Why do I need to stick the tomatoesFirst, let's see why these manipulations are necessary for tomatoes. Removal of lateral shoots from the sinuses of the leaves of the plant (stepsons) is carried out so that these processes do not take the plant nutrients.
It is known that in young shoots they are concentrated in the greatest quantity. A gardener is interested in getting them to the maximum in flowers, and then in the fruits of the plant.
In addition, the procedure helps to form a shrub for a given number of stems, lengthen the period of fruiting of the shrub, get a bountiful harvest earlier than usual.
It is important to be able to distinguish the leaf from the stepson, in order to remove just the extra runaway. The pasture is located in the bosom of the leaf between its stem and the main stem.
If the stepson is not removed in time, it will grow, letting in the second-level stepchildren. It is necessary to remove shoots until they have reached a length of more than 5 cm.If the lateral processes are not removed in time, the tomato bush will grow exponentially. Then all the forces of the plant will go to the formation of green mass.
This prevents the development of new fruits, obscures the educated, does not allow them to ripen well. Fungal diseases can actively develop in bushes, as they are poorly ventilated and moisture stagnates in them. Masking helps to avoid these troubles, and also facilitates the care of them and the harvest.
When you need pasynkovanie tomatoes
So, it is obvious that growing tomatoes in greenhouses requires pruning of excess shoots. When to do it? As soon as you find additional sprouts in the leaf axils. They are most active in growth with the appearance of flower brushes.
The procedure is carried out in the morning hours, so that during the day when active metabolic processes take place in the plant, the wound is quickly healed. Moreover, it is at this time that the shoots are most easily broken off.
Formation of bushes in one stemThis method involves the removal of all stepsons on the stem. Do not leave a chance and the so-called twins - stems, which appear when the main split. It is only important to leave all the floral brushes formed, even if they are at the bottom.
Graduates of agriculture strongly recommend using this type of bush formation for growing tomatoes in the greenhouse. But gardeners practitioners claim that yields are significantly reduced. Therefore, they prefer to grow tomatoes in two stalks.
Formation of bushes in two stalks
Forming two stalks on a bush, in addition to the main leave the first sprout that appeared at the bottom, the very first brush of the bush. This is the strongest sprout that will develop most actively. It will be possible to harvest no less abundant harvest from it than from the main stem of a bush.
All other stepchildren must be removed if it comes to the formation of tomatoes in two stems.
Formation in three stalksThis scheme assumes the presence of three fruiting stems on the bush.To do this, basically leave the sprout near the first flower brush, located at the very bottom of the plant. Then on the stem you need to find another strongest sprout.
As a rule, it is located next to the first, but there are exceptions. All other stepchildren must be removed.
How to grape tomatoes of different varieties
The pinching process is different depending on the types of tomatoes. They are indeterminate, semi-determinant, determinant. But there are general rules by which the procedure is carried out for any type of tomato.
So, it is desirable to remove the processes by breaking them off, and not cutting them. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in the morning in dry weather, so that the place of breaking will quickly heal and the plant will not get sick. This should be done every week, removing all processes, regardless of their size.
If it's time to pinch, and the weather is overcast, disinfect with a 1% potassium permanganate solution after treating each plant. Primary treatment should be healthy bushes of the most valuable varieties. At last, the bushes are treated with stains and "yellowing" on the leaves and stems.
Used for the respective varieties of tomatoes, which must be formed into one stem. Such drastic measures are due to the nature of the growth of the bush - indeterminate tomatoes produce a lot of lateral processes.
Therefore, they remove all the shoots, leaving "penechki" about a centimeter. He will delay the formation of new stepchildren. In total, no more than a dozen shoots should remain on such a bush.
However, if you have a fairly large greenhouse, you can leave two stalks at the bush - the main and the first stepson (or the second). And on the secondary stem you need to leave no more than 4-5 brushes. After pruning such a bush must be mulched.
Semi-determinant sticks of tomatoesTomatoes of these varieties can reach a length of up to 180 cm. With a sparing planting, two or three stems can be left on them. The peculiarity of these varieties is that the pasynkovanny bush can be completed, that is, after removal of the lateral processes, the main stem stops growing.
Therefore, it is not necessary to put the seedling all the seedlings, if only semi-determinant tomatoes are growing in your greenhouse. Process some of them and, if the growth has not stopped, continue the procedure on the following. Those bushes that have stopped growing up can be formed into several stems.
How to pinch deterministic varieties
It is believed that the pinching of determinant tomatoes in a greenhouse is not necessary. These low-growing bushes do not grow much. In this case, it is important to adhere to the recommendations on the agricultural technology of a particular variety.
However, if you want to get an early harvest from them, it is necessary to carry out pasynkovanie. To do this, remove all the shoots, leaving only two or three inflorescences, then pinch the top.
In addition to the determinant tomatoes, superdeterminant ones are also isolated, the cultivation of which also requires the removal of lateral processes. it extremely low-growing varieties that bear fruit only on the first three to five inflorescences.
Therefore, it is important to remove all the rest, leaving one or three stems on the bush. With one stalk, the main shoot is left; with two, the first stepson is left with the exception of the main one; with three, the first and second ones are left. But in the latter case, there is a big risk of getting a lot of undisrupted fruits. Each of the stems should have no more than three inflorescences.Tomatoes are quite capricious plants that require a special temperature regime, the mode of lighting, feeding, watering and the formation of bushes. The latter allows you to send all the plant nutrients to the fruit, without spending on unnecessary shoots.
