Planting cherries in the fall begins with choosing the right place. This should take into account a range of different agrotechnical factors. All details matter, even the smallest. It is necessary to take into account the light-loving cherries, which means that the plot should be well lit. Choose a place on a hill and where the shadow will not fall on the trees. Another important factor is protection from the wind. In winter, cold wind will freeze heat-loving saplings, and they may die.
And in the summer pistils in flowers will be dried, which will lead to the difficulty of natural pollination. Planting cherries in the fall or spring should be made on light fertile soils. It is unacceptable to root seedlings on acidic soils, as this will prevent the trees from absorbing nutrients. To reduce the acidity of the soil will help liming, in addition, it is useful to make a mixture containing potassium and phosphorus.
Planting time cherry
It is believed that cherries, like some other fruit trees and shrubs, are best planted in spring. In this case, they will have enough time for rooting. However, in the southern or warm central regions of Russia can be planted cherries in the autumn. The main thing - to do all the work before the beginning of October, that is, about a month before the onset of frost.
Planting cherries in the fall: agricultural technology
The pit for landing is dug in advance, at least two weeks in advance. Its diameter should be 80 cm, depth not less than 50 cm. A wooden peg should be inserted into the pit, filled with a mixture of soil, humus and a small part of mineral fertilizers (60 g of potassium and 200 g of phosphorus). Then you can lower the sapling, gently unfold its roots and sprinkle with earth. After planting, the soil is slightly compacted. Watering is obligatory - two buckets of water inside a specially made earthen rim. In the end, you need to tie the seedling to the peg - this will protect the fragile stem.
Planting cherries in the fall: important points
Cherries are preferably planted in spring, but during this period it is not always possible to find seedlings. However, there are quite a few of them in the fall, so even if you do not plan to root planting material before frosts, it is worth buying and prikopat it in any free area. For this purpose, a pit is prepared with a length of 65 cm and a depth of 35-40 cm, and a slope of 45 ° is made on its southern side. Saplings are stacked and covered with soil to the branches, after which the ground is tamped.
Even gardeners need to know that it does not make much sense to plant only one cherry. At least two trees are needed that will pollinate each other. Not every variety is capable of self-pollination, so choose those species that will be well suited to each other. For example, a griot fits well with a tongue, and a Lybian can pollinate lots and black blood.
Proper planting of cherries in the fall is only the first step towards a bountiful harvest. It is necessary to take care of seedlings - to timely loosening, pruning, watering, fertilize the soil and provide protection from pests. And only in this case, your efforts will bear the long-awaited fruit.
The benefits of autumn planting cherries
There is definitely no established opinion about the cherry planting season. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the recommendations It is important to focus on the regional climate and varietal characteristics of cherry.
When landing in the fall the impact of adverse factors for rooting of the seedling is minimized.
After planting the cherries until mid-October, a period with a stable temperature of + 10 ° C- + 15 ° C will follow and the seedling will have time to acclimatize before the first frosts appear.
Additionally, a long rest period helps heal wounds received during transplantation.
Saplings of autumn planting ahead in the development of trees planted in the spring, for 20 days. This is achieved through the development of the root system in the fall, when the buds of the tree are at rest. And so in the spring, the cherry starts to build up the vegetative mass immediately.
All nurseries dig up saplings for sale in the fall. Planting material, which is sold in the spring, is stored in special conditions all winter.
The process of storage, even with the observance of all the rules, is already a violation of the natural development of the sapling. At the same time, roots or internal structures can be damaged, which is difficult to determine by external signs.
In autumn there is an opportunity to purchase a seedling with a fresh root system., which can determine the health of the tree. A large amount of seedlings for sale affects pricing, and therefore planting material in the fall is cheaper, and the choice of varieties more.Saplings of autumn planting ahead in the development of trees planted in the spring for 20 days
Autumn planting is relatively simple and saves gardener's time. It does not involve additional work other than proper planting and shelter of a seedling for the winter.
Regular rains will provide the tree with the necessary moisture, and it will develop the root system until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C. This is a significant time saving in the spring during the peak of garden work.
There are autumn planting cherries and disadvantages. This is a possible freezing of the root system and the above-ground part under the conditions of a strong decrease in air temperature in winter. Damage by icing, squally winds or heavy snowfall are also possible.
There is a risk of damage to seedlings by rodents.. All these factors need to be considered when planting and minimize the possibility of each problem
When to plant cherry in the fall: choosing the right time and a good seedling
Despite the generally accepted guidelines for planting cherries, you need to focus on the average temperature of your region.
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Approximate terms of landing:
- in the middle lane and near Moscow, cherry is planted after leaf fall until mid-October,
- in the southern regions, planting begins from the beginning of October and continues until mid-November,
- in the northern regions and in the Urals, cherry is planted only in spring.
You also need to take into account the variety of cherryIf the tree is characterized by low frost resistance, it is better to postpone the landing until spring.
Seedlings should not be planted if the optimum time is missed., they need to be properly maintained until spring. For this, an incremental trench is formed. It has seedlings at an angle of 30 °, the roots and root neck are sprinkled with soil, the branches are bent to the ground and fixed with boards.
