Very often, the land in the garden does not meet our requirements. It may contain a large amount of sand or clay. Most summer residents do not want to overpay for compost and use artificial fertilizers. In agriculture, there are more efficient and safer ways to saturate the soil with useful trace elements. They will be interesting to summer residents who do not want to spend a lot of money and time to create the optimal structure of the soil. To improve the physiological properties of the land, sidereal cultures are used. They form humus, thereby improving the soil, and fill it with useful substances. Such cultures can be sown from spring to autumn. Oats are widespread as siderats, with several advantages. Often these plants are referred to as "greenish fertilizers", since all the nutrients in the root part of the green manure remain in the soil and fertilize it.
Wheat, barley, oats, and rye belong to the cereal sideratam. To the bean: phacelia, clover, peas, lupine. Compositae belongs to radish, mustard, and sunflower. In addition, there are other annual siderats that grow in two months. The early ripe cold-resistant species include oats, fodder peas, mustard. These species are sown at the beginning of the spring period, as soon as the snow melts. Plants are sown tightly enough, the wall. Fourteen days before planting the main crop they are cut.
In the autumn, the siderata planted after harvest. Crops that were made in the fall do not cut. Plants used to saturate the soil with nutrients can be sown for a whole season, as soon as the soil becomes free from the main crop. The younger oat-siderat, the greater the amount of nitrogen it contains, which means it will decompose faster in the ground. Approximately fourteen days after cutting, the soil will be ready for planting the main crops. Mature siderats rot longer, however, the soil receives significantly more nutrients.
Oats - green defender
In agriculture, oats are often used as a siderata to improve the quality of the soil. Oats - annual plants belonging to the family of cereals, is resistant to frost. This culture is quite unpretentious. Observing the elementary agricultural techniques, it is possible to obtain a sufficient amount of fertilizer to enrich the soil. That is why the owners of farms, as well as vegetable growers in most regions of the country give their preference to this cereal. Oats-siderat activates the growth of organic compounds in the soil, which are necessary for the growth and maturation of major crops.
Green manure is one of the safest fertilizers for the soil. Scientists have found that cereal siderats cover the soil with a vegetative mass, thereby protecting it from erosion, which can be caused by strong winds or heavy rains. Winter crops, to which oats belong, are capable of returning nutrients to the land used by main crops during the summer period. Cover greens help adjust the temperature of the soil, activate microbial activity, and in addition, change the soil structure, creating root canals to improve water permeability, as well as aeration.
Using oats as a sideroot culture
Each soil differs in acidity, structure, level of nutrients and other traits. There is no optimal siderat, which would be equally suitable for loamy and chernozem soil. In addition, some of these plants are incompatible with some types of crops.
Advantages of using oats:
- cold resistance
- shade resistance
- can grow on poor soils,
- simple growing technique
- high density of seed germination
- reasonable price of seed material
- increases the yield of major crops,
- compatibility with most types of crops,
- inhibits the growth of weeds, and also clears the soil from them,
- able to process complex phosphoric compounds in the soil,
- fertilizer contains a large amount of potassium - this mineral is needed by plants for balanced growth,
- culture roots give the earth special elements that prevent the formation of fungus and rot.
Oats as siderat when sow?
Basically, the sowing of oats is performed by a random method, which does not require special equipment (if we are not talking about sowing large areas). First you need to level and loosen the soil. Further, seeds are sown, with the help of a rake, earth is poured on them and watered. The soil layer above the seeds should not exceed two centimeters. When to plant siderata? Oats, as well as other types of green crops, can be sown in spring. For example, those who live in the southern regions can sow the seeds at the end of the winter period, and those with summer cottages located in a temperate climate zone are advised to wait until the warm March days.