There are several special strawing schemes for tomatoes that are suitable for one or another plant variety. They are used until the beginning of August, when all measures for the removal of shoots end, and the top of the bush pinch.
This allows you to get a rich and well-ripened crop. But keep in mind, if summer is abundant in rains and cold, then even stepson will not save you from a meager harvest.
What is pasynkovanie
Masking a culture is the removal of parasitic side shoots growing from the leaf bosom. The main harm of such shoots is that they take over the nutrient volume, which is intended for the bush itself and future fruits.
Photo 1 The stepson removal process
Why do you need pasynkovanie:
- the formation of the required number of stems on the bush. It can be one large stalk or several,
- with proper arrangement and heating of beds, bedding gives an opportunity to get a harvest 2-3 weeks ahead of time,
- the increase by several weeks of the deadline for the fruiting of each bush,
- increase in the number of fruits from each meter.
How to distinguish the stepsons from the leaves
In the future, you will learn how to accurately distinguish the stepchildren from the right leaves, but at first you will have to look closely at the bush. Take a close look at the stem of a tomato - where the leaf grows, a small stalk appears between it and the stem, this is the stepson and must be removed. This is good to do by pinching with your nails - this way you will not hurt either the stem or the leaf itself.
Photo 2 The difference between the stepsons and the leaves
If you overfeed tomatoes with fertilizer or compost, the stepchildren will appear not only from the leaf bosoms, but also on the leaves themselves and even on flower brushes.
The optimal size of the stepson - up to 3 cm, if less - you can damage the leaf, if more, he will begin to actively take nutrients from the entire bush. Pruning leaves of tomatoes also increases flowering and speeds up the appearance of fruits, so along with the strawberry it is necessary to remove the lower yellowed leaves and those that are located on the north side.
When it is necessary to pinch
The answer to this question directly stems from the previous chapter - as soon as you saw that the stepson appeared in the sheet's sinus, try to carefully remove it, but without fanaticism. Paceniks are very active in growth when flower brushes appear, especially since it is difficult to see “extra” shoots in abundance of color.
Make it a rule to check all bushes for the presence of stepsons once a week in the morning and pinch them. During the day, the “wound” will quickly drag on and will not cause any harm to the plant. By evening, the stepchildren are already gathering juice, so it is more difficult to pinch them.
If suddenly you missed the moment when you can distinguish the stepchild from the real stem, it is important to figure out which of them will interfere. It is better to wait for flowering, as a rule, stepchildren appear under the first flower paw.
Pinch or cut off the stepchildren so that your hands remain clean, otherwise you can tolerate the disease or parasites, if they are in this greenhouse.
How to conduct a pasynkovanie
Rules of the procedure dictates the number of stems that you plan to leave on the bush. As a rule, it is one large or 2-3 but slightly thinner stems.
Which grade to choose?
In our latitudes, gardeners rarely give preference to indeterminate or tall varieties, choosing mostly undersized. This can be associated with the fear of not cope with the cultivation of large bushes. However, with a good approach, tall varieties are much more productive. These benefits include the following points:
- such varieties have higher yields, when agrotechnical rules are fulfilled, they are less susceptible to phytophthora, the fruiting period stretches from mid-summer to mid-autumn, while the ripening of low-growing varieties is almost simultaneous, and it is inconvenient for fresh consumption, tall varieties are easier to seed , it is easy to work with such bushes, it is easy to harvest from them, without bending down, the most interesting of the new varieties are tall.
Yes, indeterminate varieties need companion grading. Among the shortcomings is the fact that, in addition to the usual care, such a bush will necessarily require an appropriate support and frequent garter.
But given the final result - a larger crop - you can simply ignore this feature of tomato cultivation. The determinant varieties of tomatoes produce a good harvest Going back to the question of whether it is obligatory to seed tomatoes, I personally say the unequivocal "Yes." To assume that a large green bush will produce many fruits is wrong.
There may be two options: either you are planting a green area, or striving for a harvest, and this applies to all vegetable crops. A good result depends on a complete, properly distributed food and lighting. Note: the mass of fruits from a bush rarely depends on their number.
You can get a lot of small tomatoes, or several, but large ones. This will not affect the overall yield.
When you need to do pasynkovanie tomatoes grown in open ground
The term is very important for each gardener who grows tomatoes in open ground - August 1. By this time, only the fruits, which were made before this number, grow and mature on the bush.
The shoots and inflorescences that arose later will waste the nutrients that will be needed for the growth and ripening of almost ready-made tomatoes. To avoid this, it is necessary to get rid of unnecessary sprouts. Sampling is carried out once for the entire period of development of the bush.
In the last days of July and in the beginning of August, all the stepson processes are removed on each plant, 2-3 leaves are left over the set fruits and pinch growth points on the productive shoots. Of course, it is a pity to pluck the newly appeared inflorescences, but this is a necessary measure: this way you save large shoots. Sliding tomatoes in the open field. Another way is to remove extra shoots every 10 days. Wherein:
- if the bush is formed into one stem, then only the main shoot is saved, if two, then the stepson from the leaf bosom is added to the main shoot under the first inflorescence, if at three, the next stepson below is added.
First of all, decide how many stalks you want to keep on the plant. This may depend directly on the variety of tomatoes.
