Milkheads come from the Syroezhkov family, and the Milky family. They are known from ancient times. In Russia, these mushrooms were considered among the best. Their taste and useful properties are appreciated today. The word gruzd has its origin from the Church Slavonic "gruzia" or "breast", which means a heap, because of the joint accumulation of mushrooms in one place.
There are different types of mooris, which must be distinguished and not confused with false mushrooms. These mushrooms can be harvested for the winter, as many housewives do. Milk salted, pickled and frozen. In order to get tasty and healthy pieces in the winter, you need to properly assemble and prepare them.
Where is growing and what does the gruel look like?
Milk mushrooms grow in mixed, deciduous and coniferous forests of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In Europe, these mushrooms are little known and are considered conditionally edible. The gathering season for gruzdy is in June - November and depends on the region.
The average daily temperature for the growth of fungi is 7-10 degrees. It is necessary to go hunting for mushrooms after scant but prolonged rains.
At one site you can gather up a whole basket of mushrooms. They hide under the foliage of birch, mountain ash, willow, under pine needles, in mosses, under a fern. To collect them you need to use a stick and a sharp knife.
There are several types of salmon. They are black, white (real, raw), yellow, dry, aspen and oak. Regardless of the species, they are all massive, weighty and different from other mushrooms.
Useful properties, composition
The properties of these mushrooms make them useful in the treatment of various diseases.
- The use of milk in food is a good prevention of diseases of the nervous system and atherosclerosis.
- Milk extracts are used for urolithiasis and gallstone diseases, and renal failure.
- Lactariovialin, which helps with pulmonary emphysema and tuberculosis, is obtained from pepper in the pharmaceutical industry.
- This natural antibiotic is often used in various pharmaceutical preparations.
- Mushrooms are beneficial for diabetics because they increase glucose levels. They regulate sugar levels, reduce harmful cholesterol.
- Milk mushrooms provide a person with good bacteria, reduce neurosis.
- During fermentation, salted mushrooms acquire a protein that acts antisclerotic and anti-inflammatory.
Eating 200-250 grams of milk three times a week can strengthen the body, cleanse it of toxins, saturate it with useful substances.
Milk is used in cosmetology. Regular use of these mushrooms leads to an improvement in the condition of the nails, skin and hair. Compresses of salted mushrooms are used to remove warts.
If milk grows in liquid culture, mycelium produces a mixture of various compounds, fatty acids, extractive substances, such as: enzymes, proteins, essential oils, resins, cyclic dipeptides, anifinic acid, ergosterol and others.
Amino acids that are part of the juice are easily absorbed by the body.
Bulks contain vitamins C, D, A, B1, B2, B12, E, PP, as well as phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium. They, like amino acids, are fully digested.
100 grams of mushroom dry matter contains 33 grams of protein.
Mushrooms easily replace meat and are suitable for vegetarian dishes, vegetable diets.
The calorie content of salmon in salted form is 2 times higher than beef and 3 times farm milk. The calorie content of boiled mushrooms is 16-26 calories.
Who should not have milk mushrooms - harm
Milk contains a large amount of fiber and with stomach problems (ulcers, gastritis) they can cause harm. In diseases of the gallbladder, liver, pancreas, these mushrooms are contraindicated.
Milk is hard to digest and is considered high in calories. They need to be consumed in the morning, so that they have time to digest. Frequent use of fungi can cause allergic reactions.
Children under 7 years of age and pregnant women are contraindicated to use these mushrooms, as they can be harmful.
Improper preparation of mushrooms can lead to poisoning, botulism.
It is impossible to collect milk mushrooms near roads and industrial areas, since they accumulate harmful substances. Such mushrooms eat dangerous.
Types of moorie
The most fragrant and tasty load is white. This species is considered the best for salting and marinating.
The cap is tubular, fleshy, prostrate, later pressed into the middle, with fringed edges and curved edges. The diameter of the cap reaches 20 centimeters. White skin, sometimes yellowish with red spots. In wet weather, it becomes mucous. Milky juice on the site of damage to the fungus turns yellow. Leg up to 6 centimeters, flat, hollow, creamy-white plates descend onto it. The pulp is tight, white.
In the people black gruzd is called a chernushka because of a dark color of a hat. The cap is dark green or brownish yellow with an olive sheen. The shape is rounded-flat, later it falls, the diameter reaches 20 centimeters. The surface of the cap sometimes has concentric circles. The edges are slightly fringed, bent inward. The skin is moist, mucous. The lower part of the fungus is white-yellow or yellowish-olive, tubular. Inside, the milk mushrooms are white and fleshy. The leg is thin, up to 8 centimeters high, tight, full, with time it becomes hollow and becomes covered with dents.