On average, it takes approximately two kilograms of cereals to fertilize one hundred square meters of land. Depending on the type of soil and its nutrient content, the seeding rate can be increased or decreased. When to sow oats as a siderat in the fall? Such a question is asked by a large number of amateur vegetable growers. Agronomists advise planting oats in the first weeks of September, which is considered to be the optimal time. However, when sowing in the autumn, it is necessary to take into account the temperature conditions. Sowing should be completed before the first frost.
Using oats as a siderat in the summer is a great way to improve the structure and condition of the land on the plot, which is resting this year from sowing major crops. In the spring, oats are planted, and during the summer period they mow until flowering begins, so the young shoots absorb the greatest number of nutrients and rot much faster.
When to cut siderats?
Agronomists advise to mow culture before flowering, in order to avoid uncontrolled self seeding. To dig up oats in the autumn or not, each summer resident decides on his own. For the formation of a humus layer, oats should be cut and left on the site. To change the structure of the soil and in order for the nutrients to penetrate deep into the earth, digging will be required.
In case you want to sow your own oat seeds, you will need to prepare the seed. Oats siderat must be planted in early spring. When preparing the soil for sowing, fertilizers are applied: five kilograms of humus, about a glass of ash or two tablespoons of complex fertilizing per 1 square meter. m It is necessary to sow sparingly, with inter-row space of fifteen centimeters. If the weather does not allow the seeds to ripen in the garden, the plant stems are cut and left to ripen in a dry, ventilated room. Next, the seeds are threshed and dried. Then, after about three months, the collected seed is tested for germination.
Firstly, it is not recommended to grow siderats and main crops in the same place, if they belong to the same family.
Secondly, it is necessary to mow green crops in time, not allowing lignification of the roots and stems, as well as the moment of flowering. All this litters the plot, and makes it difficult to loosen the land.
Third, do not sow the same green manure in the same place every year.
Fourthly, correctly choose the crops that you want to plant. Some grow well on poor soils, others need fertile.
Oats siderat is a valuable fertilizer that improves the quality of the land. With it, the soil becomes loose, increases the amount of nutrients and trace elements, increases moisture capacity. Siderata contribute to the ground such necessary elements as magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. These cultures are the best environmentally friendly fertilizer.
1 Why is oats a great siderat?
The list of advantages due to which the plant is an excellent green manure:
improves the structure and physiological properties of the soil due to a branched, fibrous root system. As a result, it retains moisture better, loosens deep and strengthens the outer integument,
protects plants from root rot,
promotes phytosanitary plot, suppressing the growth of weeds,
protects the soil from overheating and erosion,
Siderat task on the cut of the soil
absolutely undemanding and can grow on soils of any composition,
green manure gives a large amount of vegetative mass. And in mixtures it perfectly nitrifies and ammonifies the soil, saturating it in parallel with potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen,
Depending on enrichment objectives, oats can be mowed at different ages. The younger the crops, the richer they are with nitrogen, the older - potassium,
for allelopathic properties, oats as a siderata, an excellent predecessor for almost any crop in your garden.
1.1 When to sow oats as siderat?
In the people about oats, the saying goes: "This oats are in the dirt, feel like a prince." Insofar as oats do not tolerate frosts, drought and heat, it must be sown either in the spring before planting the main crops, or in the fall after harvesting.
When in the spring the snow had already melted, but the earth had not yet dried out completely, excellent conditions are created under which the oats will receive a maximum of moisture from the soil, and this will give an excellent increase in green mass in a fairly short time. Spring seedlings of oats at the stage of milky-wax ripeness are added to the ground in order to release more nitrogen and carbon dioxide during the decay of green biomass.
If you sow oats in the fall, then due to precocity, he will have enough time to form enough mass in order to leave wintering in the garden not mown. So the soil in the winter will receive additional protection, and in the spring it will be able to absorb all the moisture from the melted snow. The organic matter that has rotted during the winter costs only a little to dig in and the earth is ready for planting.
1.2 Benefits of the oatmeal mix
Vika is a green sidererat with high nitrogen content. Perfectly fights various types of nematodes in the soil. Rapidly increases the green mass, but has one drawback - too thin stems. Therefore, Vika is often sown in combination with cereals, which she will use as supports.