- If you want to get high and most importantly - an early crop of undersized superdeterminant varieties, you will need 1-2 stems. In this case, the fruits will ripen on the first 3-5 inflorescences, despite the fact that 3 inflorescences will form on each stalk. If you save 3 stalks, then the number of tomatoes will be much larger, but many green fruits will remain. Inflorescences will develop almost simultaneously, but ripening will slow down.
Properly pluck determinant varieties and hybrids
To get an early harvest on determinant and hybrid varieties, in which the inflorescences on the main stem are larger, you need to leave one stem and 2-3 inflorescences. Save a few leaves after the last inflorescence and pinch the growth point.
It is not necessary to do this, but in this case the fruits on all inflorescences may not ripen completely. If you leave 2 stems and 4 to 8 inflorescences on them, then the tomatoes will ripen on the bush. Determinant and hybrid varieties do not form 3 stalks. Proper care and timely strawling will give you a good harvest of fruits. If your tomato bush consists of 1-2 stalks, on which 2-4 inflorescences, then fruits will appear until mid-July.
This is almost 2 weeks earlier than if you had not spent the stading. With this planting scheme, you will get fewer fruits, but the number of tomatoes ripened on the branch will be more. Pay attention: when planting tomatoes, you can locate them more closely in a row, 25-30 cm apart.
After stacking, productivity will not suffer. It is known that tomato is a heat-loving plant, and our latitudes do not always indulge in the long hot summer. Therefore, breeders have attended to the cultivation of varieties that, even in the open field without a strawberry, will bring a good harvest. These varieties include:
Masking a tomato, like pinching tomatoes
Masking a tomato is the removal of lateral shoots growing from the axils of the leaves, that is, the stepsons. Pasying is very important for obtaining a good harvest of excellent tomatoes. In simple terms, this procedure is also called pinching a tomato. Before removing the stepson, you need to make sure that it is he, and not the piece.
To do this, you need to carefully look at the plant, since the lateral shoot does not grow on a bare stem. First a leaf grows, and after it a stepchild emerges from the leaf's sinus (between the leaf and the main stem).
The pacemaker is constantly growing, and then new leaves and new shoots, that is, second-order stepchildren, grow on it. As a result, the bush begins to branch. How to plant tomatoes, read here. It is especially important to remove lateral shoots from tall (indeterminant) varieties of tomato. Tall varieties of tomato have a number of advantages over low-growing or determinant varieties. First, these varieties give greater yield. tall varieties are less susceptible to various diseases, including blight. Thirdly, indeterminant varieties bear fruit from early July until autumn frosts, while determinant varieties ripen almost simultaneously A. Fourthly, it is easier to pinch them. And fifthly, it is more convenient to work with tall plants, since you do not need to constantly bend down or stand in an uncomfortable position.
How to pinch tomatoes
Pinching a tomato is important to carry out on time and do it correctly. Thus, in tall tomatoes, the first fruit brush is laid after the sixth-eighth (sometimes the tenth leaf). And from the bosom of each leaf an additional stepchild appears.
Thus, up to the first fruit cluster on a tomato there are six, eight, or even ten additional branches requiring food. А поскольку пасынки вырастают ниже плодовой кисти, то и питания им достается больше.
Дальше плодовая кисть закладывается через лист, а боковой побег – возле каждого листочка.Если не предпринимать никаких мер, то у вас вырастет пышный куст с мелкими плодами. А ведь высокорослые сорта знамениты именно своей крупноплодностью и высокой урожайностью.
To achieve such success, you need to begin peacocking tomatoes already during the flowering of the first brush. This is quite a laborious process, so it is advisable to combine it with the first garter of a tomato to the supports. Removing stepsons can not be done mechanically, so before you start working, decide how many stalks you leave on the plant.
Masking individual tomato varieties
From tall tomatoes, it is desirable to form one stem, that is, from the main stem, you need to pluck all the stepchildren. And from the stepson it is necessary to leave a “stump” long about a centimeter in order for the new escape to grow in this place not very soon.
A short plant can be formed in two stalks. To do this, remove all stepchildren to the first flower brush, leaving one shoot above the first flower brush.
On top of all the stepchildren need to pinch. On some varieties of tomatoes stepchildren grow even before the plant throws out the first flower brush. As a result, the power of the plant goes not to the formation of the fruit, but to build up green mass.
If your goal is to get a good harvest, not gardening a vegetable garden, then tomatoes must be putted. The pinch of the main stem is done on tall plants, in order for the ensuing fruit to ripen before the onset of cold weather. Tall plants form into one stem, leaving several flowers brushes (usually seven or eight). If you leave one or two stepsons, you can get four more floral brushes, that is, an additional crop.
All other lateral shoots from the leaf axils and at the roots must be removed. Breaking off stepsons is advisable to do in the morning, since at this time they are easily separated. In order not to infect a plant with viral diseases, the stepchild must not be cut off, namely, broken off, and so that the plant juice does not fall on the hands (the infection from one plant to another is transferred through the hands). It is necessary to remember that the stepchild develops most intensively growing over the first flower brush.
On this shoot, a flower brush is laid very quickly. To prevent diseases, remove all the lower leaves of the plant that come into contact with the ground, as well as all unnecessary stepchildren as they grow. It is good when the plant's stem is dry at the bottom, light falls on it, and air circulates freely around it.
