Sweet cherries occupy a special place in the garden of an experienced gardener, and those who decide to plant it for the first time, because the characteristic sweetish taste is so popular with both adults and children.
In order for the quality fruits of the beautiful sweet cherry trees to delight us, we need the right care for the tree.
And this is not only watering and digging, but also timely pruning, which should not harm, but also help to increase the yield and longevity of the plant.
This article pays attention to the most important stage in the care of sweet cherry - pruning. In order not to destroy the trees, you need to have basic knowledge to remove branches and shoots. It would be nice to begin by considering the question of what types of sweet pruning exist.
Types of pruning
1) Formative pruning. It is held in the first year of planting cherries and is the very first tree pruning. From the name it is clear that we need to form a skeleton of a tree, a strong base, because it will have the same branches in the crown, as well as create optimal conditions for the ripening of sweet cherry fruits. It is performed in early spring, when the cherry is still in the stage of sleep.
2) Pruning during fruiting - this is a type of pruning, when during the ripening of fruits they get rid of broken, infected and those that densely cover the crown of shoots. Be sure to slow down the growth of the central conductor and skeletal branches, this action is carried out to transfer growth to the weakest side shoots. This is especially true for the higher tier of the crown.
3) Anti-aging pruning - This is a type of pruning, which is carried out when the fruit is damped. To extend the time of fruiting and increase the amount of harvest of berries, it is necessary to shorten the branches of all orders.
When is it better to cut the sweet cherry in spring, summer, or in the fall? If we form the correct crown of a tree, then spring, namely March, before the buds swell, is best suited. After all, when we make a bleed, the tree sap will not flow out, and the wound on the branches will quickly heal.
Sanitary pruning, and this removal of diseased and unnecessary branches is best done in the fall. Freedom from dry, non-fruiting shoots, remove excess weight from the cherry and prepare it for winter.
Trimming is not recommended during the winter months.because the wood at this time of the year is fragile due to the low temperature, and the cuts are of poor quality and nonhealing for a long time.
Cropping and crown formation have cherries need to be carried out annually. Its shoots grow very quickly, they need to be restrained in growth, to direct in a certain form. When the cherry starts to please us with fruits, you need to remove the conductor, which is located in the center.
This will slightly stop its growth and translate into lateral branches, which will subsequently provide the potential for the development of new fruit formations. Always remove the branches that go inside the crown, prevent the development of sharp forks.
To date, the universal scheme of cherishing is not invented. But common cropping rules We can safely assume control over the growth of the tree and its direction.
In one of the European countries, gardeners invented an interesting method, thanks to which you can easily pick fruits, for example, standing on your feet, without the use of stairs. It is interesting in that the branches of the trees are trying to send in a horizontal rather than a vertical direction, as many are accustomed to, cutting only the tip of the center escape.
Such a pruning scheme is called cupped, that is, pruning is done so that the branches grow at an angle of 45 degrees. Her negative side is that the tree needs to support the branches, since under the weight they can break.
Sure to we need to form a crown; if we do not do this, we will get a very high tree with highly rarefied branches. How to harvest with such a sweet cherry?
The best height for it is from 3.5 to 4 m, and the crown should be round or flat-round, this will help to collect a high yield, and care will make it easy. Let's consider what is main types of crowns of cherry trees.
Sparse tier crown. This type of crown formation is considered the best for sweet cherries. Trees of this form have a stem 60–70 cm tall, then the trunk goes, on which the lower tier of the first order branches is located.
These are 3-4 main branches, which are located on different sides of the conductor, and not over each other. The following skeletal branches are located 60–80 cm above the first tier and at a distance of 40–50 cm from each other, and most importantly, they are not located above the lower branches, but in the spaces between them when looking at them from above.
In the first year, when the tree was just planted, it is necessary to measure the height of the trunk, approximately 60–70 cm, then count from 4 to 6 buds (of which skeletal branches will be formed) and cut over the upper bud.
Next spring, from the young shoots that have grown, we will form the first tier of the crown of sweet cherries. To do this, select 3–4 branches, leaving them 50–65 cm in length, the center conductor is cut off at a height of 60–70 cm from the upper branch of the first crown layer already formed by us, while counting 4 buds from which the first order branches of the second order will be formed. tier.