Black grub is found in young and birch forests. Black mushrooms are suitable for salting. In pickles mushrooms get reddish, wine shade.
The main difference between yellow and white is the lack of shaggyness in the cap. Cap funnel-shaped. The edges are curved, moisture is collected in the plates. The leg is hollow, consists of dark pits. Milky juice on the cut quickly turns yellow. The fungus is bitter and requires prior soaking. Yellow mushrooms are used for salting.
Yellow milk mushrooms are found near fallen trees, in tall grass, in thickets, by water bodies and streams.
Milk mushrooms grow in moss and are difficult to spot. Mushrooms need to be in September.
Dry weight (rusk, russula excellent, podgruzdok white) grows under the deadwood, trees and on them.
This is a fungus. He looks like an ordinary gruzd, but differs in a dry, not sticky cap.
The hat is white. Over time, it turns yellow, covered with yellow-brown and ocher-rust spots. The shape of the head of young gruzdy is convex with a depression in the middle, the edges are directed downwards. An adult has a funnel-shaped cap with wavy or even edges folded inward. The diameter of the cap is 5-15 centimeters. The plates under the cap are white, sometimes bluish-greenish, descending on the leg.
Leg thickened to 3 centimeters, 3-5 centimeters long, white in color, with brown specks, slightly narrowed to the bottom. Inside the leg at a young age dense, solid, later becomes hollow. The pulp is dense, fragile, does not contain a milky juice. The smell is characteristic of mushrooms, pleasant. The taste is sweet.
These mushrooms marinate, salt. Dry milk grows almost half dug into the ground and half sprinkled with foliage. If you find one, you can immediately fill the whole basket.
From June to November, all the types of forests grow from June to November, forming mycorrhiza with alder, beech, birch, aspen, oak, spruce and pine. Often found on sod-sandy soil and near rivers.
There is no poisonous counterpart in cargo. False mushrooms have a specific smell or taste, but not poisonous. They are used in cooking after drying, boiling or prolonged steeping.
A creak mushroom (creak, felt felt) is similar to the real one and is edible. It does not taste as good as a real one.
His hat is white and fleshy. The form is concave, later funnel-shaped, covered with fibers, the edges are bent, the diameter of the fungus reaches 25 centimeters. The plates are infrequent, creamy-white, descend on a rounded stem, which reaches a height of 8 centimeters. Under the cap the tubular layer has a yellow color. The flesh is fragile, white. Before using in cooking, mushrooms are soaked for a long time, and then used for pickles.
When the mushroom cap is rubbing against the teeth, a characteristic creaking sound appears. The fungus is found in aspen and birch groves.
Lard can also be confused with fragrant mlechnik.
Cap up to 7 cm in diameter, slightly pubescent, depressed, brownish-gray, with a pinkish, yellowish or purple hue. Concentric circles are slightly visible. Plates adherent to the stalk, frequent, pale ocher.
The leg is cylindrical, whitish with a yellowish shade, hollow. The flesh is whitish or reddish-brown, with the smell of fresh hay. The milky juice is white, slightly greenish in the air, in young mushrooms a little sweet, in the old - a bit pungent.
It grows in coniferous and mixed forests in August - September. Conditionally edible, used for salting with other mushrooms, but sometimes fresh.
Pepper pepper has a flat or convex, and later a concave cream cap, the diameter is 20 centimeters. The edges of the cap are lighter in tone. The slices on the mushrooms quickly darken.
Pulp tart to the taste, has the taste of hot pepper, brittle, dense. You can use them salty, after prolonged soaking and frequent changes of water.
Dry mushroom powder is used as a spicy seasoning.
It is a bitter or a bitter bitter. The hat is reddish brown. In the center is visible a small bump. Funnel shape. The leg is integral, thin. On a cut the bitter milky juice acts. The flesh is dry, slightly brown, dense.
Bitter grows in mixed and coniferous forests. Used in pickling and pickling after soaking and otstanivaniya.
Golden-yellow cliff (Lactarius chrysorrheus)
The golden-yellow clutch has a light-yellow, fleshy cap that is sticky to the touch. Velvety edges concave down. The shape of the cap prostrate, later becomes concave. Plates of yellowish color, frequent, descend on a yellowish elongated leg. At the place of contact, the surface of the fungus becomes mauve. The flesh is creamy white. The smell is pleasant. Mushroom suitable for pickles and pickling after soaking or boiling.