Masking of deterministic varieties of tomatoes and hybrids
In order to get an early harvest on a short growing plant, which has more inflorescences on the main stem, you need to form one stem and leave two or three inflorescences. After the last inflorescence, we save a few leaves and pinch a growing point.
You can not pinch the growth point, but in this case the fruits on all inflorescences may not have time to ripen. If you form a plant in two stems, leaving four to eight inflorescences, then the fruits will reach on the bush. Low-growing plants and hybrids in three stems, as a rule, do not form. If you have formed your plant in one or two stems with two or four inflorescences, then tomatoes on it will begin to appear already in the first days of July, that is, two weeks earlier than if you did without the pinching. With this planting scheme, the harvest will be smaller, but the number of fruits from one branch will be large.
To prevent tomato productivity per unit area from being affected, plants can be planted closer, for example, at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. Some tomato varieties, such as Alaska, Watermelon, Red Banana, White Pouring 241, Betta, Boney MM, Gavrosh, Rocket, Yamal can be grown in the open field and without a pasynkovaniya, since they have time to give most of the crop in a short summer. The yield of these varieties depends solely on weather conditions. The more warm and sunny days there are, the more abundant and better the harvest will be.
Pinching different varieties and hybrids of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Tomatoes in the greenhouses are put in order to increase the time of fruiting and to get the maximum yield per unit area. If you need to harvest in a short time, then choose undersized varieties of tomatoes, and if you have the opportunity to grow tomatoes for four to five months, you can take semi-determinant varieties that limit growth after eight to ten inflorescences on the main stem and indeterminate. varieties need to be left one stalk and one shoot to continue under the first inflorescence.
This shoot is pinned after a couple of inflorescences and leaflets appear on it. If this variety is grown in one stem for four to five months, then without the stepsons this plant simply ceases to grow. That is why they leave the reserve stepchild out of the leaf bosom, located under the second or third inflorescence from the top. When this backup escape goes into growth, it will need to be removed, keeping the new one, which is even closer to the top.
What is pasynkovanie tomato? The process allows you to get a richer harvest, and is the physical removal of excess shoots. Young plants in the process of growth tend to form excess shoots that can use vegetable juice, but do not bear fruit. Also, such shoots take on a large amount of energy, however, do not bring results. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the pinching of tomatoes.
Why do tomatoes stepchild
How to pinch tomatoes or not pinch plant in general - everyone decides for himself. Some varieties of tomato without the pinching sometimes fully produce a crop in their natural environment can do without such a procedure.
The side green branches on the tomato are absolutely useless. Being an extra green mass, they are undesirable for obtaining a rich harvest. If they are removed, the fruits will receive more nutrients. The size of stepsons for removal is 3-5 centimeters. If you remove them larger, it can damage and affect growth. Does not require pasyonkovaya unless persimmon, as a variety of tomato, growing independently.
However, it is necessary to learn that a rich harvest can be obtained only from healthy plants, and many gardeners fully resort to fertilizers and other ways to achieve the desired result. Accordingly, the removal of excess shoots is a process that is able to give strength to a sprout, to save trace elements and nutrients for fruits, without wasting extra forces on the germination of side shoots.
Plant care is not limited to controlling the growth process and creating favorable environmental conditions. Side stems can grow greatly, from which the yield decreases. Normally, without some intervention, only some tomatoes can grow.
How to do it right
Determinant tomato varieties necessarily need to be sonny. They stop growing on their own, and weakly branch. Ways to achieve the desired result are quite simple. How to pinch tomatoes? Before 3-4 brushes appear on the plant, the stem should be left alone. After the sprouts appear, two stalks are left, and one of them should be stronger. The frequency of the location of the brushes is also very important - each after the first brush is located in 2 or three sheets. The fewer such brushes on a plant, the more it needs shaping from the gardener.
Determinant disembarking stepson so that one stalk remains. Several inflorescences will help to get a harvest earlier. Pinch point growth is not necessary. A couple of leaves are left - all this is necessary to enable the buds to ripen at the same time.
The fewer stems left on each tomato, the better the harvest will be. Low, that is, determinant varieties of tomatoes sometimes grow quite richly, their stems branch out quite strongly. From five to seven inflorescences on one plant can give an acceptable yield. The first fruits suspend the process of tillering. However, these varieties very slowly feed off their fruits, because a large number of them need a lot of vitamins of the same type.
Tomato bush formation scheme
The harvest is given much later - one bush is required to feed already grown tomatoes, and at the same time provide a complex of minerals and vitamins for the same small fruits, which can be from 10 to 15. For the same reasons, the size of the fruits may suffer - we get very small, although we win in their number.
Indeterminate tomato varieties have a very strong one main shoot, give more yield and ripen later than stunted ones. Almost all varieties of tall tomatoes lend themselves to pasynkovany. 2-3 stems form the full growth of the plant. More sprouts require subspecies - "cream", and the like. They also depend on weather conditions, if the summer lasts longer than usual, then you can leave more fruit brushes, as well as grow stems. Indeterminate tomatoes hive very strongly on their own, so the growth process must be controlled in order to get a rich harvest.
It is important to have time to remove the shoots before the appearance of the first brush with the fruits. A 6, 8 or 10 leaf is a sign that a fruit brush will soon appear.
Branches appear in the axils of each leaflet, and can grow large enough until the time we need. Shoots that grow lower, try faster - the benefits of them in this case, is obvious. Therefore, tall indeterminate types of tomato are sure to be attached to the son, because a tall stem makes it possible to grow very strongly, to bush, and to create lateral processes that require moisture and energy.
