice flower growers to know that one peduncle blooms only once.
It is for this reason that in single-flower varieties, the sturdy peduncle is cut, and in varieties with another beautiful flowering, the stem is left until the end of flowering.
Nuances in the period of long rest
Rest period usually observed for varieties of beautiful orchid with spotted leaves. This period is necessary, because it is followed by a lush bloom. Rest for Venus shoe begins in November.
Careful care of it during this period is simple: maintaining the air temperature at 15 degrees with periodic spraying of the soil substrate with water without adding feed. After the flower spike leaves, this period ends.
Disease and pest prevention
The orchid papiopedilum has leaves and roots susceptible to various diseases and pests. While caring for her often leaf plates die out. Depending on the symptoms, there are several objective reasons for this phenomenon:
- The leaves first acquire a yellow color, then turn brown - the result of natural dying,
- The top of the leaf becomes almost black, then the entire rim of the plate is darker - this indicates that the plant is over-saturated with top dressing or a lesion with a dangerous fungus.
Botrytis mold causes the fragile orchids to fall off the buds that have not yet blossomed. This may be due to a decrease in air temperature at night and increased humidity.
There are many pests of the orchid Venerin slipper.
Among the dangerous pests lush orchid Venerin slipper most often attacked:
- Pliers plodder,
- And schitovki.
From properly selected soil substrate depends on the success of growing orchids Lady's slipper. As the basis of the soil composition for papiopedilum, natural pine bark and peat are taken for planting seedlings in the ratio 3: 1.
In addition to the basic composition of flower growers add a small number:
- Natural river sand,
- Natural claydite,
- High-quality sphagnum moss to preserve the life-giving moisture.
In terms of acidity, soil composition for orchids it should be:
To grow this variety orchids take:
- Or clay containers.
The walls of clay dishes have pores, able to pass air to perennial roots. In transparent plastic, it is convenient to control the susceptible root system.
Due to the glut of moisture, the walls of a transparent pot can become covered with green mold, so it is additionally moved to a cache-pot. Plastic packaging is very convenient for seasonal transfer, the plant is easily taken out of it. The mouth of the plastic pot should be wider than the base.
- Carefully remove the plant
- We perform a root inspection,
- Remove rotten roots
- Slices gently handle crushed coal.
When transplanting, take into account the height of the transplanted plant.
Have too high perennial planted the roots will just hang, will cease to develop. Too low set perennial can cause rotting outlet. Substrate tamping is not required here.
Carefully inspect the roots and substrate need to be made once in 6 months. To this end, the roots are removed from the container and carefully assess their condition.
Timing and technology
Mature perennial transplanted annually, and a young orchid needs to be transplanted every 2-3 years. To make a transplant, must be present at least one of the reasons:
- 8 or more outlets are formed in a plastic container,
- The new young shoot is strong and it is necessary to make a division,
- After flowering,
- If the soil substrate is too saline, which negatively affects the overall condition of the perennial,
- If spring comes along with this - the optimal time for transplanting any perennials.
Some growers change the soil every 8 months. Orchid transplant during flowering impossible, as it affects the flowering state negatively.
How to reanimate perennial without roots?
If your orchid has almost no papyopedilum roots, then you need to deal with their early recovery. Small drying of the soil substrate stimulate the formation of rootsThis fact was noticed by many gardeners trying to restore orchids.
Daily spraying of the surface of the soil and the fraction of the bark on the soil gives its results. To restore orchids не нужно создавать ей особые условия, размещать в тепличке. Хороший результат все эти меры дадут через 2 месяца, когда молодые корешки окрепнут.
Каждый третий полив подкармливаем больное растение удобрением для пышной орхидей. Для этих целей подойдет «Радуга». В знойные месяцы поливайте ее чаще.
Распространить этот сорт орхидей можно только делением куста. When a lot of strong rosettes have appeared, you can begin the division. If at least 3 outlets grow in a pot, then it can already be seated.
There are several ways to grow orchids.
Separated orchids are placed in the shade, continuing to regularly spray the soil mixture until it begins to be observed. active shoot growth. This is followed by the usual perennial care.
The main problems of growing
If pafiopedilum is grown from one outlet, then it is incredibly difficult for him to build up the sheet mass. Rotted roots can be from:
- Irregular irrigation,
- Poor soil composition.