The camphor mushroom has a reddish-brown, glossy, convex, and later a concave cap with undulating edges. The diameter of the cap is 5–6 centimeters. The plates are pink, then turn brown, go down on a flat, not thick leg, about 5 centimeters high. Bottom tuberiform leg. The flesh is brittle, brick brown in color.
Campanile milch has a persistent camphor odor and is not at all consumed.
How to harvest milk mushrooms for the winter
When harvesting salted and pickled mushrooms in glass jars, remember that it is not recommended to close them with metal lids. For these purposes, used plastic caps or parchment.
In no case should salted milk mushrooms be sealed with a tight lid. This leads to the development of microbes that cause poisoning and botulism.
The hot way to salting black and white wetlands
- 2 kilograms of mushrooms,
- 2 liters of water (for brine),
- 6 tablespoons of salt,
- garlic cloves,
- bell pepper,
- Dill umbrellas.
On a jar with a volume of 0.7 liters is taken: 2 cloves of garlic, 3 peas of pepper.
Mushrooms first need to wash under running water. The surface of mushrooms is cleared, the garbage, traces of the earth clean up. The legs are cut. Mushrooms are soaked for 1-2 days in an enamel saucepan. Water at this time needs to be changed every 4 hours. Soaked mushrooms are laid out in a large container, covered with water and placed on the fire. After boiling, you need to wait 5 minutes, then the milk mushrooms recline in a colander.
The brine is brought to a boil. Seasonings are laid out in prepared jars, then mushrooms go. Large mushrooms are cut in half. On top of the mushrooms fit the umbrella of dill.
Everything is filled with brine and stays overnight. In the morning, the brine must be added, as its amount will decrease. Banks are closed with plastic covers. You can eat mushrooms in 2.5 months.
Salty milk mushrooms in a barrel
The number of ingredients in this recipe depends on the volume of the container.
Leaves of cherry, black currant and garlic are laid on the bottom of the barrel. Mushrooms are laid out and poured in layers of salt. The top is laid down oppression and covered with a lid. The barrel is installed in a ventilated, cold place. Milk mushrooms eventually fall. Every 4 days they need to be added to the barrel. A full barrel is stored in the basement, cellar or cold storage room. Eat mushrooms can be in 1.5-2 months.
How to pickle dry milk mushrooms?
- 5 kilograms of mushrooms,
- 2 glasses of salt,
- 5 leaves of cherry and currant,
- dill umbrellas,
- horseradish leaves
- garlic cloves.
Milk soaked in water for 5 hours. Brush out all the rubbish. Peeled and washed mushrooms are boiled for 15 minutes in salted water. After complete cooling, they can be salted.
Mushrooms are stacked in capacity in layers. Each layer wakes up with salt. Water is poured on the level of mushrooms. Fits oppression. The container with mushrooms is placed in a warm place. A few days later, when the water stops foaming, you need to rinse the mushrooms, put them in banks, pour the prepared boiling brine and close the lid. Stored mushrooms in a cold place.
The first method of cooking pickled gruzdey
- 2 kilograms of small loads,
- 2 liters of water
- 3 teaspoons of mustard,
- 4 tablespoons of sugar,
- 10 grams of paprika,
- 4 tablespoons of salt,
- 10 cloves of garlic,
- 2 small roots and horseradish leaves,
- 3 pieces of peppercorns,
- 6 bay leaves,
- 4 dill umbrellas,
- 10 leaves of cherry and black currant.
Mushrooms are washed and cooked. After boiling, they should boil for 15 minutes. In this case, you need to remove the foam. After cooking the bitterness will disappear. Mushrooms recline in a colander and boil water.
- To prepare the brine, salt and sugar are poured into boiling water.
- At the bottom of the jar is placed half a root of horseradish, 2 teaspoons of mustard, bay leaf, paprika, dill umbrella and pepper.
- From above to half laid mushrooms.
- Then there is dill, horseradish leaves and another layer of mushrooms.
- Everything is covered with leaves of cherry, horseradish and currant, a garlic clove is added, 1 teaspoon of mustard.
- Poured boiling solution and closes.
Banks are placed in a dark place, and after cooling, they are sent to a storage room or basement.
