“Zilga” is a Universal grape variety with early ripening. This is a hybrid form, the maturation of which falls on the end of July and August. The ripening period of this variety is 102-110 days.
“Zilga” was bred in Latvia in the early 60s of the last century. The breeder P. Sukatnieks used to create a hybrid “Zilga” parental forms of such varieties as “Darkie”, “Dvietes” and “Anniversary Novgorod”.
Today, this variety is grown in the south of Belarus, in the Republics of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, as well as Norway, Sweden and Canada. “Zilga” is highly frost resistant and can be grown without the use of shelters.
One of the distinguishing features of the form “Zilga” is the ability to maintain taste and proper appearance even when the clusters remain on the bush for a long time.
“Zilga” is considered a universal variety with early ripening periods, which are just over a hundred days. The berries ripen by the end of July or early August. Bushes have a great power of growth.
The shoots are distinguished by good maturing, their fruitfulness ranges from 80 to 85% of the total.
Fruits differ in large size and have an average weight from 4.1 to 4.3 grams. The shape of the berries is oval, color is blue. In the structure of the pulp of the fetus, there is some mucus.
The form of clusters is cylindrical, they differ in density and large size. The average bunch weight ranges from 320 to 400 grams.
Indicators of sugar content of this variety range from 18 to 22/100%, and acidity from 4.5 to 5 g / l. Slightly colored juice. On the scale of tasting assessment grapes correspond to 7.1 points.
The grade possesses good frost resistance, maintains frosts of -25 and more degrees. Transportability indicators are good. “Zilga” has good resistance to defeat by odium, mildew and gray rot.
The variety “Zilga” is distinguished by unpretentiousness and low demands on the composition of the soil.
Before you start planting seedlings, you will need to inspect them for any damage. Plants must be developed and free from defects, both in the root system and in the outer parts.
In addition, it is necessary to prune weak and poorly developed shoots.
We give the basic rules for planting grapes "Zilga":
Planted grape variety "Zilga" can be in spring or autumn. If planting of seedlings is planned for autumn, then it should be done a month before the cold. When spring planting the soil must be prepared in advance, even in the fall, namely to make rows for seedlings. The place planned for the vineyard is also important. It should be protected from the wind, so it is better to choose a site on an elevation. Sunlight and heat are necessary for ripening a quality crop. Therefore, when choosing a site, it is necessary to pay attention to how it is heated by the sun. When planting bushes of this variety, it is necessary to adhere to the planting pattern of 3 x 1.5 m. Since Zilgi has a high growth force, the grapes will need support. The first 7-8 days after planting the plant must be actively watered. Also, grapes need good watering during a drought.
Important! You should not choose an area with close groundwater, the grapes need light soil with the addition of peat, humus or sand.
Like any plant, the Zilga variety needs fertilizer. However, fertilizing in the form of granules is not suitable, because it contains salt in large quantities. This can be detrimental to the plant. It is best to use organic types of fertilizers.
The land intended for the cultivation of grapes must be freed from weed plants that interfere with the warming of the soil, which is bad for quantitative and qualitative indicators of the harvest.
In addition, in frequent cases of weeds are allocated groups of substances that harm grape bushes. Also nearby agricultural crops may influence.
Every bush needs to be created all the conditions for healthy and normal growth.
It is important not to forget about the timely watering of grapes “Zilga”.
The formation of bushes by pruning should begin in the second year after their disembarkation. This is necessary to ensure free growth of the grapes. After that, while cutting for the third year, you need to select the strongest stalks on the bush, and remove the weak shoots. The allowable number of sleeves depends on the strength of the growth of the bush and the conditions of its growth.
Since the Zilga variety is an early variety, lashes can form in large quantities. It is necessary to remove them, if this is not done, it can lead to the fact that the grapes will freeze in the winter months if it grows in the northern region. In the south, the frost does not harm the crop, but the branches of the bush will intertwine, which will not allow the plant to develop and bear fruit normally.
Note! Every year when pruning grapes "Zilga" removed most of the shoots.
So it should be, it will not harm the bushes, but will allow it to grow as it should. Trim “Zilgu” gently short enough, leaving the kidneys in an amount of from 5 to 7 pieces.
The best time to trim the bushes is autumn. After that, they must be covered, thus preparing the plant for the winter cold. It is likely that some branches with the onset of spring will be unusable. In this case, they are deleted.