Do not rush to remove the faded outlet, because it depends on the life and development of new outlets. Pafiopedilum acquires its own roots only in the second year of life.
With a strong deepening of the neck, it begins contact with wet substrate, which adversely affects the development of the flower.
With leaf plates of orchids, you need to be extremely careful, because the direct rays of the sun can burn them, so brown spots can form on them. To protect the plant from spider mites, wipe its leaves once a week wet cloth.
The lack of flowering can also indicate non-compliance with the irrigation regime and temperature difference. The withering away of faded buds is a normal process of renewal, it should not be scared.
Diseases and pests
Brown leaf spot is a particular hazard. arising from:
- Excessive moisture,
- Drying out
- After the use of low-quality substrate.
To prevent dangerous diseases spend:
- Disinfecting the pot,
- And the treatment of perennial phytosporin.
When infected leaves are found, they are destroyed, and a pot of growing orchid is placed in a well-ventilated place. Perennial treated with a fungicide.
Of the pests attacking perennial, the greatest represent a danger:
- Common scythe,
It is necessary to fight them in a standard way. The plants and the soil substrate are treated with the prepared solution of karbofos, the degree of concentration here is 0.1% -0.2%. If slugs or snails start, formaldehyde is added to the solution.
With indoor growing this variety orchids may occur following problems with foliage:
- Elongated and lightening leaf plates - the result of a lack of light or a deficiency of nitrogen,
- The elongated leaves of a saturated green tone, the fall of the buds indicate an excess of nitrogen, we stop the introduction of this element, instead we add potassium,
- The leaves take on a reddish tint - you need to place the flower in the shade to eliminate the possibility of burns,
- When grinding the top leaves, the perennial is transplanted, if the root system is poorly developed, at high temperatures in the summer heat the perennial should be fed,
- Dying off of young roots - an increased concentration of soil acidity or an excess of fertilizer, the plant is affected by snails,
- Drying young sprouts - lack of moisture, get rid of help frequent spraying of the substrate.
If young strong shoots begin to turn black at the base, die off, destroy dead parts, treat the plant with copper chloride. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that drops of moisture do not fall into the base of the young outlet.
Watch the video on how to replant the Lady's Slipper Orchid:
Transplantation and landing, reproduction
For successful development, young Pafiopedilums require an annual transplant. When replacing the substrate leave on the roots a little old. For adult plants Pafiopedilum orchid care at home requires a transplant every three years:
- the pot has become small
- rotted substrate
- the plant is flooded with water
- found pests or disease.
The best time to change the soil is spring. Plants that are healthy and well developed, transplant and during flowering.
There are two ways to reproduce the orchid Pafiopedilum. Care in the home allows you to cultivate their division of the bush and planting seeds. In the first method, the plant should be divided into parts so that in each of them there is an escape with roots. The more shoots will remain, the more abundant Pafiopedilum will bloom. For breeding "shoes" it is preferable to use the first method.
The day before transplanting the plant should be watered abundantly. The next day, carefully remove it from the pot, laying it on its side and holding it with a knife near the walls. The substrate, which has decomposed, is shaken off, poor-quality and long roots are cut, powder is powdered with coal.
A new pot should be about 5 cm larger than the old one. In order to plant Pafiopedilum (Lady's shoe), a pot of 9 cm in diameter will fit. A quarter capacity is filled with drainage (rubble, pebbles, claydite), the substrate is poured slowly, compacting it. The roots of the plant are straightened; above the base of the shoot, the layer of soil should not exceed one and a half centimeters, the top of the ground is mulched with moss in a layer of 2 cm.
A pot with a plant put in a bright place, preserving from the direct rays of the sun, monitor the soil moisture, periodically sprayed. After three weeks, when the plant is strong and new roots appear, Pafiopedilum is placed on a stationary site and taken care of in the usual way.
For the cultivation of orchids Pafiopedilum (care at home for which is not particularly difficult) use clay or plastic pots. The walls of the pottery have pores and allow air to flow to the roots of the plant, but the substrate quickly dries out. In transparent plastic, the root system is well controlled, but the walls of the pot can become covered with greens, so it should be placed in pots. Plastic packaging is convenient for transplanting, it is easy to remove the plant from it.
For ease of transplanting the neck of the pot is always wider than the base. In the bottom of every pot there should be an opening for the drain of excess water, and if it is high, then holes are made from the bottom in the walls.