The second, simpler way
- 2 kilograms of milk
- currant leaves,
- 2 liters of water
- 250 grams of vinegar,
- 4 tablespoons of sugar,
- 4 tablespoons of salt.
Prepared mushrooms are cut and laid out in a pan. After boiling, they boil for 10 minutes.
In this case, you must not forget to remove the foam. Milkwood recline for runoff in a colander. Then sugar, vinegar and salt are poured into the water. The pot is put on fire. After boiling, glass milk mushrooms are laid out there. You need to cook them for 20 minutes. Currant leaves are laid on the bottom of the jar, mushrooms are on top. Everything is filled with brine and closed with a lid.
The easiest way to harvest milkberries is freezing.
Mushrooms are washed and cleaned. Then fried or cooked. For frying, mushrooms are cut into pieces. You can cook them in butter or vegetable oil. For cooking mushrooms can be cut in half or left intact. Fry and cook mushrooms need at least 15 minutes. The foam when cooking is constantly removed.
Preparations before freezing should cool down completely. The prepared raw material is distributed in containers or packages and sent to the freezer.
Cooked mushrooms before cooking do not need to defrost. Otherwise the dish will lose its taste and will look unappetizing.
You can also simmer the mushrooms in the oven without adding oil. To evaporate moisture, the temperature should be 180 degrees. The contents of the pan are constantly stirred. Cooled mushrooms freeze.
Freezing wetlands raw
Sorted mushrooms need to be washed, cleaned of dirt. Then they must be soaked as salting. After this, the mushrooms are watered with boiling water, and after cooling down, they are lightly squeezed, laid out in packets and frozen.
Milk mushrooms are ideal for patient mushroom pickers. These delicious mushrooms are able to complement any table, both on weekdays and on holidays.
Lunch real (Lactarius resimus)
In 1942, the microbiologist Boris Vasilkov studied the species of salmon, made a description of them, and called the white salmon a real mushroom because it is considered by the people. Although until this time, pepper pepper was called the present.
It grows in the Volga region, in the Urals, in Siberia. Hat in diameter of 6-25 cm, white or yellowish, slightly sticky. Its shape is changing, and under it are white plates. The edges of the cap can be covered with a fluff, which is the main distinguishing feature of this type.
Leg 3–9 cm high, cylindrical, white or yellowish, empty in the middle. The body of the fungus is white, with a milky juice at the break, which changes its color to yellow-gray when interacting with air. The smell is very similar to the fruit flavor. Crop harvested from July to late September in deciduous and mixed forests near the birch trees.
In Russia, white mushroom is considered the king of mushrooms and is eaten, in Western Europe it is considered inedible. Since the milky juice has a bitter taste, it is soaked before cooking, boiled for a long time, after which it takes on a blue tint.
В народной медицине груздь настоящий применяют при лечении мочекаменной болезни и почечной недостаточности.
Груздь желтый (Lactarius scrobiculatus)
Относится к условно-съедобным видам. Растет в хвойных или березовых лесах Евразии с умеренным климатом.
Шляпка в диаметре 6-28 см, золотисто-желтого цвета, гладкая. Форма шляпки меняется по мере роста грибов. С нижней ее стороны размещены пластинки, на которых могут быть бурые пятна. The leg grows in height up to 12 cm, with bright yellow grooves, strong, sticky, although inside it is empty. The pulp of the fungus is white, but turns yellow on a break. Thick milky juice is also characteristic. The smell is weak but pleasant. Prefers to grow on limestone soils.
It is eaten after soaking and boiling. For treatment in folk medicine is used in the form of decoction from cholelithiasis.
Aspen Chest (Lactarius controversus)
This species is also called the boarder poplar or aspen. Grows in warm zones of temperate climatic zone. In Russia, they are massively found in the region of the Lower Volga region.
Refers to conditionally edible due to the presence of milky juice. The description of the mushroom is similar to the present one, but it is distinguished by the presence on the cap of pale pinkish spots and pink plates under it. Milky juice is white abundant and acrid, it does not change color on a break.
Received its name from the habitat - aspen and poplar forests. This species is larger than the others, its cap can grow up to 30 cm in diameter. It is valued lower than milkworms are white and yellow, but is famous for its massive germination.
Ripening gruzdya aspen occurs under the ground, so the hat is always a lot of dirt. Forms mycorrhiza with willow, aspen, poplar. Harvesting takes place from late August to early October. Pulp gruzdya aspen white, fragile, dense with a characteristic fruity odor. Use this view only for pickling.