In the third year it is important to thin the crown, cut the shoots that are located at an acute angle to the conductor or grow inside the crown. Pay attention that the branches of the second order are not longer than the skeletal branch of the first order, and even better shorter by 10–15 cm, cut them to the desired length. We measure on the central conductor from the second tier to 40–50 cm, count from 4 to 6 buds and cut above the upper bud, they will give us branches of the third tier.
In the fourth year, you need to prevent the central conductor from rising high. To do this, trim the conductor over a weak lateral shoot at 50 cm. We grow the branches of the third tier by 20 cm shorter than the central conductor. All extensions of the skeletal branches should be approximately 70–80 cm, and if they are shorter than this length, they are not are touching. Do not forget to do sanitary pruning.
For all subsequent years, the task is to control the height of cherries and to do the same pruning as in the fourth year, to ensure that the side branches do not exceed 50 cm.
Flattened crown - considered the most popular among gardeners. After planting the one-year-old sapling in the spring, pruning is carried out at a distance of 70–80 cm from the ground, and in June, a center conductor and two branches, which must grow from opposite sides, are cut off, all excess shoots are cut off.
Next spring, in March, we see that the overgrown lower branches lay at a distance of 40–50 cm, and the main conductor should be higher than the lateral branches by approximately 20 cm. In May, we measure up to 50–60 cm from the lower tier and choose the following two opposite branches. The remaining shoots are deleted. In the third year, when the upper tier of the crown is already formed, it is necessary to trim the key conductor where there is a weak lateral branching.
Bushy crown. Trees of this type are low and convenient for gathering fruits, but they occupy a lot of space in width. After planting the seedling in the spring, it is shortened to 70 cm from the ground. We measure 20 cm from the crown and remove all the kidneys. In June, you need to choose 5-6 strong shoots that grow most evenly, the rest need to break off.
For the next spring, the grown skeletal branches should be tried to give a horizontal position, and also cut along the edges of the branches by 10–12 buds. In the summer, we follow the removal of second-order branches that grow in the vertical direction.
In the third year, thinning is necessary - we cut off the branches of the second order, which intersect. For the branches of the second, third order and higher in the following years we carry out work, as in the third year, where it is necessary to shorten and thin out.
Pruning sweet cherry in autumn time should pay attention to the fact that it is necessary to form a sparse-tier or cupped crown. Patients infected, broken branches are removed immediately, regardless of the time of year.
Before you start pruning cherries, once again remember all the tips and rules derived from this article, take a look at your tree and proceed, know the correct pruning guarantee of high yield and longevity of your tree.
The main goal of the formative annual pruning is to gradually create the correct frame for the young plant. Skeletal branches are left after trimming with a "cone", in which the lower part of the crown acts as a broad base. This form of crown allows you to create a uniform thickening on all sides, with each side of the tree equally blown by the wind.
The tree cherry, which has not been cut for a long time, is treated carefully, gradually bringing its height to three meters. If you cut all the branches at once, the tree will hurt.
Pruned in the fall of large non-skeleton branches, thickening the crown. Also remove those that grow at a right angle to the trunk.Felt cherries, like all stone fruits, are pruned twice a year. Her pruning in the fall is carried out at a time when the growth of shoots has already stopped, and the frosty weather has not yet arrived. If in the spring the young shoots on some branches do not grow, then the bush is cut off strongly enough. In the summer, all parts of the plant infected with a monilial burn are removed and burned. These are the branches, on which after flowering for some time all the leaves have blackened and fell off. If this is not done on time, they will soon grow back and it will be difficult to distinguish them from healthy ones.Shorten the shoots, the length of which is more than 30 cm. Remove the branches that hinder the growth of others. Then shorten the trunk so that it is 20 cm higher than the side branches.Non-selective pruning of cherries consists in cutting a branch over any bud. It is produced in order to get young fruitful shoots. They grow from the buds under the pruning place. The growth direction is determined by the kidney, which is under the cut. The size of the tree with such pruning is not reduced, but it becomes more fluffy.There are three of them:
As a rule, you can cut the cherries in the winter, but on condition that the temperature does not fall below -8 degrees. Slices are sensitive to cold, so this operation should not be performed in severe frost.Pruning cherries is one of the most important tree care products. And yet, many gardeners, fearing a significant reduction of the fruit, do not dare to prune the branches. Others consider this a useless exercise, which can also weaken a tree and thereby cause irreparable harm to it. However, in reality, this is a consequence of not knowing how to cut the cherries correctly, and committing, as a result, common mistakes.