When is it better to stick
The best option for topping tomatoes will be the procedure once a week. However, this period is not the only or mandatory. Indoors, remove excess shoots more often. The process of mechanically removing such shoots from stunted species is a little more difficult, because they are more magnificent and it can be difficult to get to the required areas.
When to begin to sticks tomatoes? Sprouts are best cut or removed with gloved hands, still small, 3-5 centimeters long. A large shoot can cause problems in plant growth. The tomato does not notice the removal of the shoot at its small size, and it will not hurt.
Pasoning tomatoes in the greenhouse should have its own separate goal - the extension of the fertility of each plant. Another task is to increase the yield. In the greenhouse, tomato determinant varieties are bred most often. Greenhouses can be used for almost six months, hybrids and indeterminate varieties are suitable for greenhouse cultivation to the fullest. Different varieties are processed according to a different scheme.
Determinantal varieties grow in such a way that they should leave the main stem. How to pinch tomatoes in the greenhouse? This should be done much more often than outdoors. Medium and high tomatoes should not have reserve shoots, since the development of inflorescences does not affect the growth. Since the greenhouse inflorescences on the main stem will be less than usual, you can plant tomatoes closer to each other.
Growing and shaping determinant tomatoes
Growing tomatoes of determinant type of growth is beneficial, they are capable of setting fruit in any conditions, therefore they are suitable for open ground not only in the south, but also in the middle lane.
When planting in greenhouses take up very little space and can be content with tunnel-type shelters. They are very fruitful, just enough to properly form and tie up a bush. They stop growth independently.
Determinate growth varieties and hybrids are very popular among amateur vegetable growers.
Their plants are weak - (1.0-1.3 m) and medium-sized (1.2-1.3 m), have a compact bush. The growth of the main shoot is limited after the formation of 4-6 shoots, and then the growth continues with the stepson.
The first inflorescence on the plant is formed above the 6-7th leaf, the next ones are located in 1-2, sometimes go one after another.
Tomatoes of determinant type growths are easily formed. The second wave of vegetative growth in them occurs earlier than that of the super determinant, and is observed almost immediately after the formation of the fruits on the first inflorescences.
As a rule, these are medium-early varieties and hybrids, in which 105-115 days pass from germination to the first harvest.
Three important nuances in the cultivation of determinant tomatoes
Tomato bush formation
Left photo - forming a bush of tomatoes in one stem, photo on the right - forming tomatoes in two stalks
1. The first pasynkovaniye of tomatoes is expedient for combining with a garter of plants to support or a trellis. I begin to do this in such a way as to have time to remove the stepchildren before the first brush blooms.
2. Pasynki break out with their hands until their length exceeds 4-5 cm. At this time they easily come off, small wounds in the axils of the leaves grow quickly. With their timely removal, hemp usually does not leave, their presence does not affect the growth of new ones.
But the gray rot, as I noticed, such nodes are affected more. But if the stepson is missed and has greatly overgrown, then, removing it, it is better to leave a stump: a large pan on the main stem is an open gate for infection.
3. All work on the formation of tomatoes is carried out only in dry weather. On the eve of the tomatoes it is better not to water and not to feed.
Letters deterministic tomatoes
Passing determinant tomatoes is a must. All methods are fairly simple, mostly using one or several stepsons at the top of the plant.
From personal experience
I grow a hybrid for a long time Verlioko having a determinant type of growth. This is what is called my workhorse: in any weather, it will provide both early harvest to eat and abundant - for processing into juices, ketchups and seaming. Long let him in two stalks, forming the second of the stepson, growing from under the first inflorescence.
Now I am forming a tomato in one stem, until the plant throws 3-4 brushes on the main stem, then I start in two, choosing for this any strong stepson.
After 1-2 inflorescences I can leave one more, already the third. It all depends on the weather. I hope so that the harvest will be able to form by the end of September. My greenhouse is glass.
I came to the conclusion that the formation of two stems at once noticeably slows down the development of tomato. Therefore, at first I give him strength, and only then I load with a crop.
I plant 2.8-3.0 plants per square meter, by the time of the first brush ripening, I gradually remove one leaf each week. This technique improves the ventilation of the bushes, inhibits the development of diseases, and most importantly, ensures the flow of nutrients to the fruits.
Masking and shaping a tomato bush
Masking and forming a bush of tomatoes
1. In one stalk at the same time, when you are walking in the upper part, do not rush to cut off all the stepsons.
Constantly leave at least two backups so that the plant will continue to grow in the future due to one of them (the weaker one is removed) as soon as the main stem stops growing.
This is the easiest way. It is good both for an open ground, and for small greenhouses.
2. In one stalk with the remaining 2-3 stepchildren with 2-3 inflorescences on each. At the same time, on the main stem, lateral shoots are left, located in the stepsons of the leaves under the inflorescences.
3. Constantly translate growth into a side shoot. Form it from the stepson, located in the sinus of the 3rd sheet. In this case, the main stem pinch over 3-4 inflorescence, leaving 1-2 leaves.
Then, on the formed shoot from the stepson growing in the sinus of the first leaf under the first inflorescence, the next continuation shoot is formed, and the previous one is pinned, leaving 1-3 leaves above the second inflorescence. And so continue as long as the place in the greenhouse allows.
N. ZASTENKINA, agronomist. Photos and drawings of the author
How stepson bushes tomatoes?