Cheese parchment (Lactarius pergamenus)
This species belongs to conditionally edible mushrooms. It grows in mixed forests in large groups.
The parchment cap is up to 10 cm in diameter, has a white color, which changes to yellowish with the growth of the fungus, the surface is wrinkled, it can be smooth. Saves all the features of the form of loading. The pulp of the fungus is white with a milky sap that does not change color when broken. Under the head plate yellowish color. Leg narrowed to the bottom, long, white.
It has a similarity with the transverse load, but on a higher stem and slightly wrinkled cap. Harvesting is carried out in August-September. Used for salting with pre-soaking.
Bluish (Lactarius glaucescens)
To the group of white grujdy carry a bluish grudge, like a parchment grudge. This species grows in the deciduous forests of Eurasia. A feature of the species is the presence of yellow-gray spots on the surface of the cap. All other descriptions are the same.
Milky sap gruzdya bluish quickly curtailed on a break and a little green. This makes it look like peppers. The distinction between these species for mushroom pickers does not really matter. All these species, though similar, but also include to conditionally edible mushrooms. And these species in nature do not have poisonous twins.
Forms mycosis only with deciduous trees. Crop harvested from July to September. In cooking, use only for pickling.
Black Lactarius necator
Black mushroom mushroom refers to conditionally edible. The description of the outward signs is like all sons.
The cap in diameter can be up to 20 cm dark olive or dark brown in color with darkening in the center. The flesh is dense, white, fragile, changes its color to gray when broken. Milky juice is caustic, plentiful. The leg is the same color with a cap.
The fungus forms mycorrhiza with birch and grows in mixed forests. Harvesting from July to October. It is used for salting, acquiring a purple-burgundy color.
Blueblind (Lactarius repraesentaneus)
This species has also received the name of the muzzle of a dog or golden yellow violet. Distributed in the temperate and arctic zone of Russia in deciduous and mixed forests.
The cap is 7–20 cm in diameter, thick, yellow in color with weak concentric rings, shaggy at the edges. The flesh is white, dense, the milky juice on the air acquires a purple color, but is not abundant. The plates are narrow, pale yellow in color and form dark spots if damaged. The leg is pale yellow in color up to 10 cm tall, hollow inside, turning blue on the break.
Forms mycosis with birch, willow and spruce. Harvesting takes place in July and October. An important feature of this species is that scientists have deduced from it special substances that can increase plant growth.
The closest in terms of similarity is yellow salmon, which is distinguished by bright yellow milky juice. With the purpose of treatment used antibacterial abilities blueing. In cooking, suitable for salting, pickling, frying after pre-boiling.
Oak Wood (Lactarius insulsus)
Bulk oak belongs to the less common species and is also called the oak flax. It combines all the signs of loading and has a red or yellowish-orange color.
The plates under the cap are wide and frequent. The foot is off-white or pink. The pulp of the fungus is dense, cream-colored. The milky juice is white, not plentiful, but acrid, with a cut does not change color.
Like the aspen bark, this species matures underground, therefore it is characterized by the presence of dirt on the cap. Belongs to conditionally edible mushrooms.
In cooking used for pickling. It grows in forests of broad-leaved species and forms mycosis with oak, hornbeam, beech. Harvesting takes place from July to early October.
Milk creaks or violins (Lactarius vellereus)
The name grudge creak received because of the contact with foreign objects, he publishes a characteristic creak. Often it is also called spurge. This type of gulj belongs to conditionally edible and is considered the driest weight. Distributed in Russia, Belarus. It looks like a white bear, but has its own characteristics.
Cap diameter up to 24 cm, may acquire a yellowish tint. Leg up to 7 cm in height and up to 5 cm in diameter. A characteristic feature of this species is a change in the shade of the milky juice after drying from white to reddish. White flesh at fracture becomes greenish-yellow. Plates under the cap are much less common than those of pepper melting.
Forms mycorrhiza with aspen and birch. Grows in deciduous and mixed forests in large groups. Harvesting is carried out from August to October. In cooking, it is used for salting, however, this type of salmon becomes blue when it is salted. In taste, the squeak is inferior to the white.
Dry milk, it is a white pod, rusk or russula excellent - agaric, which grows on the trees, under them or under the deadwood.
- The cap of a young mushroom is white, and with age it turns yellow, yellow, ocher, brown or rusty spots appear on it. Not sticky, but dry. It grows up to 5-15 cm in diameter. The shape of a young mushroom is convex, and in the middle is a recess. In adult fruits, the cap is funnel-shaped, the edges are directed downward or bent inward.