Special, winter-hardy varieties. As in most plants of stone fruit crops, the sweetness of buds is high in cherries. However, shoots are formed only from the closest to the apical. Because of this, cherries and longline placement of the branches are clearly pronounced in the cherry tree. Cherry is bearing on the annual branches and on the bouquet branches. In adult plants, almost the entire crop, or rather more than three-quarters of it, is placed on the bouquet sprigs. The explanation is simple. Lateral branches are possible only on branches that are longer than 30-40 cm, and on those that are shorter and weaker, which is typical for adult plants, only bouquet branches are formed. When the length of annual growths of branches is less than 15 cm, only one apical one will grow vegetative. bud, and the remaining lateral florals are formed. After flowering and fruiting in their place, except for the scar, nothing remains. It is on these biological features of cherries that the whole system of its formation and trimming is built.
Let us consider in detail how this type of pruning is performed by year:
Much better tolerated pruning felted cherry. Care and cultivation, pruning of these bushes are very different from those for the tree. Trees more easily tolerate radical pruning, but their branches are still shortened in two sets. One year cut frame, the next - minor. Young fruit trees are not removed to get a harvest on it.
All wounds are treated with garden barb. No less effective, and other similar means that will protect them from frost. Their use is mandatory.
The summer pruning scheme takes into account that removing the main (skeletal) branches during a hot season is not very beneficial for the health of the tree. Wounds will be delayed for a long time. But pruning cherries in the summer is still carried out. It includes crown correction and removal of diseased and broken branches.
All these procedures must be done before the onset of active sap flow. Otherwise, the tree will weaken and become sick.
Selective pruning is to remove parts of branches selectively. Usually make a cut over the side branch. Its diameter is two times smaller than the diameter of the shoot, which is removed. Thin branches are cut to the bud. As a result, the height of the tree decreases, it becomes thicker.
Since cherries and other stone fruit grow very quickly in the garden, they must be pruned annually and begin at a young age. The scheme of cutting young cherries is to remove the branches before the appearance of buds, so that she has time to get stronger during the growing season.
Most often, pruning is carried out in early spring, when the juice has not yet begun to actively circulate.
Meanwhile, the regular removal of unnecessary and unnecessary branches, the thinning of the crown has significant benefits. The yield increase increases several times, and the cherry berries become larger. The crown of the tree is formed correctly, without one-sidedness and thickening. The tree does not age any longer and rejuvenates after such a procedure. In addition, timely pruning of sick and old cherry branches provides prevention and additional protection against pests.
Types of pruning
After planting the seedling he leaves some of the most powerful, developed branches, while the rest are removed under the ring without leaving hemp. Place cut cut with garden pitch. Moreover, the remaining branches should be directed in different directions, located 10–13 cm relative to each other. This is how the first planting is carried out after the planting, so as not to spray the growth force from the main branches.
- In the summer, a similar operation is carried out only if the tree is already well developed. Young seedlings will only suffer in this case, since the removal of branches with green leaves will deprive them of useful substances and forces. In the autumn, such care is preventive and sanitary. Removing non-bearing, old, diseased, dry branches, the tree gets rid of unnecessary burden and is prepared for winter. More specifically, you can familiarize yourself with the cherry trimming video attached below.
- If the question arises how to cut the cherries correctly, it should be understood that this operation is carried out in a clear-cut pattern and is an important part of caring for the tree.
- The best form of the crown - sparse-tiered, although some others are suitable. It is possible in the form of a bowl and even a bush.
The lower shoots (3-4 pcs.) Are cut, leaving their length of about 0.6 m. The remaining shoots are cut according to a given level, and the upper part (central) is cut so that the branch on which the left 4 healthy kidneys.
But if for several years in a row it is correct to carry out this procedure in the spring, then the autumn pruning of the cherry may not be necessary.