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, it is necessary not only to ensure proper watering and temperature levels, but also to ensure the correct formation of the bush. It is necessary to regularly pinch tomatoes in the greenhouse, that is, to completely remove the lateral shoots from the sinuses. This is done in order to prevent a strong growth of the bush. When the plant begins to grow, there is an abundance of stems and leaves, a large number of flowers. Such growth has a detrimental effect on fruiting. Pasting is done so that the tomatoes have time to release the necessary 7 brushes for the formation of fruits on them.
The crop of tomatoes in the greenhouse is removed two weeks earlier than when planted in the ground.
Despite the seeming complexity, any summer resident will be able to form a bush.
It is necessary to remove the shoots once in 10 days, not allowing them to grow more than 5 cm.
If not to carry out formation, then it is possible not to dream of any plentiful harvest. Pasykut all varieties without exception. Before using greenhouses for growing tomatoes, you must carefully familiarize yourself with all the conditions for growing a certain variety, including the formation of a bush. Masking is a responsible process, it depends on not only the future yield, but also the proper development of each bush.
How to pinch indeterminant varieties?
In tall tomatoes leave only one stem, get rid of all stepchildren.
In tall varieties, it is recommended to leave one stem, removing all stepchildren. Оставляют только небольшие пеньки в 1 см. Низкорослые экземпляры формируют в два стебля, пасынки убирают до первой кисти, оставляя один побег, находящийся над самой цветочной кистью.
Помидоры в теплице развиваются гораздо быстрее, чем в открытом грунте. Пасынки у них появляются до того, как начинает формироваться цветочная кисть. In this case, the strength of the plant goes on increasing the mass of leaves and stems, and not on fruiting. Be sure to spend pasynkovanie during the summer to get a harvest, and not just beautiful, but absolutely useless bushes.
The first fruit branch of tomatoes is laid after a 6-8 leaf has appeared. From the bosom of each leaf grows the stepson, that is, one brush may contain about eight of them. This is a mass of additional branches, which delay food for themselves, that is, contribute to the fact that less and less fruits are produced. Next brush is laid through the sheet.
Tomato shoots are broken off in the early morning to make the procedure as painless as possible for the plant. Pysynki need to just break off, as cutting can lead to the emergence of various viral diseases. Juice should not fall into the hands, because many diseases of tomatoes are transmitted with juice, from one bush to another. When performing the procedure, it is necessary to ensure that the stem below remains completely dry, a good bright light falls on the bush itself. It is important at this time in the greenhouse where tomatoes are grown, to ensure the free circulation of fresh air.
Masking of hybrids
It is necessary to pickle tomatoes in order to increase fruiting, that is, to get the maximum possible yield per unit area of planting. To do this, it is recommended to choose semi-determinant varieties, which, after the formation of 8-10 inflorescences, begin to independently limit their growth.
In undersized tomatoes left only one stem, one shoot. This is enough to continue further growth. The young shoot must be pinned gently, after which a couple of leaves and buds will appear on it. If the plant is further grown in only one stem for six months, then the tomato will stop growing. Therefore, when forming, it is necessary to leave the reserve stepchild in the leaf's sinus, it should be located under 2-3 inflorescences from the top. After the backup escape goes up, it needs to be removed, making a new one closer to the top. In a greenhouse, such a plant needs a beetroot every 5-7 days.
In medium and tall tomatoes, a reserve shoot is not left, as the inflorescences do not limit the growth of the main bush. When planting, we must remember that the thicker the bushes, the smaller the inflorescences should be. In this case, the yield will be better.
How to pinch tomatoes and during what period? Begin to pinch many varieties of tomatoes required at the time of the first flowering brush. The molding of the bush is required to be combined with the first garter of the brush to the support. The work itself must be carried out neatly, but quickly.
Which varieties are better for greenhouses?
Scheme of tomato staking.
In greenhouses, it is best to grow tall varieties that have such advantages:
- larger fruit size
- relatively uncomplicated care in the process of growing,
- a long period of fruiting, during which an abundant harvest is harvested. The greenhouse is extremely rare for them,
- It is much more convenient to care for tall bushes.
Therefore, it is recommended to give preference to tall tomatoes, but for them pasynkovanie is a mandatory process that should not be excluded. Otherwise, a good crop does not grow. It is necessary to competently treat the selection of seeds. If the area where the greenhouse is located is marshy, then it is better to select the following varieties:
For the cultivation of environmentally friendly tomatoes, their further preservation suitable juicy varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses:
Methods of garter brushes of tomatoes: 1 - twine, 2 - hook with rubber ring, 3 - loop.
- "Pink Giant",
- "F1 Friend"
- "Tomato Miracle Market",
- "Black Prince",
- Rosemary F1.
Suitable for long storage:
So how to put the tomatoes right? To perform this work, you must comply with the following conditions:
- the formation should begin only after all the bushes have become stronger, will begin to grow rapidly. To remove stepchildren is simple when their length is 5 cm,
- It is recommended to start the formation of the bush in the morning,
- it is necessary to continue cleaning work for the stepsons throughout the summer,
- to speed up ripening, improve air circulation, reduce evaporation, lower leaflets should be removed. At the same time you can remove up to 3 leaves, as abundant removal leads to deformation of the fruit,
- To help pollinate tomatoes, you can shake the bush slightly. Conduct this procedure in the morning, from 9 to 11 hours. After this, the paths and the soil in the greenhouse must be moistened.
