Introduced into culture at the beginning of the XIX century. Cocksfoot - loose-bush cereal.
According to the nature of the foliage, it occupies a middle position between high and low grass: along with tall and well leafy stems in the bush, there are a large number of shortened vegetative shoots. The tillering node is located in the soil at a depth of 1.3—0.3 cm, with age it is closer to the surface.
Roots hedgehogs team penetrate relatively shallow, usually up to 100 cm, that is, are closer to the soil surface than most cultivated perennial cereals.
Stems tall (100 cm or more), resistant to lodging, quite thick, after flowering - coarse. In the lower part of the vagina, the vegetative shoots are flat, which is a good sign for determining the hedgehogs of the national team in the early phases of development. The leaves are relatively soft, wide and long (up to 60 cm), thick underneath. The tongue is large, membranous, 3–8 mm long.
Inflorescence is a double-sided panicle, spikelets are crowded at the ends of the twigs. During flowering, it is spreading before flowering, and after it - compressed.
The seeds are greyish-yellow, 3–7 mm long, 1 mm wide, flattened, almost trihedral, therefore they lie on the side (and not on the back). The upper part of the seeds is curved, there is an osteous taper about 1 mm long.
In favorable conditions, shoots of hedgehogs of the national team appear on the 10-12th day, tillering begins three weeks after the emergence of shoots. In the year of sowing, the plants develop slowly, forming a large number of vegetative shoots by the autumn and only a few - generative ones.
In the second year of life, it grows and develops quickly, ahead of most cultivated cereals, and can produce a large number of flowering stems. Stepship is high, but generative shoots in the second crop does not form. Hedgehog team - a plant of winter type development. The following year, well-developed shoots of summer-autumn tillering become fruit bearing. At the same time, the number of generative shoots in a bush depends on many factors — sparseness of the grass stand, plant age, nitrogen supply, varietal characteristics, etc.
Hedgehog team belongs to the cereals of the morning flowering. It blooms and pollinates from 5-6 o'clock in the morning to 10-12 o'clock in the afternoon. In cool weather, flowering begins later. Like most crops of meadow cereals, it does not bloom at temperatures below 10 ° C. Flowering is uneven: first flowering occurs in the upper parts of the panicle, then below. The main part of the inflorescences finish flowering in 7-8 days. In the middle lane, from the beginning of regrowth to flowering, an average of about 1.5-2 months passes (in mid-June), from the beginning of flowering to seed ripening - about a month.
When using a hedgehog for fodder use, the team is very durable - over 10 years, and on a high agricultural background it has been kept in grass mixtures for decades. With seed use, it is also durable — it can produce seed yields for 4–7 years in a row. The maximum yield of seeds is obtained in the second or third year of use.
The hedgehog national team is relatively undemanding on soils. It grows well on clayey, loamy soils, satisfactorily - on humus sandy loams, and some of its forms - even on sandy, better - on slightly acidic soils. Positively reacts to increased soil fertility, increasing vegetative mass and seed productivity.
The hedgehog team does not tolerate high levels of groundwater and stagnation of surface water, as well as ice crust. In this regard, it grows better on permeable, drained soils, requires good drainage. Relatively drought-resistant and less than other grasses (for example, timothy meadow) reacts to watering. It is successfully grown in floodplain meadows with a flood duration of up to 15 days.
The hedgehog team is relatively poorly cold-resistant, sensitive to late autumn and early spring frosts, snowless winters. Not resistant to vyprevaniya. Damaged by frost plants almost do not form flowering shoots. As a result of this hedgehog, the team is not sufficiently stable and less durable when growing it on lowland peatlands. Despite the very wide distribution, it cannot be cultivated in areas characterized by harsh winters with little snow.
The seeds can be grown in clean and mixed crops, but the best are special clean crops for seeds.
With all the methods of growing the hedgehogs of the national team, it is important to set the terms for sowing correctly. The best results are obtained by summer planting on a semi-pair in the middle belt of the forest zone at the end of June, and in the forest-steppe - 2-3 weeks later and timed to precipitation.
Bloodless sowing has an advantage, as it allows you to get a full crop of seeds in the first year of use. Sowing is carried out in a wide-row manner with a row spacing of 35-60 cm. With the ordinary sowing method, alternating subsequent use of grass stand for seeds and hay gives good results.
Seed productivity of plants largely depends on the dose of nitrogen fertilizers. According to the generalized data, it can be considered that in the first year of use it is required to deposit N100_120, subsequent years - N140_160. The annual dose of N45_60 should be considered as the minimum. Fertilizing with nitrogen is usually carried out in the spring, and with a low agricultural background, half of the fertilizer must be applied in the summer. Fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers should be planned for the cultivation of varieties prone to lodging.
The average dose of phosphate-potash fertilizers. With increasing doses of nitrogen, the need for these fertilizers increases.
To combine harvesting start at the beginning of full ripeness, when with a slight shaking of inflorescences seeds noticeably crumble. Separate cleaning is carried out in the phase of wax ripeness of seeds. Two-phase harvesting of seeds significantly reduces their losses, and the yield increases by 45–67% (X. Korjus, A. Adoyan).
The average seed yield is 0.2–0.35 t / ha. With proper storage, they do not reduce germination for 5-6 years.
The yield of green mass for two cuttings reaches 50 t / ha. Hay harvested in the earing phase.
Currently used in the production of 26 varieties of hedgehogs team.
Description hedgehogs team as a wild plant
A plant with thick creeping roots located close to the soil surface. Straight green stems 25–125 cm long. Flat gray-green leaves are pointed at the end. Sheet plate covered with serrations. The edge of the sheet is smooth, sharp.
Light green inflorescence of a metelkovidny form, narrow and dense at the basis. Closely crowded spikelets are one-sided, compressed to the middle. Flower scales deformed. Fruit - elongated kernels 1.5–2.5 mm long.
Flowering continues from mid-June to late July. Seeds ripen in early August.
The plant prefers dry sandy soil. It grows in floodplain meadows, the edges of deciduous forests, wastelands, along roads and reservoirs. Occurs in steppes and mountains.
Characteristics of hedgehogs team
The leaves and stalks of hedgehogs contain fiber, starch and sugar. The chemical composition of the plant includes sodium, copper, iodine and manganese. Thanks to nutrients, grass is used in the manufacture of feed additives for farm animals.
- Hedgehog is frost-resistant, tolerates temperature drops to -40 ° C.
- It tolerates drought, does not suffer from spring water spills and flooding.
- Gives 2-3 mowings per year. It grows over 2–4 weeks.
- In folk medicine, it is used as an antitoxic agent. Broths help with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, insomnia, a violation of the liver. Appointed to overweight people.
- Used in landscape design. Planted in multi-level flower beds and flower beds. It is sown with lawn grass on garden lawns.
- Hedgehog - winter-type grass. Planted on the field as a siderata. Accelerates crop rotation.
- The plant is a productive honey plant. It is sown with meadow clover near apiaries. Honey has a floral aroma and a spicy aftertaste.
The hedgehog is an unpretentious valuable culture used as a siderat. It is grown in the meadows for grazing farm animals, mown for hay and silage. It has medicinal properties, used in traditional medicine.