Most cultivars are self-fertile, therefore for the full fruiting of the tree you need to purchase at least three seedlings of different varieties.
In addition, the practice has proved that with a combined planting of self-fertile varieties of cherries, the yield increases several times.Most sorts of cherries are self-fertile, for the full fruiting of the tree you need to purchase three seedlings of different varieties
The quality of seedlings:
- one-year (70-80 cm), two-year (110-120 cm),
- developed fibrous root system of at least 25 cm,
- mature wood without damage.
Too high growth of saplings shows about overfeeding plants with nitrogen, which greatly reduces winter hardiness. Planting such plants before winter is likely to lead to the death of the tree.
Saplings can be sold grafted or rooted own. The grafted cherry is distinguished by an earlier entry into fruiting.
The own-rooted trees have better winter-hardiness and a wider breeding potential.
Where can I plant deretsa: selection and preparation of the site
Adult cherries tolerate transplantation very poorly. Therefore, to choose a site for growing fruit tree should be given the longevity.
With proper care and favorable conditions bush cherry lives up to 18 years, tree up to 25 years.
Cherry grows well on loam and sandy loam with a neutral alkaline reaction. It is important to take into account the occurrence of groundwater, it should be no higher than 1.5 meters.
Sour soil on a peaty basis is not suitable for fruit trees. Therefore, the upper layer must be replaced by at least 20 cm.
Cherry roots do not compete well with weedstherefore, it is necessary to dig a lot several times, carefully removing the remnants of other plants.Before planting cherries, you need to dig a lot several times, apply fertilizer superphosphate, compost or manure
Wherein based on 1 m2 in the ground you need to make:
- compost or manure 8-10 kg
- superphosphate 60 g,
- potassium chloride 30 g
When landing on the lowlandswhere the stagnation of moisture and cold air is constantly formed or in areas constantly blown by the winds the tree develops poorly.
Cherry suffers from bark and root cervix, freezing of flower ovaries, gum cure and desiccation of branches. This creates a favorable environment for the formation of dangerous diseases, so cherries need to be cared for.
Landing pit formation, soil preparation
The landing pits are prepared in advance.at least 15 days. Recommended layout for bushy varieties 2x2, for tree trees 3.5x3.5. The optimal size of the pit 50x50x50.
Also need to advance prepare the soil mixture for filling the pit. To do this, use the top layer of soil deposited after digging the pit. It is mixed with nutritional components:
- humus 1 bucket,
- potassium sulphate (30 g),
- superphosphate 200 g
Heavy soil structured by adding 2 buckets of river sand. A drainage layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pit and 1/3 of the pit is filled up with prepared soil and compacted well.
Also it must be remembered that nitrogen is found in large quantities in chicken droppings and swine manure.
Step-by-step guide for planting seedlings
Before landing you need inspect the seedling again, prune all damaged root sections to healthy tissue. Removed all the leaves, which will contribute to the evaporation of moisture.
If the roots are heavily dried, they must be dipped in cold water for 12 hours before the root collar. In some cases, the trunk of seedlings dries up, in which case it will need to be submerged in water by 1/3.
Significantly increases the survival rate of seedlings immersion of roots in a solution of heteroauxin - organic growth promoter.
Step-by-step guide and landing steps:
- installation of cola (2 m) on the north side of the pit,
- the formation of a mound from the prepared soil mixture,
- uniform distribution of cherry roots over the surface of the mound,
- backfilling of the roots and sealing the surface of the wheel circle,
- watering 2-3 buckets of warm water.
Root neck should stay 3–5 cm above the ground surface. Over time, shrinkage will occur, and it will be equal to the soil. If, after watering and shrinkage, the root neck is still not at the right level, it needs to be corrected.
This indicator applies to bushy varieties, despite the name, they are planted in the same way as tree cherry.
Video about the correct planting of cherry
The process of planting a cherry seedling is simple:
- place one peg in the center of the pit (for high seedlings, you will need two pegs with a cross bar) to use it to fix a young bush in the hole,
- at the bottom of the pit around the peg, fill this amount of soil (from the upper layer) mixed with fertilizers so that the root neck of the tree is at the right level,
- the seedling needs to be installed on the north side of the peg, straighten the root system and sprinkle it with the remaining fertile soil, carefully priming it so that the soil fits well to the roots,
- cover the pit with soil from the bottom layer and firmly seal it,
- at a distance of 30 cm from the peg with a seedling, an earthen roller is formed,
- two buckets of water are poured into the hole with the planted cherry
- the soil is mulched with humus or sawdust so that no crust forms on the surface,
- A cherry seedling is tied to a cola, given the likelihood of a tree sinking, the peg itself is cut down at the level of the lower branches.
Planting cherries in the fall also includes hilling seedlings with earth to a height of up to 35 cm in order to avoid freezing of the roots. With the onset of snow melting in spring, the trees are broken up.
When to plant: optimal timing
Optimum landing time - mid autumn or early spring. When purchasing a sapling closer to November, it is better to plant it already in the spring. The best option is October, the culture has already stopped its growth, and for the month remaining until frost it is able to take root.