In flower shops you can purchase various hybrids of Venus shoes. Their appearance is very unusual, they really look like real little shoes. The long flowering of this plant decorates the home and pleases the eye almost all year round.
Suitable conditions of maintenance - the key to successful growth "slipper"
To properly maintain the plant on your windowsill, you need to study where such orchids grow in the wild, and create conditions under which the ancestor of this hybrid would feel good. The genus pafiopedilum refers to tropical orchids. If all the Phalaenopsis conditions of detention are the same, then with the "Venus shoe" is not so simple. First, the "shoes" do not all grow epiphytic. Each species has its own habitat. Some belong to lithophytes that grow on stones and rocks, others live in the ground. Therefore, the soil for each species is different. Secondly, each species has its own temperature regime, lighting, and air humidity. Consider the main genus of orchid "slipper" papiopedilum (Paphiopedilum).
Location and lighting
Orchids of this genus prefer diffuse lighting and do not tolerate direct sunlight. Placed them on the north, east or west windows. On the south window "slipper" you need to pritenyat. On the other hand, keeping orchids outside the window is also not recommended. In this case, it is necessary to illuminate them artificially 10-12 hours a day.
Proper watering papiopedilum
Watering the "veneer slipper" is significantly different from phalaenopsis watering. This is due to the structure of the roots and leaves of the plant. Papiopedilum does not have thick leaves and pseudobulbs, so there is no place to store moisture for it. Its roots are thick and easily injured. The plant is afraid of both drying roots and excess moisture.
The frequency of irrigation depends on the type of substrate and air temperature. Carefully follow the substrate from the bark, as it dries quickly. In the summer, the plant is watered more than twice a week, in the winter - once a week or less. Watering is necessary with settled water at room temperature, that is, water that does not contain salt. If necessary, water for irrigation should be boiled. It should be watered in the morning, so that in the evening all the water droplets, especially in the axils of the plant, dry up. If the water got into the center of the outlet, it is definitely worth getting wet with a napkin. This will help avoid problems with fungal and bacterial diseases.
Fertilizer and flower feeding
Fertilizer plants are often carried out: every third to fifth watering, with the concentration of fertilizer should be two times lower than that proposed in the instructions. For feeding use complex fertilizer for orchids. In winter, feeding is carried out once a month. Also, once a month, the plant needs abundant washing of the substrate. This will prevent excess salt buildup.
Flowering plant after a period of rest. From the middle of the outlet spike appears. Depending on the type of pafiopedilum on the peduncle, there may be only one flower, which blooms for 2-4 months or flowers may appear in turns on one peduncle for 6-7 months. You should know that one outlet blooms only once. After flowering in an orchid with one flower, the peduncle is removed, in orchids with the next flowering, the peduncle is not cut until the end of flowering.
Features care in a dormant period
Especially it is necessary to observe the rest period for orchids with spotty leaves. Otherwise, flowering may not begin. This period begins in mid-November. Care at this time is to maintain the plant at a temperature of not more than 15 degrees with spraying the substrate with water without any additional feeding. After the appearance of the peduncle, this period ends.
Transplant and substrate
It is necessary to replant papiopedilum every year or in a year. It is better to carry out this process in the spring. For transplantation, use the substrate for orchids, while adding sphagnum, perlite, charcoal, lump peat. Soil for calcific types of papiopedilums consists of leaf humus, peat, sand, crushed seashells or dolomite crumb, charcoal in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 0.5: 0.5.
An important role is played by drainage at the bottom of the pot. The pot is chosen opaque. In the plastic soil dries slower than in the ceramic, so it is better. The size of the pot should not be large, otherwise the plant will spend power on the growth of foliage, and not on flowering. The roots should be placed right next to the pot.The transplant process transports the plant normally. Having taken the plant, it is necessary to inspect and remove the rotten roots. Slices must be processed with crushed coal. When transplanting must take into account the height of planting. If a flower is planted too high, the roots will hang and stop growing; a plant that is too low will cause the rosette to rot. The substrate should be at the level of the outlet base: approximately 1-2 cm covering the red and white part. And tamping the substrate is not necessary. The audit of the roots and substrate should be carried out every six months. For this, the roots are carefully removed from the pot together with the substrate and their condition is assessed.