In spring, young saplings are pruned later than old ones. After all, they still do not have fruit buds, which, in the stone fruit, bloom much earlier than the leaf ones.
Ensure that all branches are well lit by the sun as much of the day as possible. This will improve the quality of the fruit and allow more flower buds to form. It is the shortening in the summer of annual shoots of tree-like cherries will allow you to get them as much as possible. A fruit branch will grow from each bud below the cut.
Why carry out the procedure
Remove all weak or branchless branches. The rest must be cut to the first strong branching.
Cherry itself is not very tall and quite fluffy. Maybe it shouldn't be cut off at all? It turns out that cherry is a short-lived plant. She begins to bear fruit early, but quickly grows old. The tree lives about 15 years. Then it stops producing and the whole cherry dries. Care and cultivation, pruning aims to ensure that the tree lived and fruited as long as possible.
In a two-year-old young tree, pruning consists in forming a crown, preventing excessive thickening of the bush. For what growing branches inside the crown are removed, and shoots growing on the trunk, break off in the summer, when they are still green, or they are pruned the next year. So that the cherry was not too high, the tree-growing varieties shorten the branches growing up. On the same bushy varieties pruned shoots that have reached at least 50 cm in length.
Depending on the maximum size of an adult tree, fruiting and growth, cherries are divided into two types: bush and tree. Such varieties as Bolotovskaya, Fertile, Lyubskaya belong to the bush. Плодоносят они, как правило, на однолетних побегах и образуют дерево небольшого размера с невысокими штамбами. Основная задача обрезки такой вишни заключается в поддержании активного роста побегов.
Существует два способа обрезки плодовых деревьев: прореживание и укорачивание. Trimming or shortening is the partial removal of the upper part of the branches, fruit and shoots. This method enhances the growth of young shoots, contributes to the thickening of the main branches and stimulates the rapid development of buds, which are located below the cut. Thinning or cutting is to remove the branches, fruits and shoots entirely. This method of pruning allows to improve the air-light mode, protecting the crown from excessive thickening, thereby enhancing the fruit formations.
A bowl-shaped crown is formed about the same as in an apple tree. Cherry, grown by the bush, has a short segment of the trunk, on which a dozen or even slightly more than the main branches are evenly placed. They are directed in different directions in order to evenly accommodate in space. Such a crown, reaching a height of 3 m, resembles a ball. And yet, if you have to choose the shape of the crown for the cherry, give preference to sparsely longline. It is more understandable, less capricious and will not present surprises. The surprises are nice and pleasant, but you should stay away from unpleasant ones. Let scientists work over the bowl and the ball.
The formation of the second tier are engaged only in the third year. Between the tiers, they maintain a distance of the same 0.6 m. The new tier consists of shoots whose length will be less than the first tier by a quarter.
Each deleted diseased branch is replaced by another. This allows you to rejuvenate the tree and get a good harvest.
For the formation of the crown choose 6 branches, which will later be the main. The distance between them should be from 8 to 15 cm. All the rest are cut out completely on the ring. The branches directed inside the crown are removed. If there are two parallel shoots, then leave one of them, the one that is located at a less acute angle.
Pinching young shocked shoots is easily tolerated by a tree, does not leave wounds, so you can perform it all summer.
Felt cherry pruning
After such a strong pruning a large number of young strong shoots will surely appear. But they do not need so much. Therefore, in the summer the extras are removed. In addition, they all usually grow vertically. In order to change the direction of their growth, it is necessary in the summer to bind the left top, carefully take it as far as possible from the conductor and fix it in this position, tying the rope to a peg in the ground or another object.
There are different and rather contradictory opinions about the results of the cherry pruning. Some gardeners are her opponents. Others believe that the harvest after the procedure increases several times. And finally, there are gardeners who argue that if the cherry is properly cut, it will produce fewer berries, but it will live longer.
There are three types of pruning:
As the cherry grows further, new skeletal branches should be left in the amount of 13-17 pieces, this will allow the crown to form symmetrically and correctly. In due time it is necessary to delete the dried, damaged branches. The video clip shows all the nuances of pruning a young cherry.