In cases when the bushes were not pruned in the fall, this should be done with the onset of spring, better in the first weeks. Of course, this is not very useful for the plant, but still much better than leaving it uncircumcised.
Note. Branches damaged by winter frosts should not be run away immediately, even if they seem to be completely lifeless. In most cases, they come back to life after a while.
To trim this variety is also necessary in order for adult bushes to maintain the desired shape.
Observing the basic rules for planting "Zilgi" and care, you can achieve abundant and high-quality harvest.
Zilga grape variety - Euro-American hybrid. It ripens very early, 120-125 days. Graft bush of medium height, own-rooted - above average.
The leaves are whole or slightly dissected, with three lobes. They are large, dense, covered with a small patina below. The vine ripens well. This valuable grape Zilga. Description of its berries is presented below.
Flowers grape Zilga bisexual. After pollination, in their place, medium-sized berries are formed, up to 3 g. The name of the variety indicates the color of the berries. "Zilga" in Russian means "bluish". Berries and in fact bluish, purple, covered with a bluish bloom.
Tasters grapes Zilga tasters rated at 3.2 points. It is noticeable notes of the famous Isabella. The pulp of ripe berries is jelly-like, mucous. The juice is purple, fragrant. The thin skin is Zilga grape variety. Feedback from users suggests that it is removed from the berries in the form of a bag. In each berry there are 2-3 rather large kernels.
On each shoot 2 and even 3 short loose bunches are formed. On average, for one escape they account for 1.3. The shape of the cluster may be conical, with a cylindrical base, less often - a blade or winged. The number of berries in one bunch is up to 50. Weight is up to 120 g, the average is 88 g.
From one bush on average receive up to 12 kg of berries.
Zilga grapes ripen in late August. Reviews gardeners say that if the berries are not harvested, they will hang for a long time, puffing on the sun. If the wasps do not spoil them, the berries will become sweeter and may even turn into raisins.
Winter hardiness varieties are very high. Shrubs can withstand temperatures as low as 32 degrees of frost. Therefore, they can not hide in regions where such cold happens infrequently.
The variety is quite resistant to diseases. But in the rainy summer, when the fungi develop actively, it can be affected by mildew, oidium and gray rot. Treated with drugs designed to combat these diseases.
Zilga grapes are made specifically for regions with a harsh climate. It is intended for non-growing in the northern regions.
- eat fresh
- cooked compotes
- crush the juice
- make wine.
Zilga grapes can be grown in several ways:
- easy to grow grapes from cuttings
- layering - the best way to get a young grape bush. Unfortunately, this possibility is not always there,
- from purchased seedlings. Of course, before this, someone must grow a sapling in one of the above ways.
It is necessary to plant a grape bush in places where the sum of average daily temperatures will be as much as possible. Grapes are very picky about heat and light. In the shade can grow, but the wait is problematic. In addition, there he is often affected by disease.
Planting grapes Zilga
If you plant a rooted seedling from a container, you need to take into account that the heel roots there are up to 15 cm below the soil level. They need to be placed at a depth of 40 cm.
If this cannot be done because the vine is too short, do not completely fill the pit for planting until the vine has grown to the desired height. And it is better to buy a sapling longer than 40 cm.
Pit for planting grapes dig not less than 60 cm in depth. Prepare the soil by adding nutrients and trace elements. The Zilga grape variety belongs to Euro-American hybrids, which grow best in neutral soil with a pH of 7. But the presence of an isabel tone in taste indicates a relationship with the American type of Labruska. And these varieties grow better on slightly acidic soils with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Therefore, the liming of the soil will certainly be superfluous. The deoxidizer must be added further in the process of growth.
The distance between the bushes - from 1.25 to 2 m in a row. Shrubs of Zilga variety are vigorous, so you need to look where their crown will be placed.
In the northern regions, Zilga grapes are best planted on the south side of the stone wall. It will protect the bush from the wind, and the sun's rays, reflected from the wall, will increase the temperature on the soil surface near the bush.
It is necessary to plant a bush so that further its basis would not stand in water. Grapes do not like soaking.
Grapes should be fertilized, but not granulated fertilizers, which contain a large amount of salt. From organic it is better to use rotted manure.
The area on which the grapes grow, must be completely free from weeds and grass. It helps the earth to warm up better, which is very useful for growth, fruiting and ripening grapes.