- The plates go down on the leg, white or greenish-blue.
- The stem is short, up to 5 cm, thickened - up to 3 cm. In young fruits it is solid and dense, and in adults it becomes empty.
- Milky juice is not. The flesh is brittle and dense, with a sweetish taste and a pleasant mushroom flavor.
The fungus grows in various types of forests, often on the roots of birch, oak, aspen, alder, pine and spruce. May occur near rivers and on soddy-sandy soil. He is half in the ground, and the rest is hiding under the foliage, so it is quite difficult to notice the pad. But if one seems to be somewhere, then surely there will be a group of his comrades by sight.
Gather mushrooms, starting in June and ending in November. Dry milk mushrooms are suitable for salting and pickling.
False Edible Milk
The muzzle has no poisonous counterpart. The taste and smell of false grudges is quite specific, but they are not poisonous. They are also used in cooking, after being soaked, boiled or dried.
Mushroom creak, creak or felt grudge is very similar to the real one. It is edible, but not so tasty.
- The cap has a concave shape, eventually becomes funnel-shaped with curved edges. It is white, covered with villi, can reach a diameter of 25 cm.
- Leg rounded, up to 8 cm in height.
- The plates are rare, creamy white, coming down on the leg.
- The tubular layer under the cap is yellow, and the flesh is white, fragile.
Mushrooms are often salted, but pre-soaked to remove bitterness.
Interesting! If you rub the cap on your teeth, you can hear a creaking sound that matches the name of the mushroom.
This species grows in birch groves or aspen forests.
Photo and description of the mushroom yellow gruzd
Other names: yellow load, yellow wave, scratch.
Translated from Latin, the name gruzdey yellow means "crumpled."
Mushroom yellow sink (Lactarius scrobiculatus) has a cap with a diameter of 6-28 cm. Usually it is yellow, but may be brown or slightly golden, often with small scales. In young mushrooms has a slightly convex shape, then gradually straightened or becomes concave. The edges are usually folded. The touch is smooth, in wet weather may be mucosal.
Pay attention to the photo of a yellow one, its leg is 5-12 cm high with characteristic bright yellow pits or notches, sticky and sticky, very strong, hollow.
Records: frequent, in adult fungi usually with brown spots.
Pulp: white, but yellow on the slice and when interacting with the air, as well as thick milky juice. Possesses weak, but very pleasant fruit aroma.
According to the description of the yellow gruzd very similar to fringed sack (Lactarius citriolens), purple (Lactarius repraesentaneus) and real (Lactarius resimus). Fringed gruzd differs from yellow in that it grows exclusively in deciduous forests and, like the present, has no dents on the leg. And in inedible purple gruzdey lacteal lilac color.
When growing: from mid-July to early October in the countries of the Eurasian continent with a temperate climate.
This variety of mushroom can be found on limestone soils of coniferous forests, less often near birch trees.
Eating: Russian mushroom pickers consider it a very tasty mushroom, consumed after pre-soaking and boiling.
Use in traditional medicine (data not confirmed and have not passed clinical studies!): in the form of decoction as a means of combating cholelithiasis.
Looks like a real mushroom mushroom (white): photo and description
Other names: white gruzd, raw gruzd, pravsky gruzd, wet gruzd.
Since the beginning of the XIX century. in Russian scientific circles, this was called the Gruzd pepper pepper - Lactarius piperatus. But in 1942, mycologist Boris Vasilkov proved that people consider the species Lactarius resimus to be the real thing.
Above, you can see how the white weight looks in the photo. Its cap (diameter 6-25 cm) is white or yellowish. In young mushrooms, it is flat, but with time it takes the form of a funnel. On the edges bent to the inner side there is almost always a noticeable down. It feels sticky and very wet.
If you look closely at a photo of a real one, you can almost always notice plant garbage on its cap, which sticks to the mass more often than other mushrooms.
Leg (height 3-9 cm): white or yellowish, cylindrical, hollow.
Frequent white or yellowish plates are clearly seen in the photo of this film.
Pulp: white with a white milky juice, which, when interacting with air, becomes dirty yellow or grayish. The smell is similar to the aroma of fresh fruit.