The so-called pasynkovanie, that is, the removal of all the stepsons from the bush of tomatoes, helps not only to form the bush, but also to ensure abundant fruiting. It is necessary to conduct pasynkovanie, given the variety of tomatoes, especially the growth and development in the greenhouse. Only if the above conditions are met, this procedure will bring results.
When to start?
From what moment it is necessary to start stepson bushes of tomatoes? Conducting this important agrotechnical manipulation should begin after the transplanting into the open ground and the appearance of the first stepson on it and continue until the beginning of the last summer month.
Neglect of this requirement leads to the impossibility of obtaining a good harvest, since the bulk of the nutrients will be spent on the growth of leaves, and not directly on the fruit, their growth and maturation. No summer resident dreams of this.
How often to slice tomatoes?
Pasoning tomatoes is the process of freeing the bush from unwanted stepsons, that is, lateral shoots that grow their axils of the plant leaves. For a good harvest, it is important to remove the stepsons in a timely manner. Experienced gardeners recommend doing this when reaching data of lateral shoots of 5-7 cm in length. At the same time, some experts argue that it is necessary to carry out the pinching of tomatoes, regardless of their size, every 10 days. However, the first point of view seems to be more logical, since, depending on the weather conditions, the stepchildren of tomatoes may grow by different lengths for the same period of time.
At the same time, conducting this procedure, it is best not to cut off the stepchildren using the available tools (scissors, shears), but to break them off with your bare fingers, leaving a small, barely noticeable stump. This will prevent the re-growth of stepchildren in this place. Manipulation should be carried out in the morning, because at this time of day the stepchildren break off easily. It does not have to make an effort.
What if the deadline is missed? So, if, for any reason, the optimal time for holding a pasynkovan is missed, and the side shoots of the leaves have grown longer than the required length, they still need to be eliminated, because the bushes will simply waste the nutrients on them.
It is important to complete the formation of tomato bushes before August 1st. With the onset of this date, you can ruthlessly free the bush from all new inflorescences and fruits appearing on it, as they will significantly slow down the ripening process of the formed vegetables, while they themselves will not have time to bear fruit in the current season.
What it is?
The ladders are side twigs that grow from the base of the leaves. Some summer residents confuse them with the leaves themselves, but they cannot grow from a bare stem; by no means can they: first the leaf grows, and then lateral shoots appear from its base. On the branches, their leaves develop over time, of which then the side shoots also grow - so the bushes of tomatoes begin to branch (see photo).
Grazing in turn is the removal of all unnecessary stepchildren. Hostesses often feel sorry for tearing off the twigs on the plants, besides they think that the more shoots there are, the better the harvest will be. This is absolutely not true. The yield of plants will depend on proper nutrition and illumination area. If there are too many branches on the open ground or in the greenhouse, then less light will fall on the overgrown areas, and, accordingly, the tomatoes will not be able to fully produce fruit.
Conventionally, all varieties of tomato can be divided into three groups: short, medium tall and tall. The first of them stepsons quite rarely, but almost always remove the lateral shoots of the latter (see diagram). As a rule, the first, most powerful stepchild grows immediately after flowering. It is recommended to remove it immediately, as long as you can do it yourself. If he had time to become rude, then it can only be removed with the help of scissors. Opinions on how to do it correctly, diverge. Some gardeners believe that it must be eliminated completely, and others that you need to leave a small penechki that will prevent re-growth of lateral shoots.
Pysynki usually break out very easily to the side.
To work with plants is best to wear gloves.
Proper staving is best done in the morning so that the cuts can dry well during the day.
Cuts to avoid rotting can be powdered with coal or finely ground ash.
Removal of stepsons is best to start with healthy lush bushes, gradually moving to more unreliable, to avoid the possible spread of infection.
If the stepchildren grow from the ground and have their roots, it is not necessary to transplant them.
What to do in the greenhouse?
Before proceeding to the pinching, it is necessary to determine how many stems tomatoes will have. Most often, the formation goes into one, two or three stalks. It does not make sense to make more branches, because then the seedlings will be too thick, and the fruits will have small sizes. The gardener Oktyabrina Ganichkina, for example, recommends that, both in stunted and tall varieties, only one stalk should be left. The scheme of staving a tomato in a greenhouse will look like this:
the distance between the rows should be about one and a half meters,
the step between plants should be approximately 30 centimeters.
In the bushes of tomatoes, all side shoots are removed, which allows to achieve maximum illumination of each bush, as well as its good ventilation. Such staving is recommended every week. If it was decided to form a bull heart bush in two stems, then in addition to the main stem leave the first side shoot. All other side branches break out almost every week. Similarly, the formation of three stems. In this case, left two lower side shoots. Masking a tomato in a greenhouse is shown very well in the video.
How to work on open ground?
August is a very important month for gardeners, according to Oktyabrina Ganichkina. It was at this time that all the fruits that started earlier began to ripen on the open ground. It is worth noting that all side shoots and inflorescences, which began to form this month, are absolutely useless and will not give fruit. That is why they must be immediately removed in order to avoid the leakage of useful substances. Sowing tomatoes in open ground is recommended every 10 days. In this case, the formation, as in the previous case, can take place in one, two or three stems.