Types of Homemade Orchid Lady's Venice (Paphiopedilum)
The name of the plant is associated with the name of the goddess of love and beauty (from the Greek Paphia - one of the names of the goddess Venus, pedilon - “slipper”, “slipper”). The baggy lip of an orchid resembles a slipper, because the Russians call the papyopedylums "Venerina shoes", the British - "Shoes", the Americans - "Flowers-moccasins".
Pafiopedilums are epiphytic and semi-epiphypitic plants, common in the tropics and subtropics of Southeast Asia, with the greatest species diversity present on the border of southern China and northern Vietnam.
As seen in the photo, the Pafiopedilum orchid is a plant without pseudobulbs, with a rosette of evergreen leaves and a single wax flower.
Some species of the Paphiopedilum orchid have oblong green leaves with an original bright pattern. The bottom surface is often covered with purple dots. The roots of the shoes are brown and pubescent.
Flowering occurs depending on the species: in pafiopedilums with monophonic leaves, buds ripen at the end of winter and in spring, while their variegated brethren bloom in the summer-autumn period. The types and varieties of pafiopedilumum are subdivided into single-flowered ones - revealing 1-2 flowers on the peduncle, many-flowered ones with inflorescences of three or more flowers, “revolving” - each new flower is formed in the place of the old one.
Look at the photo: the Lady's Lady's Orchid shoe often has red, yellow and green shades. Flowers retain their freshness for 2-3 months.
Pafiopedilum Appleton(Appleton) (Paphiopedilum appletonianum) - quite large orchid, growing in nature in China, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. The flower is large, fragrant green-purple, up to 10 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in spring. Leaves sessile, belt-like, rigid, rounded at the end, with a marble pattern.
Papriopedilum apricot(Paphiopedilum armeniacum) - a very unusual look of a Venus shoe with yellow flowers with an orange core. There is also a rare species with white flowers. Leaves are spotty, up to 15 cm long. Growing is usual for this genus. This species was first described in 1982.
Bearded Pafiopedilum(Paphiopedilum barbatum) - popular and long been in the culture of shoes. Among breeders, he is also known for being one of the parents of the first artificial hybrid, Harrisian, created in 1869.
The leaves of the species do not exceed 20 cm in length, with a marble pattern, and the peduncle bears one flower (up to 8 cm in diameter), the color of which is dominated by purple-red tones. Upper sepal is white with 15 purple stripes, side petals are dark red (sometimes with whitish ends). The lip is dark red. It blooms in spring.
Pafiopedilum the most ironic(Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum) - A plant with not very wide green leaves and strongly pubescent peduncle, especially beautiful on the first day of flower blooming. At the beginning, its petals expanding at the ends look even, and after a few hours they become corrugated in the upper third.
Pafiopedilum Spicer(Paphiopedilum spicerianum) - A species popular in hybridization, originally from North India. It looks like the most appealing papiopedilium, but its petals are shorter.
Pafiopedilum is wonderful(Paphiopedilum insigne) - a species originally from the Himalayas. The leaves are linear, green, up to 25-30 cm long. This is a winter-flowering species: flowering begins in September and lasts until February of next year. View with a not very long peduncle and a greenish fragrant flower. This species has many varieties, differing in size and color of flowers. In culture requires cool content.
Pafiopedilum coarse-haired(Paphiopedilum villosum) - a species common in India and Indonesia. It can grow as an epiphyte, lithophyte, or as a land plant. Flowering of this species lasts from autumn to spring. Peduncle pedunculated, up to 30 cm tall, carry one flower each. In a typical specimen, the upper sepal is brown-green with a white edge. Petals are buff brown. The lip is painted in pale red-brown tones and covered with thin veins.
Cute pafiopedilum(Paphiopedilum bellatulum) - Orchid, originally from Burma, Thailand and China. It grows on moss covered limestone cliffs at altitudes from 250 to 1500 m above sea level. Plants of this species were first found at the end of the XIX century. on the territory of Burma. The leaves are spotty, up to 15 cm long. The peduncle bears 1-2 white, with crimson specks of flowers, with a diameter of 8-10 cm. Flowering begins in April.
Pafiopedilum Lawrence(Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum) - Orchid hails from Fr. Borneo. The name of this species is associated with the name of T. Lawrence - President of the Royal Horticultural Society and collector of orchids. Peduncle with one flower, up to 30 cm in diameter. Upper petal is white with dark longitudinal stripes. Sepals are green with reddish tips and “moles” at the edges, the lip is brown-red. Flowering occurs in spring. Leaves with a light marble pattern do not exceed 15 cm in length. The species is relatively light in culture.