Vico-oat mixture for sowing
For the convenience of crops in the mixtures there are two types of wiki - spring and winter. Spring vetch sown, starting from the thaw and until the beginning of August, winter - from August to early October.
Vico-oat mixture as a siderata is sown most often in the fall, after harvesting. Planting oatmeal under fruit trees in early spring will be an indicator of your awareness and enterprise.
Planting oatmeal in orchards is advantageous for several points:
moisture retention in the ground
attracting insects for pollination,
attracting bees to the honey vetch,
use as green food throughout the season
harvest in the fall for hay.
Mowing green hay
2 How to sow siderats?
Sow seeds in loose moist soil to a depth of 2-4 cm, either in rows or in bulk. To embed seeds - on top of the ground, it is enough to simply rabor. The consumption of seeds in this case can vary from 10 to 20 grams per 1 m². Moreover, when sowing in bulk, the consumption of seed can be doubled.
The maximum amount of seed mixture per weave can reach 4-6 kg. The thicker shoots will be, the deeper the roots will go and the soil will be structured. The denser the aboveground green mass, the fewer weeds.
2.3 Allopathy oats
Sowing cereal-legume green manure should take into account their compatibility with other plants. In addition, it is important to remember the love of pests for specific types of plants.
Excellent predecessor for almost any crop, except cereals,
attracts wireworms, so you can not plant next to potatoes,
kills potato scab, so you can and should be planted after potatoes,
copes with nematodes, fungi and root rot, so it is advisable to sow in all infected areas of the garden,
fills the earth with essential for the good development of solanaceous microelements (eggplant, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes),
compensates for the land depleted after Solanaceae, in parallel working on various types of pests.
Sowing oats and vetches as siderats gives a lot of positive results. Their versatility and availability, unpretentiousness and a wide range of applications allow in the shortest possible time to fertilize the earth, saturating it with the most essential trace elements.
Why are they sowing siderats
Siderates are grown not for food or for sale. These are plants with a special chemical composition that can restore soil depleted by other plants and prepare it for the next harvest season. They are not collected and not harvested. Such plants plowed into the ground shortly before their flowering - when in green stalks most of all nitrogen and other important elements.
Their stems quickly gain the so-called green mass, which, after plowing, turns into compost, and the extensive root system captures all the upper layers of the soil, preventing the weeds from sprouting. Those herbs that manage to germinate do not receive enough sunlight due to the thick siderat cover and eventually die. In addition, the root system of siderats well penetrates the soil, improving the flow of thawed snow and rainwater, oxygen, and also protects the fertile layer from blowing away in those regions dominated by strong winds.
Oats as a siderata: what is the value and disadvantages
In addition to legumes, often grown as siderats, rye, barley and oats are also very popular. Oats belong to one of the most ancient cereal crops, people planted it in spring and in the winter as a siderat, when rye and wheat were not yet.
The value of oats is as follows:
- Protein mass. Its stems are especially nutritious - they contain a lot of valuable protein, much more than alfalfa and clover.
- Mineral composition. There is less nitrogen in oats than in rye, but there is plenty of potassium and phosphorus in it. It enriches viscous clay soils.
- Aeration. This grass has a strong root system - it loosens dense soil with powerful roots and, in addition to vitamin enrichment, ensures oxygen enrichment.
- Fortification. Loose, unstable soils, this root system, on the contrary, binds, so that the grass is good for any type of soil.
- Herbicidal properties. Growing up, this grass forms dense plantings, its stems are located close to each other, therefore no weeds between this crop can appear - it simply drowns them out.
- Simplicity. To the soil this grass is quite undemanding, it grows on loams, black soil, peat bogs, clay and sandy soils. Dream agrarian!
- Yield. Based on one hundred, the yield of this crop gives a mass equal to 100 kg of high-quality manure.