Doubles: podgruzdok white (Russula delica), the main difference is in the absence of the last milky juice. The violin (Lactarius vellereus) also looks like a white weigh, only its hat is more “felt” and there is no gun. The white-haired volnushka (Lactarius pubescens) is much less bruised and with a more pubescent cap. Aspen moth (Lactarius controversus) grows under aspen trees, where there is practically no real loggings. A milky juice gruzdy pepper (Lactarius piperatus) turns green when interacting with air.
White mushroom grows from the beginning of July until the end of September in the Volga region, Siberia and the Urals.
Where can I find: in deciduous and mixed forests near the birch trees.
Eating: salt after long boiling, to remove bitterness. Under the action of brine, juicy and fleshy real milk mushrooms acquire a bluish tint, and after 40 days they can already enjoy their taste. In Siberia, by tradition, real milk mushrooms are still salting along with volnushkami and saffron milk mushrooms. During the famous meal, arranged in 1699 by the Archbishop of Moscow and All Russia Andrian, the guests, in addition to other dishes, were served “three long pies with mushrooms, two pies with milk mushrooms, cold mushrooms under horseradish, cold milk with butter, milk mushrooms heated with juice and oil ... ". In Western Europe, the real gruel is considered to be an inedible mushroom, while in Russia it has since been called the king of mushrooms. The real calorie content exceeds even fatty meat: in the dry matter, the protein content reaches 35%.
Use in traditional medicine (data not confirmed and have not passed clinical studies!): in the treatment of renal failure and urolithiasis.
What edible types of milk mushrooms are suitable for salting: bitter
Above is a photo of what it looks like. bitter mud (Lactarius rufus). Its cap with a diameter of 3-12 cm, usually brown or reddish, has the shape of a bell, noticeably straightens with time, a small cone-shaped tubercle appears in the center. Mature mushrooms depressed. Smooth to the touch, with slight pubescence, after rain or in wet weather can be sticky and slippery. The edges, as a rule, are strongly curved towards the inner side and lighter than the center.
Leg (height 3-9 cm): relatively thin, cylindrical in shape, similar in color to a cap. It is covered with light down and has a noticeable thickening at the base.
Records: frequent and narrow.
Pulp: very fragile, on a cut allocates thick whitish milky juice. It produces almost no odor, and the name the mushroom received for peppery bitter taste.
This type of milk drink is similar to inedible in photos and descriptions. liver crab (Lactarius hepaticus), the milky juice of which is noticeably yellow in the air, the edible camphor mushroom (Lactarius camphoratus), which has a characteristic camphor smell, and swamp swine (Lactarius sphagnei)growing only in marshland.
When growing: from mid-July until the end of September in almost all countries of the northern half of Europe and Asia.
Where can I find: on acidic soils of coniferous forests, less often in dense birch forests.
A bitter sod is suitable only for salting, and only after careful soaking with a constant change of water (10-12 hours). This is done to remove bitterness. When interacting with the brine, this type of edible milk drink darkens noticeably.
Use in traditional medicine: not applicable. However, scientists have learned to isolate from the bitter gruzdy substance inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, hay and intestinal sticks.
Important! Bitter milk can accumulate radioactive cesium-137 nuclide deposited in the liver and muscles of humans and animals, so you should not collect this fungus in areas of radioactive contamination.
Other names: gorkkushka, gorkusha red, mountain woman. Mushroom pickers call the bitter milk a traveler, as it is often found during a “silent hunt”.
What does the reddish brown look like (Lactarius volemus)
Edible mushrooms red-brown mushrooms have rather large caps - up to 18 cm in diameter (matte, light brown, less often with a red or bright orange shade). In young fungi rounded, but over time it becomes open and then depressed.
As can be seen in the photo of edible mushrooms, the edges of the caps are often curved toward the inside. It is usually dry and smooth to the touch, but can be covered with a network of small cracks, and in wet weather it can be mucous or sticky.
Leg (height 3-12 cm): velvety, strong and thick, cylindrical. The color is usually no different from the cap.
Records: narrow and frequent, slightly pinkish or yellow, but more often white. When pressed on the surface formed brown spots.
Pay attention to the photo of this variety of gruzdey: the pulp of the fungus is very fragile, white or reddish color. It tastes sweet. Freshly cut mushroom has the smell of herring or boiled crabs.
Doubles: the lard is poor (Lactarius mitissimus), but the skin on its cap does not crack, and the fungus itself is much smaller.
When growing: from early August to mid-October in almost all European countries.
The red-brown species of Mildew mushrooms can be found in different forests next to any tree species. Prefers moist dark places.