Weeds can inhibit grapes, which is why it grows poorly and endures the winter even worse. Some wild plants produce substances harmful to grapes.
Some crops have the same effect: eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers.
Each bush can create more comfortable conditions for growth. There are many ways to do this: laying bricks on the bottom of the pit before planting, putting a hill on the north side, using dark plastic bottles, a dark film.
Watering the grapes is an important part of caring for the bush. Do not allow the soil to dry out.
The grape bush begins to form from the second year of life. Before that, he is allowed to grow freely. In the third year, select some of the strongest stems that are allowed on the sleeves. The remaining shoots are removed. The number of sleeves is determined by the strength of the bush and growing conditions.
Like any early variety, Zilga grapes tend to form a large number of lashes. If they are not removed, then in the northern regions of the vine will not have time to ripen and freeze in the winter. In the south it will not be damaged by frost, but the bush will turn into a tangle of woven branches. Even if the berries are tied up and ripe there, it will be extremely difficult to pick them.
It turns out that every year significantly more branches are removed than they remain. Sometimes it even seems that the bush will need to be restored for several years. But it goes to the bush and the harvest is only good.
Zilga grapes are cut short. On one scourge 5-7 buds are left. Pruning is best done in the fall, before the bushes are covered for the winter. Perhaps in the spring of the lashes will be unsuitable. Then they can be removed without serious consequences. But do not rush to clean the branches on the bush, which was damaged by frost. There is a high probability that the kidneys will move away a little later.
If for some reason it was not possible to cut the vine in the fall, do it in early spring. After pruning, the vine will probably “cry”, but still the result will be better than on an uncircumcised bush.
Trimming performs another function. Thanks to this operation, the volume of an adult bush can be maintained within the required framework.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Zilga grapes were bred as a hybrid form that could form a decent crop of high-quality berries in the difficult climatic conditions of the Baltic countries. The variety has the following advantages:
- the hybrid form is not damaged by wasps,
- unpretentiousness of grape bushes and no need to carry out the normalization of the crop,
- indicators of resistance to oidium and mildew damage are 4 points, which implies three standard sprays during the vegetation period,
- the possibility of growing as an uncovered culture in the southern regions of our country,
- high rooting rates of cuttings,
- the versatility of the use of ripe berries,
- frost resistance of fruit buds to -29 ° C.
In addition, the variety is characterized by evenness of berries and good taste. These consumer benefits are complemented by the ability to transport and store the harvested crop for a long time.
Particular attention should be paid to newly planted, young grape bushes. With proper digging of the soil, mineral fertilizers can be applied no more than once every three years. Organic fertilizer in the form of manure should be made in a year. It is not recommended to use pig manure for top dressing of the vineyard.
The load on one bush Zilga grapes should be from 35 to 45 eyes. Pruning of the vine should be carried out on 5-7 eyes. Experts recommend a multi-arm, fan-shaped, vineyard formation on the trellis. With a large formation from each bush in the home viticulture, you can get about 23 kg of berries.
Zilga grapes are often cultivated in the southern regions of Belarus without the use of shelter for the winter. The hybrid form is widely used in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Sweden, and is also cultivated in Norway, America and Canada. It belongs to the category of the earliest hybrids in northern homegrown viticulture. The harvest can remain for a long time on the grape bushes without losing its taste and visual appeal.
The hybrid form "Zilga" has a large number of admirers who have been cultivating this particular grape in their household plots for many years. Gardeners note that even in the wettest years, when other varieties and modern hybrids with a declared high resistance show a strong epidhytotic mildew, clusters of “Zilga” are not affected and remain healthy.
According to many gardeners, this variety is good for winemaking. Wine from this grape has a rich taste and a pleasant aftertaste with a slight sourness. The color is thick, bright, the taste of the drink over time become better.
How to prune grapes in autumn (video)
How to accelerate the ripening of grapes
The optimum temperature for grape development is 20–30 ° C. A few simple techniques will create a comfortable environment for its cultivation and reduce the waiting time for the crop.
We create comfortable conditions for grapes
- We form a volume bush, uniformly heated by the sun.
- From the north side we install white screens. If the vine grows around the house, paint the wall white.
- We keep the surface of the earth dry by irrigating through a pipe and installing, if possible, a visor or a canopy over the plant.