The disadvantages of oats, each farmer considers his:
- A small amount of green mass. Perhaps in the spring for the depleted lands of one oat will not be enough as a siderata, but to maintain in good order the site on which the seed shift is produced and well followed, this culture is suitable.
- Little nitrogen in the composition. Due to the fact that there is not very much nitrogen in this crop, it has to be sown where alfalfa or clover is already growing, and then plowing two cultures at once.
- The need for low temperatures and frequent irrigation. Oats like shade, coolness and abundant watering. For regions with a cold climate and a wet spring, it is suitable, and in hot weather, on the contrary, it fades and dries.
As you can see, the advantages of this siderat quantitatively outweigh its disadvantages.
Which crops should sow before?
Let's say right away - cereals can not be sown before cereals. Therefore, if you plan to lay a field of buckwheat, oats or wheat, this siderat will not work for you. It is still not advisable to sow oats in the area where potatoes will later grow. The pest called “wireworms” affects both oat green manure crops and potato planting, and this lack of grain outweighs all its advantages. To prevent the harvest of root crops to disappear, use another siderat in front of potatoes.
If the potatoes grew on the field last year, and in this you plan for sevosmenu, oats, on the contrary, will be useful - it will destroy the remnants of potato scab in the soil. For all other crops, this grass will feed the soil well, so safely plant raspberries, currants, sweet peppers of different varieties, tomatoes, cabbage, and strawberry and strawberry sockets into enriched land.
When and how to sow siderat
It is cold-resistant and moisture-loving cereal. Therefore, it is necessary to sow it in a cold, wet time, best in october. As soon as the last harvest is removed from the fields, and the soil has not yet been flooded with autumn rains, the seeds are introduced into the soil. Frost, this grass will not make, therefore, if the winter is planned early, it is better to transfer the sowing in the spring. Если до морозов есть тридцать-сорок свободных дней, злак успеет набрать нужную зеленую массу и стать хорошим удобрением — перепреть и перегнить под снегом.
Весенний сев сидерата зависит исключительно от погоды. В теплых регионах закладка семян начинается в феврале, когда под снегом проступают талые воды. If winter is cold and long, oats are used as siderat at the end of March, as the frosts recede. Then there is just a month left before ripening of stalks, plowing up the soil and planting crops. It is possible to enrich the soil with this siderat until September, inclusive - for early and late crops. Then a monthly break is taken and autumn sowing is carried out under the snow. Before you bring the seeds into the soil, treat them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate to remove all pathogens from them and increase germination. Soak the seeds in the solution for twenty minutes and wash them under running water. It is most convenient to use gauze - the seeds do not flow together with water and rinse well. The earth will have to be loosened and cleaned from the old tops - it needs rest and a lot of air. Bring in seeds in random order, in bulk, do not lay out rulers and beds.
On a hundred of land you should take about 2 kg of oat seeds. The main thing is to distribute them evenly so that there are no bald areas in the crops. If the soil is dry, it is recommended to spray it with a hose, but always with a sprayer so that the earth does not become dense and knocked down.
How to care for crops
This grass needs abundant watering. If it is not provided by the weather, you will have to add moisture. Once every three days, check the condition of the crops - whether the sprouts of what type they are, the leaves develop, develop normally or dry in warm weather. If the stalks of oats do not want to grow, perhaps the previous culture has depleted the land too much even for the siderat. In this case, add a little mineral fertilizer - this grass will suit both nitre and superphosphate. In general, oats are an unpretentious crop and do not need anything other than sufficient moisture.
When to mow oats
From the time of sowing to mowing, thirty or forty days should pass - be guided by the grown green mass and by a whisk of flowers. If pollen starts to appear on it, it's time to cut the stalks. When autumn sowing you just fall into the last days before the cold. If you planted this grass in the spring, then cut the stems before the onset of hot May days.