Pafiopedilum snow or snow white(Paphiopedilum niveum) - view with elongated leaves with a marble pattern, up to 15–20 cm long. Peduncle 15–20 cm high, has 1-2 white, fragrant flowers, up to 8 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in summer. In culture requires warm content. Less than other species of the genus in need of feeding.
Pafiopedilum beautiful or adorable(Paphiopedilum venustum) - leaves are variegated, with clearly defined spots. Flowering begins at the end of winter. Peduncle 15–20 cm high, bears a single flower, up to 15 cm in diameter. Petals are greenish-orange with large black dots and dark green veins. Helmet lip, shiny, orange, with green veins. Homeland - Himalayas. It is also grown as papiopedilum is wonderful.
Orchid Care Slipper of Venus
Pafiopedilumy can be kept in a pot culture on window sills. Different types of paphiopedilum prefer a cool, moderate or warm mode of maintenance. Thermophilous include variegated species, as well as species and hybrids with rounded large flowers. Caring for an orchid with a lady's veneer, a slipper of tropical species requires maintenance at a temperature of + 20 ... + 22 ° C. In the summer, especially at night, the room with the plant must be ventilated. Для размещения выбирают хорошо освещенное солнечное место, с притенением в полуденные часы, зимой полезна искусственная досветка (12 часов в день). Летом домашний Венерин башмачок рекомендуется держать растения на открытом воздухе.
Полив равномерный умеренный, между поливами субстрат должен просыхать. Зимой после цветения комнатного Венериного башмачка полив и влажность уменьшают. During the heating period, when taking care of the Pafiopedilum orchid, it is recommended to use a humidifier instead of spraying.
During growth requires regular bi-monthly feeding. After 2-4 years, the plant must be transplanted into fresh ground. Houseplants Venine slipper, as a rule, are grown in ceramic or plastic pots, the upper part of which is wider than the lower. This is necessary so that during transplantation it was possible to remove the plant from the dishes without damaging its fragile roots. Venus shoes are planted in containers, in a mixture of bark and peat (2: 1) with dolomite flour.
Pafiopedilums are propagated by dividing the bush. When dividing, make sure that there are roots on the sockets.
The orchid blooms and pleases its owner for a long time, the main thing is care and the right conditions for growing a flower. It is recommended that the soil for growing the shoe is regularly moist, energized and with good air. Since the orchid's natural habitat is rocks or earth (that is, a rough surface for the root system), it is not enough to use only the bark of the tree. For better cultivation at home, you should add more, for example, peat, moss or fern roots.
Over the course of the year, you admire the way Pafiopedilum blooms. Observe the condition of the plant itself, as well as its soil. If it is exhausted or spoils, it will be necessary to transplant the flower. Approximately once a year you need to do it. Each new orchid pot should be at least a little, but larger than the previous one. This is necessary for the reason that the root system of the plant grows more and more each time. The best option for a pot for transplanting an orchid would be an ordinary transparent pot with holes. Caring for a plant depends on the transplant procedure, including its frequency.
It is necessary to fertilize the plant. But often this is not worth it. Enough every two weeks or less. If you frequently fertilize, the flower will no longer bloom. For the reproduction of the flower inherent in two ways. You can do this with delenki (three shoots) or with the help of seeds.
Regarding pests - they, like in other plants, can be planted in orchids. The most dangerous of them for this plant is powdery mildew and scutes. The main thing is moisture for the root system of the flower. With its excess, the root and its system, as well as the socket (or rather its base), may rot. And with a lack of moisture, the roots and leaves of the flower just fade. If you water a flower with hard water, a crust may form on it, moreover with rust.
In other words, the proper care of the flower of Pafiopedilum is very important in order to preserve it and admire the plant for more than one year.
Origin and name
Natural species grow in the tropical, monsoon and subtropical climate of South-East Asia in China, India, Nepal and the countries of Oceania. The name Paphiopedilum literally translates as “slipper from Paphos,” the hometown of Venus.