- By preparation of a hole we lay boards or logs for thermal insulation.
- We equip the thermal groove of dark plastic bottles with water, its depth is 20 cm.
- We mulch the soil in the area of planting gravel or pebbles. In the spring you can put a black spunbond.
- In the summer under the bush, lay out the CD - ROM to reflect the sunlight.
Growing in a greenhouse for 2 - 3 weeks will bring the time for picking berries. Grapes can be planted in a greenhouse with tomatoes, placing it near the north wall.
Nothing in him is good. Not mildew-resistant, taste is mediocre, typical labrusca, gained 21% of sugar in Kolomna, strong allergens juice and wine, eventually everyone starts to scratch after labrusok, even those who praise them today.
Victor 55 (Kolomna MO)
Iron grade for northerners. Zilga and Juoduppe last year pollinated in extreme conditions, fog in the morning, rain in the afternoon, cold at night, and even that ... they were pollinated by 5+. And one of the few matured, although the summer was not one of the beautiful ones. I like the taste, I will add a couple more bushes.
Gennady Aleksandrovich (Udmurtia)
У меня в этом году ЗИЛГА просто потрясающая — грозди плотные (до 400 грамм), ягоды крупные, не гниют, сладкие (уже 19%), осы не долбают, не болеет, вкус насыщенный и долгий, с оригинальным тоном лёгкой лабруски.
У меня Зилга растёт уже четыре года. Ни разу ничем не болела. На сегодняшний день лоза вымахала за 2,5 м. И гроздей на кусте около полусотни. Они, конечно, не большие, но всё равно очень много. Вино делали из неё в прошлом году, не имея, с чем сравнивать, понравилось, намного лучше магазинного. Ягоды набирают сахара до приторности. Это мой самый любимый куст. Of course, the berries are tastier, but Zilga is the most trouble-free.
And yet she ripened! Without any tricks to improve CAT! This year, CAT does not reach 1900 degrees. The first fruiting, left 2 brushes to escape, did not notice, in some places there were 3 brushes. Zilga pulled it all out. Continued to gain sugar after frost, for a quarter of those who killed the foliage, with average daily temperatures ranging from 4 to 13 degrees. The harshness in the taste has disappeared, the juice from the berry is just sweet. For comparison, Varduva did not ripen under the same conditions, although she had a dozen brushes.
Record for resistance grade Zilga. The variety that has become widespread in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Sweden, Norway, the USA and Canada. One of the earliest varieties of northern viticulture. Resistant to diseases and winter hardy. We have uncovered in Lithuania, carries -35 gr. My sugar content reaches 18%. ... Zilga bears fruits well at large formations. The variety is fruitful, gives a large number of fruitful shoots. In Lithuania, it is used for gardening of outbuildings, various arbors, arches. Berries are used fresh and homemade wine.
... I bought Zilgu this summer, the vine had already ripened and the leaves turned red. In the winter I will cover as roses - a tunnel of arcs and lutrasil-60 in several layers, because if a matured vine can withstand a decent frost, then the roots are only up to - 7 degrees.
... Zilga grapes (latv. Of selection) are not covered here, it is cold-resistant, it ends the growing season early. If you are young, it is better to remove them from the support for the winter and cover, for example, with a mat. I simply lower my Zilga to the ground, and I never froze everything, even without a snow cover. This year I will not shoot at all, just cut it off.
Riga resident (Riga)
This is my first harvest. Zilga and Star B ... It so happened that this year they were left unattended and not hiding, not clipped, not watered, not fed. They collected kg 5. They are almost the same in taste, only Zilga has become sweeter before, in August, and Star B was collected in September. Everything would be fine, only the bones there are large, that would be such and pitted ...
Valeria (Moscow region)
Hibernate this year with absolutely no cover, only the vines, Golden Potapenko and Zilga are bent. So let's see how they wake up, as far as winter-hardy.
Northerner (St. Petersburg)
http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t= 9038 & page = 11
Climate changes caused by global warming are favorable for shifting the boundaries of viticulture towards the northern regions. In the north, the lack of days with positive temperatures is compensated by the length of daylight hours. Regularly, new varieties appear that are not as demanding of heat as their southern relatives. Zilga winter hardy superearly grapes are promising for cultivation in the northern regions. If you follow the rules for caring for them in the fall, the vine will be pleased with a good harvest of berries with a specific “isabelny” taste.