Terms are determined individually for each individual case, taking into account the climate conditions and the properties of the varieties. Due to the relatively shallow root system, it is not recommended to plant frost-resistant plants in the autumn season.
The spring planting of resistant varieties in the southern regions can also be a problem. Sudden temperature drops during the day or at night put their immunity at risk. Mid-October is most favorable - negative factors for engraftment are minimal.
Lighting and wind protection
The optimum choice of a site will be the raised, well shined area with no rays of light. Grafted seedlings need carbohydrates formed on the leaves in the process of photosynthesis in the open sun. It is desirable that the rays fall on the tree from morning to afternoon, and ideally - to stay until the evening. To avoid freezing, weathering and drying of pestles of flowers, choose a place protected from cold winds.
Soil for cherry
With a slight demanding of the soil, yet light and fertile land is a priority and gives a successful result. The search for a seat is determined by the preference of the crop to moderately wet and fertile lands with no groundwater and marshland, and it is contraindicated to plant in lowlands, ravines. Due to the individual characteristics of varieties, before planting, you need to know which conditions for each of them have a positive effect. Wood ash or a large amount of dolomite flour helps in eliminating soil acidity. Limestone flour sprinkled outside pristvolnyh circles with the calculation of 1 kg per 3 sq. M.
Selection and preparation of planting material
They are bought in special nurseries, and in large farms you can choose ready-made three-year-old seedlings that will delight you next year. It is advisable to choose one- or two-year-old trees with properly formed roots, matured wood and not to forget:
- The older the age, the harder the adaptation will occur.
- Focus on low (70-80 cm) trees.
- The root system must be well expressed, not chopped off.
- The bark is uniformly silky brown with no green patches.
Planting pits should be prepared in advance, 2-3 weeks before seating. The dimensions of the planting pits are due to the fertility of the land, with infertile soil - the diameter is 80 cm, depth - 50-60 cm. When fertile, especially if it is a favorite black soil, - the diameter will be 60 cm, depth - 40-50 cm.
Lovers who do not really understand the properties of cherries, often face the question - how to plant in the fall.
The principle is standard: we select the upper fertile layer in one direction, the lower one in the other. Next, the top layer is mixed with 1: 1 humus with the addition of a half-liter cans of ash. We make a small mound in the pit, insert a tree, cover it with fertile soil and water it abundantly.
Schemes for different grades
When choosing a seedling, it should be remembered that they are mostly self-productive. Consider some of the nuances of how to plant a cherry in the fall, using several species. Ovary fruit from a flower occurs as a result of pollen from other pollinating varieties growing nearby on his pistil.
Self-fertile, pollinated by their own pollen in any weather at the time of flowering, is the most reliable option for a consistently rich collection. The key to a successful choice is resistance to frost, disease, and excellent taste. The best varieties for cherry orchard:
- "Morozovka." Differs in sweetness of fruits, ripens in July.
- "Turgenevka". Very hardy. Begins to bear fruit by July, ideal for harvesting.
- "Shpanka". It is unpretentious, resistant to diseases, winter-hardy enough. Berries are large, can not lie long.
- "Zhukovskaya." Late ripening with large berries.
- "Ashinskaya". Self-fertile, very cold-resistant, unpretentious.
- "Vladimirskaya". Sweet, ideal for jam. Ripens in July.
- "Lyubskaya". Very productive, frost resistance average. Ripens in July.
- "A meeting". Disease resistant, frost resistant.
- "Generous." Self-fertile, gives great yields, sour taste.
Further care for seedlings
Cherry trees are loved by many gardeners, at least one, but flaunts on any site. Только на одном участке оно покрыто ягодами, а на другом — едва соберешь горсть, причины заключаются в неправильном уходе.
Planting saplings in the fall is not a difficult procedure, especially in our conditions, cherries do not scare droughts and frosts. Even if the tree freezes in winter, it will recover very quickly.
Certainly should be taken care of the culture. Consider the basic steps for proper care:
- Loosening. Produce from the beginning of spring to frosts, before the cold after fertilizers do the digging of the trunk circle to a depth of 15-25 cm.
- Fertilizers. In the fall, apply solid fertilizers in the form of 150-200 g of phosphate and 60-80 g of potassium. Also, before the autumn one, apply organic fertilizer in the form of rotted manure or compost at intervals of 2–3 years.
- Watering. The cherry crop is drought-resistant, but it reacts to watering with increased collection and enlarged fruits. Watering should be abundant, mainly at the time of flowering, ripening of fruits and before the onset of winter.
- Crop. It is necessary to cut off in the spring, removing dry branches and forming the correct crown. Spill the branches carefully gloss over.
- Protection against diseases and pests. The first spraying should be done with the beginning of the growing season, in cool weather after flowering, repeat the procedure. Poison baits prevent rodents and insects from raiding. The most popular sprayers are urea, Bordeaux mixture, DNOC, Nitrofen, iron sulphate.
To get a good result when planting cherries, do not forget about technology, loosen, dig and fertilize. Timely cut, spray and make abundant watering. Then a really good harvest will not take long and will give a lot of positive emotions and impressions.