When the spray cherries begin to bare the ends of the branches, they are significantly shortened to one-third the length or even half of the shoot. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches are shortened to the lateral branch, which are well developed and grow upwards, or to the dormant buds. It should be borne in mind that pruning of skeletal branches is carried out in one year, and half-skeletal in another, thus, the tree adapts faster and gives a good harvest. One-year growths that appear as a result of such pruning should not be removed, since the growth bud located at the end of the branch is cut off and the shoot may die after fruiting. Cut only shoots 45-55 cm long, which contributes to their branching in consequence. Cutting is better to do on the side branching, and not on the ring.
Pruning cherries in summer. Scheme. The main features of the procedure
After planting and the start of seedling development, it is important to form a regular, symmetrical crown. Go
1. Blooming on the premature branches of the cherry plum usually lags 5-8 days. This may be enough to leave.
All young shoots (grown inside) are superfluous, they are cut off in the fourth year. Each main branch is shortened to 0.7 m. The upper tier should not exceed the central branch; in any case, it should be shorter by 2 cm.
In order for the crop to be abundant, and the cherry tree itself perfectly endured harsh winters, the branches should be pruned annually, thus forming the desired shape - the crown. It is only necessary to engage in pruning cherries at a certain time and pruning should be done correctly, ignorance of the rules for the formation of crown cherries can lead not only to a sharp decrease in yield, disease, but also the death of the plant itself!
An adult cherry tree should have no more than 10 main branches, a felt bush - up to 15.
At this time, remove the broken branches. If the cherry is very “curly”, then thin it out. You can break out young shoots, thickening crown.
With a significant exposure of the branches and the attenuation of the growth of the pagons, they are slightly rejuvenated, cutting off to a well-developed side branch, which is located on 3-4 year old wood. In case of emergency, rejuvenation is made deeper - by 4-6 summer wood, at the same time cutting branches of a second-order cherry.
Pruning is desirable to conduct annually
From the devastating spring frosts. Therefore, do not neglect the summer pruning, which causes the appearance of premature shoots.
For the next years of the life of the cherry, the internal shoots are cut, and the main ones are shortened a little, thus avoiding thickening.
In addition, if the cherry is not limited in growth, it will grow to large sizes, which, in fact, is not good, since most of the branches will be practically useless, they will not have fruiting, and the plant nutrients will be pretty much pulled out. Go
So, in order to limit the growth of cherries, to form its correct shape, and also to allow the plant to grow properly and abundantly bear fruit, it is necessary to prune cherries, taking into account the simple features of this difficult task! The most important thing in pruning cherries is that you need to have time to complete this business before the cherry is covered with buds, and especially with leaves and flowers! Well, and further features of pruning depend solely on the age of the cherry tree.
Different types of cherries are cut in different ways.
In the fall, the cherries are cut so that it can withstand the harshest winter frosts with minimal losses. But it must be done correctly. Otherwise, the plant may not survive the winter.
- On the annual shoots up to half a meter, almost all the buds are vegetative, so the yield on them is small. The optimal length of branches - up to 40 cm.
- Pruning cherries in spring is very important. It starts in April when the kidneys swell. Then it becomes noticeably frozen branches that need to be removed. But you need time to active movement of juices. Otherwise the tree will be weakened.
- Selective processing.
- This video covers the most common mistakes when cutting. The scheme of pruning of young cherry trees and its main difference from the rejuvenation of other fruit crops is available.
- Pruning cherry trees is similar to bush trimming, however, besides thinning the crown of young trees in the garden, shortening is used to remove the fork, strengthen the fruit branches and subordinate the branches. Shorten should only be long shoots, but leave short without cutting.
How to cut the spring cherry
For the tree to bear fruit regularly, pruning is carried out annually, following certain rules. In fact, pruning cherries is in many ways similar to removing extra branches not from cherries, but it still has some peculiarities.
This article will describe the main features of cutting cherry, which must be taken into account, because the wrong or untimely removal of the branches can weaken or destroy the tree.
To form a tree correctly, you need to take into account the peculiarities of this culture. For example, you can not touch the plants younger than a year or a culture whose height does not exceed 50 cm. This is due to the fact that these seedlings are still too weak, and may simply not move the procedure.
One of the most popular forms of crown is discharged-tiered, which is formed so (Figure 2):
- On the first tier there are two adjacent branches, above which (approximately at a distance of 20 cm) there is a third branch of the first tier,
- The second tier consists of two strong shoots, located at a distance of 70 cm from the first,
- At a height of 35 cm from the second tier, leaving only one strong branch.