There is a beautiful legend about the plant - the beautiful goddess was in such a hurry to retire in the forest with her beloved Adonis that she lost her golden shoe. A commoner hunter discovered the loss, leaned over to pick it up, and she suddenly became a flower, graceful and extraordinarily beautiful. The appearance of the venereal slipper, and the truth, fascinates with its grace and tenderness.
Lady's Slipper description, or what papiopedilum looks like
The roots of a healthy plant are brownish and covered with small fibers, the tips are white during active development. A shortened stem grows from the rhizome, on which a rosette of belt-like or broad-linear leaves, rich green, in some species with a marble pattern, is formed by a symmetrical two-sided fan.
Each rosette blooms only once, forming a peduncle from 4 to 60 cm long with one shoe, with the exception of the victoria-regina type, which has up to 30 of them, but opening in turn. The flowers of the venereal slipper in most species are large, bright, in red-yellow-greenish shades, especially the lip, which, with its catchy color and sweetish nectar on the inner walls, attracts pollinating insects.
Growing orchids Lady's Slipper
Among the pafiopedilums, epiphytic species are rare. In nature, the representatives of the genus grow, as a rule, in the litter of a tropical forest or as lithophytes - in the crevices of rocks on humus brought by the wind and washed with precipitation. Consequently, in the room content the plant needs to create conditions as close as possible to its natural habitat.
Planting papiopedilum: basic tips
For the cultivation of a venine shoe, an opaque plastic or ceramic pot commensurate with the root system is selected. Transparent containers are also used, but only in order to control the state of the roots and lower layers of the substrate.
Repot the plant annually if it is young, or every 2-3 years, when one of the reasons is present:
- 8-10 or more sockets have been formed in the pot,
- the new escape has grown and matured, and there was a desire to divide;
- after flowering,
- the degree of salinization and decomposition of the substrate affects the general condition of the plant,
- in almost any of the above reasons - in spring.
Some orchid farmers partially replace the potted soil after every 6–8 months.
The basis of substrates for pafiopedilumu take pine bark and peat soil for seedlings in the ratio of 3: 1. As additional components, growers use small quantities of charcoal, coarse river sand, perlite or expanded clay, coconut chips instead of bark, and sphagnum moss to preserve moisture. The pH of the substrate is desirable for most papiopedilums neutral or slightly acidic, with the exception of the calceophils, which are used in nature to grow on limestone rocks.
Home accommodation, lighting and temperature: what's important to remember
A suitable location for pafiopedilum is the windowsills of the northeastern, northwestern, eastern, and western windows, although some species successfully develop in the northern exposure. The room where the plant is contained is often ventilated and in the summer it is moved to the garden.
Flower Venerine slipper prefers diffused light, but at the same time withstands slight shading. Shade-loving plant can not be called.
Regarding the temperature preferences of pafiopedilum, flower growers disagree, but many still argue that the Venus slippers are conditionally divided into those requiring moderate content at temperatures of 18–22 degrees and thermophilic, for which a comfortable temperature is 25–30 degrees and higher. General recommendations are 18–25 degrees in the summer and the permissible short-term decreases in the off-season are not lower than 10 degrees and in the heat to 33. There is no pronounced rest period in papiopedilums.
Watering and Humidity
During the active growing season, the plant lady's slipper is watered regularly and abundantly, however, without fail arranging a short-term drying of the substrate. The flower is very afraid of stagnant water, easily affected by fungi, so the key moment in caring for it is the right balanced watering that instantly changes with any deviations in the indoor microclimate.
Droplets of moisture that fall during watering inside the outlet - the most vulnerable to rotten place, immediately get wet with a dry paper towel. The same procedure is carefully carried out after a warm shower.
Humidity ambient air for the shoe is preferably in the range from 60 to 80%. Increase it in a convenient way for florists - using special devices or arranging a room fountain, place moss-sphagnum over the substrate without touching the root collar, and spray it twice a day from a spray bottle, and also install flower containers on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
Lady's slipper painfully reacts to excess fertilizer, so feed it no more than 2 times a month, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers for orchids, but diluting in half the dose. Top dressings are produced during the growing season, after flowering the plant is resting and practically does not need nutrients.
How to care for shoes during flowering
The formation of buds in most indoor veneers falls at the end of autumn or the beginning of winter. With proper care and maintenance, the plant grows annually a new flowering outlet. A sign of readiness for flowering is the appearance of the so-called signal stop list in the center of the socket, small and tight, from the valves of which the top of the peduncle with a bud will soon appear.