In order to provide both undersized and tall tomatoes, proper care, first of all, it is necessary to decide how many stems should remain. If during the cultivation of tomatoes you want to get an early harvest, it is best to leave one or two stems. If you leave three branches, the fruit will be more, but they will ripen more slowly. The correct pinching of a tomato in an open field video, shown below, shows in more detail.
After planting the tomatoes in the soil, the culture intensively forms the tops, spending almost all the nutrients from the soil on it. After the appearance of the ovaries, it is necessary to direct all the energy of the vegetable to the ripening of the fruit. For this purpose, pinching is used - removal of lateral shoots and lower leaves. At the same time whether it is necessary to carry out the procedure and when to do it is the business of every gardener.
There are varieties of tomatoes, which grow well and bear fruit without the elimination of stepsons, for example, undersized vegetables. But the bulk of tomatoes, this procedure is necessary.
Side shoots do not bring any benefit to the plant. In addition, such "extra" greens can adversely affect the yield of tomatoes. If it is cut, the vegetables will receive more nutrients for fruit. It is necessary to remove stepchildren from 3 to 5 cm in size. The elimination of larger shoots can damage the culture and slow its growth.
It is necessary to begin when the first stepson is formed under the first flower brush. Do not allow him to grow more than 5 cm, otherwise he will have time to pick up the precious food. In addition, the grown-up stepchild is difficult to remove without damaging the stem, and this can cause bush disease. In order not to miss its appearance, tomatoes should be regularly inspected. Masking is best done in the morning with good ventilation and natural light. The weather should be warm and dry. Always start with the strongest and healthiest bushes. Weak bushes or suspected of any defeat leave in the end. The optimal frequency of removal of stepsons is 1 time in 7-10 days.
How to distinguish the stepson from the usual sheet
In order to distinguish the stepson from the leaf, you need to carefully consider the tomato bush. A leaf grows on the stalk itself, but in its bosom, an escape appears between it and the trunk - the stepson. Such a lateral shoot actively grows and expands the leaves, as well as the so-called second-level stepchildren.
Remove stepchildren need while they are not very large - 3-5 cm in length. This is necessary so that the plant does not spend the nutrients on their growth, as well as not to injure the bush unnecessarily, removing large shoots.
How to pinch tomatoes
It is recommended that the grazing of tomatoes be carried out regularly: as soon as the shoot reaches a length of several centimeters, it is removed. You should not “overdo it” the stepson - after all, he will spend on himself what the fruit could have spent. Therefore, it is recommended to pinch tomatoes at least once a week.
If this is not possible, remember the so-called "cherished term tomato scientists" - August 1. The bush has time to “feed and ripen” only the fruits that are tied up by this date, and the maintenance of the later ovaries by the bush does not make sense. Therefore, at about this time - at the end of July - the beginning of August - at least one but obligatory sticks of tomatoes should be carried out. All stepchildren are removed, growth points on fruitful shoots are pinned.
It is best to pinch tomatoes in the morning of a sunny day - so that the wound heals and does not get infected. Leave a small “penechki” stepson - this will inhibit the emergence of new shoots.
What branches to pinch and what to leave? It all depends on how many shoots you want to leave: one, two or three. It all depends on the variety. For example, undersized (superdeterminant) varieties will produce an earlier harvest, if you leave one or two branches (3-5 inflorescences on each stem). If you leave three, there will be more tomatoes, but they will ripen much more slowly. But for tall, greenhouse tomatoes (indeterminate), it is preferable to leave one stem.
Masking of tomatoes in greenhouse conditions
Bushes of tomatoes begin to form additional shoots very early, so after planting seedlings need to periodically inspect it and carefully remove the little stepchildren. In the future, pasynkovanie bushes are recommended to be held every week throughout the season, even when the fruits ripen and harvest begins. It is desirable to carry out the procedure in the morning when the greenhouse is not too warmed up. During the day, the sun will dry the wounds, which will prevent the occurrence of various diseases.
Formations of tomato bush in the greenhouse
When all unnecessary shoots are removed, you can proceed to the second stage of the formation of the bush. Pinching the tops is necessary in order for the bushes to stop growing upwards. It allows you to prevent the appearance of additional ovaries.
The procedure of clipping in different regions take place in different periods. For example, in the middle lane, clipping is performed in the middle or end of July. Over each main brush should be left no more than two or three sheets.
Methods of staving tomato leaves
Leaf trimming options:
- Remove almost all the leaves, except for a few sheets on top of the bush. This will provide good ventilation and ingress of light, as well as reduce the attack of fungal diseases.
- Crop only the bottom sheets that have changed the structure and color.
Concerning the correct cutting of leaves there is no single opinion. Each gardener can experiment and test on his own experience which method will yield a greater yield. The successful formation of bushes is a matter of experience and a thorough approach to the care of plants.
Masking of tomatoes in the open ground
К началу августа на кустах томатов вырастут и созреют плоды, которые успели завязаться раньше, а новые соцветия и боковые побеги, образовавшиеся после данного срока лишь израсходуют полезные вещества необходимые для вызревания помидоров. Предотвращая этот процесс, кусты пасынкуют один раз за все время развития плодов.
На каждом растении с середины июля и по начало августа удаляют пасынки, и, оставив только несколько листов, проводят прищипывание на уровне точек роста продуктивных побегов.
There is a second method, suitable for the conditions of open ground, according to which it is recommended to hold a tomato strawling every ten days. Each gardener in accordance with the selected variety of tomatoes should decide how many stems to leave.