When spring mowing, plow oats into the soil no later than two weeks before planting a crop, otherwise it will not have time to be too much. If you mow oats in November, then do not bury it in the ground, do it shortly before the April sowing. The oblique stems will not allow the ground to freeze through too deeply, so in the spring it will be ready for sowing and planting earlier than the one that was not covered. If the green mass turned out a lot, do not close it into the soil all, otherwise it will turn sour. Take the part to the compost pit or prepare silage-type feed for livestock. Agriculture is the most appreciative industry. It is good enough to work hard and approach the cultivation of the land correctly - and the results will certainly be visible. In the sowing business can not rush. Lay the oat seeds in the prepared, loosened earth, when their time of wet weather comes, watch the growth of the stems, mow them when the shoots are no less than fifteen centimeters, and do not allow water to stagnate on the site.
Before plowing oats into the ground, be sure to crush it so that the humus is formed two weeks before the next planting of crops. Knowing these simple rules and applying them in practice, you will restore the fertility of your land and prepare it for the next successful growing season.
Oats as a siderata: advantages and disadvantages
Any sideratny culture bears in itself advantage for lands and the agricultural plants which are grown up after it.
When planning the planting of vegetables or berries, you should familiarize yourself in advance with which siderats are used for specific crops.
Oats grown as fertilizer is not an exception: it has its pros and cons.
Positive properties include:
- frost resistance, shade tolerance,
- undemanding to soil composition,
- high seed germination,
- ease of care when growing,
- compatibility with most crops (except potatoes and cereals),
- good herbicidal properties (inhibits weed growth),
- rich in phosphorus and potassium compounds
- decrease in soil acidity,
- development by the root system of substances that suppress the reproduction of disease-causing fungi and rot,
- during spring planting, it will gladden shoots long before the appearance of primroses.
The disadvantages are modest amounts of green mass and nitrogen. Another significant disadvantage is that oats do not respond well to hot weather and lack of irrigation.
To replenish the substrate with nitrogen, it is recommended to grow oats together with other green manure (vetch, clover).
When and how to sow oats?
Oats need to zedelyvat in the ground, until it dries out after melting snow. The grass does not like heat and drought, therefore the best time for planting oats as a siderata is spring (March-April, in warm regions - the end of February). Before the onset of a hot summer, green fertilizer will have time to grow and enrich the substrate with useful substances - it is not necessary to fertilize the soil with manure.
In the fall, oats are planted as a green manure after harvest: from the beginning of September to the tenth of October. At observance of such terms, the grass will have time to build up the leafy mass to severe frosts.
Sowing oats is possible in two ways: randomly and in rows. In small areas or garden beds, the plant can be sown in rows. The distance between the bands is about 10 cm. In large areas, they sow randomly, trying to scatter the grain evenly.
In both cases, the soil is first loosened and leveled. Grain material is prepared: the seeds are held for 20-30 minutes in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, then washed several times in clean running water.
Consumption of oat seeds per one weave of land - 2-2.5 kg when sown randomly, 1-1.5 kg when planted in rows. In a plastic cup with a volume of 200 ml is placed 95-100 g of seed.
After planting, be sure to sprinkle the grain with a layer of earth 2-4 cm. This will save the material from being blown away by the wind and pecked by the birds. Carefully water the area of the watering can or hose with a spray. Oat grain likes moisture, so it germinates better in moist soil.
What is the value of oats for sideration
With it, you can restore the running areas and run them in crop rotation. It takes time, but the effect will still manifest. On average, it takes 2 - 3 years for the upper fertile layer to recover, nitrates accumulated over the years of use of mineral fertilizers leave it. Organic matter will gradually accumulate, making the soil looser and more moisture-intensive.
Video: We sow oats so as not to dig up the soil
Oats are a cereal crop that can be used for soil greening because, thanks to its extensive root system, it removes weeds well and loosens heavy clay soils, preventing them from cracking and drying. In addition, the green mass of oats acts as an excellent fertilizer, as it saturates the soil with nitrogen, potassium and other useful elements.