However, it does not always mean that the papiopedilum will bloom. If there were no blunders in the care of the previous year, the slipper will delight the orchidress with a wonderful flower, otherwise the stop list will remain empty, but you should not be completely upset - the probability of the formation of a new outlet is high.
Attention! During the formation of the bud, the plant is not recommended to be disturbed - rearranging to another place, turning the pot around its axis. Do not change anything at all in care!
At the end of flowering shoe needs rest. At this time, the ambient temperature decreases to 15–20 degrees, watering is reduced, and almost no additional feeding is done. Only after “pecking” on the old outlet of the new growth does the old care resume.
Pest and shoe diseases
The orchid pafiopedilum possesses extremely sensitive leaves and a root system. Dying off of leaf plates is often observed. There are several reasons depending on the symptoms of this process:
- the leaf is first covered with yellow, then it turns brown - a natural phenomenon,
- the top of the leaf becomes dark brown, almost black, then the entire brown crawls along the edge of the leaf plate, narrowing towards the central vein - the plant is overfed or affected by the fungus Glomerella cingulata, the anthracnose pathogen.
The fall of flowers, not fully bloomed, is caused by botrytis mold. Light brown spots initially appear on the petals and lip. The reason - lowering the night temperature in a room with high humidity.
The root system of shoes as a result of waterlogging affects fungi, the causative agents of fusarium, rhizoctonia, late blight, pythium.
Among insect pests on venereal shoes, plane-mite mites, or false spider mites, mealybugs and scale insects are more often noticed.
Types of pafiopedilumov
In the genus Pafiopedilum, there are up to 80 species, but their number is constantly changing. The number of natural and artificial hybrids is also changeable, more than a thousand of them have been created. The most famous species in indoor and greenhouse floriculture:
Pretty, or bellatulum - come from Burma. White flowers in crimson specks circle about 8-10 cm, appear in April. The leaves are spotty.
Paphiopedilum Bellatulum (Cute)
Apricot is a very late-discovered species, in 1982, with spectacular sunny yellow flowers with orange throat and spotted foliage.
Paphiopedilum armeniacum (apricot)
Adorable, or beautiful - come from the Himalayas. It blooms at the end of winter in large single flowers about 15 cm in diameter. Lip orange in greenish veins, petals in the same colors, speckled with distinct longitudinal stripes.
Paphiopedilum venustum (Adorable)
White - has a pleasant aroma. Leaves in marble patterns. Flowers are pure white, shining, with a circumference of not more than 8 cm, blooming in summer. Extremely gentle, thermophilic and much less than other species, needs fertilizers.
Paphiopedilum niveum (Snow White)
Lawrence is the birthplace of the island of Borneo. Luxurious view with a gorgeous flower 9–13 cm in circumference. Sail white in longitudinal purple streaks, lip cherry-red. Blooms in spring.
Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum (Lawrence)
Rough-haired - Indian species, blooms continuously from autumn to the beginning or middle of spring. The upper petal is maroon-brown, the edge is greenish-white, the lateral ones are ocher-chocolate hue, the lip is pale brown in reddish divorces.
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Rough)
Monochrome, or konkolor - distributed in southwestern China, in southeastern Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and Laos. Flower up to 5.5–7 cm in diameter, cream or yellowish, rarely white or ecru, covered with small purple peas.
Paphiopedilum concolor (Monochrome)
Wonderful - Himalayan species, blooms from September to February greenish fragrant flowers.
paphiopedilum insigne (Wonderful)
Bearded - the parent of the first artificial hybrid, in culture began to grow up before other natural species. The foliage has an expressive marble pattern, the flowers are painted in red-purple colors: a sail in burgundy stripes on a white background, a lip and side petals of a dark scarlet shade. Blooms in spring.
Paphiopedilum barbatum (Bearded)
Appleton is a large spring-flowering orchid with spotty leaves and a greenish-purple flower up to 10 cm in circumference, originally from Southeast Asia.
Paphiopedilum appletonianum (Appleton)
Venus shoes are rare plants that disappear under natural conditions. In each state, where they grow in the wild, the Red Book of the country or a particular region protects the pafiopedilums.
Wonderful orchids that overcame half of the world in order to live in our house fall into the caring hands of the grower, who are able to cherish, nurture and cherish the amazing creation of nature, giving the world its charm and originality.