Red-brown mud can be found even at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level.
Eating: very tasty in salted and fried.
Use in traditional medicine: not applicable.
Other names: poddubenok, smooth, podoreshnik, euphorbia, podmolochnik.
A real sink (wet, white, raw). Edible mushroom belonging to the first category. You can meet him in Siberia or in the Urals. Grows in young birch groves or plantings. Fruits from July to October. A large view with a cap diameter of 20 cm. It is flat in shape, becomes funnel-shaped with a curved edge, and is covered with a mucous, wet skin of a creamy or yellow color. Because of this, the real boarder is sometimes called raw. On the surface of the cap visible concentric watery zones.
Leg from three to seven centimeters in height and up to five in diameter, smooth, yellowish, hollow, cylindrical in shape.
The breaking, dense pulp of white color has a characteristic fruity odor. It contains white, caustic juice.
The plates of this mushroom slightly descend on the leg, frequent, wide.
Применение груздей в медицине
Beneficial features груздя настоящего дают возможность использовать его при проблемах с желудком. Необходимо собрать молодые грибы и отварить их без соли. Млечный сок груздя помогает вылечить острое гнойное воспаление глаз (бленнорею).
An extract exhibiting an antitumor effect is obtained from the pepper crown. Methanol extract, extracted from fresh mushrooms, has antibacterial and antifungal effects. These properties of the fungus allow it to be used for the treatment of tuberculosis, diabetes, emphysema. To obtain the drug suitable only young individuals. The antioxidant activity of these fungi is also high. In Chinese medicine, with the help of a load, they relax muscles and relieve muscle cramps. In Russia, healers used it to remove warts and remove stones from the kidneys and gall bladder.
Be very careful when eating these mushrooms! Before marinating and pickling, they must be boiled well. The resulting mushroom broth can not be used. Before canning, carefully clean and rinse milk mushrooms. If this is not done, anaerobes are formed and intensively developed in hermetically sealed cans. Once in the human body, they provoke botulism. This is a dangerous disease that often leads to death.
At home, milk mushrooms can be grown in two ways:
- first option attractive for its cheapness. Spores of ripe mushrooms are collected independently. Then from them the mycelium is grown up. The problem is that it is almost impossible to predict the development of seeds. This method can only be used by experienced mushroom growers.
- the second way more expensive but more reliable. The finished mycelium is bought in a specialty store and laid in the substrate.
Growing seeds consists of several important steps:
The plot chosen for planting should be well fertilized with peat. Young deciduous trees must grow on the site. Their age should not exceed four years. You can use birch, poplar, willow and other hardwoods. The soil is disinfected with lime mortar,
The best time for laying the mycelium in the open air is from May to September. If you have a heated greenhouse, then you can plant seeds at any time of the year,
Preparation of mycelium
For planting mushrooms need to prepare the substrate. For him, sterilized sawdust of deciduous trees are mixed with disinfected soil. Forest moss is added to them from the places where milk mushrooms, fallen leaves, straw and husk seeds of sunflower grow,
If you plan to grow mushrooms on the street, you need to prepare the wells for mycelium. They are dug close to the root system of the trees-patrons and half filled with the substrate. The mycelium is placed on top. And again the substrate to the edge of the hole. Then the soil should be compacted and covered with pieces of moss and leaves.
For cultivation indoors, the mycelium of wetlands is planted in a plastic bag filled with substrate. In a bag, in small steps, small cuts are made,
For high yield, you must constantly water the mycelium and the trees under which it is located. In dry weather, at least 30 liters of water per week should be poured under each tree. It is necessary to take measures to protect the plantation from direct sun exposure. For the winter period, the mycelium should be covered with foliage and moss. Bags with mycelium must be contained in certain conditions. Before the formation of fruit bodies, the temperature should be maintained within 18 - 20 degrees. When sprouts of mushrooms appear, it should be lowered to 15 ° C, to ensure the optimum level of lighting and humidity,
Within a week after the formation of fruit bodies, milk mushrooms are gaining their usual weight. You can start harvesting in July and gather mushrooms until the end of August. They need to be carefully unscrewed from the mycelium or cut with a knife under the root. Properly planted mycelium with proper care fruits about five years.
Despite the peculiarities of taste and subtlety of cooking, the gruzd has been worshiped in Russia since ancient times. Having prepared it according to the rules, you will receive an excellent appetizer, a side dish, and aromatic pastries. This mushroom is worthy to be in your kitchen.