This form is considered the most successful, as it allows you to get a stable crop of large berries, and the tree itself does not lose vitality for the development of excess shoots.
Tools for work
Removal of excess branches is carried out using conventional garden tools. Young shoots can be shortened with normal shears, and for large trunks you will need a garden saw.
All tools must be sharp and clean, as rust may cause illness. In addition, the entire inventory must be disinfected, so as not to accidentally infect the culture with an infection. After completion of the procedure, the cut-off areas are covered with garden pitch or special paint.
Dates of cherry pruning
In the past, cherries were considered exclusively southern cultures, but now they are successfully cultivated in temperate climates, using winter-hardy varieties for this purpose.
Since the buds of the tree awaken early, pruning is carried out in early March or in autumn, when the culture begins to prepare for winter. In some cases, the winter and summer procedures are allowed, but it should be used only when absolutely necessary (for example, during illness) in order not to injure the tree once again. Next will be considered the features of the procedure, depending on the season.
The term of spring pruning directly depends on the climate in which the tree will be grown. For example, in the southern regions, planting is best done in the fall, and crown formation in the spring (after a year and a half). In a temperate climate, seedlings are planted in the spring, and the first shaping is carried out in a year.
Note: It is advisable not to touch the tree until its height reaches 50-70 cm. Saplings of smaller height are still very weak, and will not be able to transfer the procedure normally.
Spring pruning is carried out according to certain rules:
- In the first spring, the central trunk is shortened: 6 strong buds are counted and cut over them. Side shoots do not touch.
- In the second year, they start forming the lower tier of the branches. To do this, select the 4 largest shoots and shorten them by 50 cm. Four strongest buds are counted on the central shoot, and the remainder is removed.
- In the third year, the branches of the first tier are shortened to the length of the shortest branch and proceed to the formation of the second tier. All young shoots that grow into the crown and thicken it, cut out at the root. Leave only the strong parts that depart from the central trunk at an angle of 45 degrees.
The formation of the crown is completed in the fourth year. For this, branches of the third tier are shortened to a length of 70 cm, and the second tier is removed only if their length exceeds 70 cm, and the first tier is left unchanged, removing only those shoots that grow inside the crown.
Details of the spring shoot shortening are shown in detail in the video.
The Australian pruning method involves creating a low crown to simplify fruit harvesting. The structure of the branches is strengthened by the presence of several trunks of the same size.
- Immediately after landing. Sweet cherry is cut to half a meter. During the summer season, side shoots appear on the trunk, of which 4 pieces are selected. Branches that are not suitable in strength and length are removed. After reaching the shoot length of 4-6 cm above the point of growth cling clothespin, placing it parallel to the trunk. This corrects the direction of the branches, making them almost horizontal.
- In the spring of the second year. The tree is inspected again, removing all the shoots that fall out of the crown structure. If the shoot is skeletal, flat branches of the first order are left on it, which gives the sweet cherry the shape of a fruit vase.
- In the third year. The crown of cherries is cleared of young growth, cutting it to a length of 8-10 cm. If this is not done, the main bouquet branches will be shaded and the crop will decrease.
Further work will include autumn pruning of one-year growth, sanitary removal of shading branches, pest control and freezing, as well as crown correction within the existing form.
Formation of sweet cherry KGB
Kim Green Bush (Kym Green Bush) - modern shaping scheme, which provides a compact planting, helps rejuvenate trees and reduces the risk of winter freezing. The KGB system resembles a “Spanish bush”, but differs from it in the placement of fruit-bearing areas.
It is known that in fruit crops, cut off according to the Spanish system, vertical leaders are permanent, and the formation of ovaries moves to renewable shoots and lateral branches. In the KGB system, on the contrary, the development of the side branches is canceled, and the growth of the fruits takes place on renewable vertical leaders.
Regardless of the age of the tree, the shape of the crown and the characteristics of growth, the pruning procedure stimulates its development, increases the yield and protects against aggressive environmental influences. The nuances of this procedure, described in the article, will be useful for both novice gardeners and experts in the field of agriculture.