Lilac is one of the most beloved shrubs, which bloom is associated with the present coming of spring. Divine fragrances that spread during this period fascinate, fall in love with themselves. Due to the thick lush crown, the plant is often used to form green walls that cover a certain area from prying eyes.
Lilac, belonging to the olive family, is one of the main inhabitants of gardens and home gardens.
Externally, this luxurious shrub is characterized by large purple, pink or white flowers, collected in paniculate inflorescences, located at the ends of the branches. Fruit - bivalve dry box.
The leaves are green, most often of solid form, rarely pinnately separate, fall in winter. Lilac, planting and caring for which in the household is practically minimized, it is characterized by high endurance, it grows well in the open air.
The most popular types of lilac
According to the varieties of lilac, planting and care for which are fairly easy, is divided into simple and terry. Most common is common lilac, a native of the Balkan Peninsula, in which it grows at high altitude and clings to the steep, rocky slopes. It blooms in May, purple and white flowers. Includes a plurality of varieties.
Persian lilac Characterized by fragrant purple flowers. Some of its varieties have pinnate leaves. The flowers are white.
Chinese lilac. Is a hybrid of ordinary and Persian. Characterized by large red-lilac flowers.
Hungarian Lilac The flowers are purple, with a faint aroma. Flowering occurs in late May - June.
Lilac: planting and care in the open field
It is recommended to plant lilac on neutral or slightly alkaline soils; too wet soil can cause plant death.
Planting place should be well lit, with a lack of sun plant growth will be slow, flowering may be absent. Strong sun can cause the appearance of small and fast-flowering inflorescences in lilacs. The best place for landing is sunny, well protected from the winds place.
Landing lilac should be carried out in late summer - early autumn, preferably in the evening or wet, overcast weather. The depth of the landing pit, dug previously for 2-3 weeks, is recommended from 0.5 to 1 meter with the same width. Be sure to when planting in the soil should be added organic fertilizer, wood ash or humus (up to 20 kg per planting pit).
High-quality flowering will be observed at normal growth, which depends on how properly lilac is served. Planting and care (the photo shows all the beauty of the beloved plant) with the correctness of their holding in combination with the love of the plant will determine its continuous elegant flowering and active growth.
Every autumn, the soil needs to be dug up to a depth of about 12 cm, carefully, so as not to damage the roots of the plant. For the winter, the dug up soil should be left unlined so that the weed seeds contained in it overgrown during the winter.
Top dressing of a lilac is made in the early spring as soon as growth of escapes begins. A mineral complex consisting of 20–30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 30 grams of superphosphate, 15–20 grams of potassium chloride is introduced under one bush; the depth of seeding is 10–15 cm.
The second feeding is done during the period of bud formation with the same composition.
How to trim the lilac
Planting and care, pruning are important factors contributing to the quality growth of a given culture. The purpose of pruning is the formation of the crown and the maintenance of the shape of the bush, which causes abundant annual flowering.
This species is resistant to almost any adverse conditions. Such plants are not afraid of either low temperatures, or drought, or too wet conditions. Petals of lilac flowers of this variety are sharp and oblong, brush inflorescences tiered. The flowers themselves are located on long legs.
The flowering of this plant species usually begins 2 weeks later than that of ordinary lilac.
Shrubs of this type of lilac usually reach a height of up to 9 m. At the same time, they are decorated with small dense flowers that can have a shade from white to cream. In addition, they have a very strong and pleasant aroma.
The leaves of this species are the same as in common lilac. Flowering most often begins only at the end of July and lasts about 2-2.5 weeks. This lilac grows poorly on poor soils, but is very resistant to temperature extremes.
Lilac: the right care
Like most garden plants, lilac requires watering. So that it grows smoothly and blossoms in time, you should thoroughly moisten the soil.
The first watering after planting should be sufficiently abundant, after which it should be watered only when the soil dries out. Regular watering schedule starts in May and June. Only moisture should be in moderation. Do not over fill.
From mid-summer, the lilacs usually stop watering so as not to wake the kidneys.
As for fertilizers, if you plant them in sufficient quantities in the landing hole, then you should not add additional dressing for about 2.5-3.5 years.
In the future, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with organic fertilizers, namely, manure, compost liquid and bird droppings. In addition, it is useful to make mineral fertilizers.
In particular, at the end of the summer, potassium and phosphorus are added once every 2.5–3 years, and when snow falls, it is recommended to add ammonium nitrate.
During the period of active growth foliage can be sprayed with mineral fertilizers.
For reproduction of varietal lilacs at home, three main methods are usually used:
Let's look at each of these techniques in a bit more detail.
So, reproduction by layouts is carried out as follows: first, a horizontal groove is made near lilac, then the lower branches of the mother plant are bent down to the ground and fixed.
If done correctly, the cuttings will develop from the escape buds. Perhaps this method is the least time consuming. Unfortunately, it is not suitable for all varieties of lilac.
For reproduction of lilac cuttings, it is recommended to take the middle part of semi-lignified shoots that have managed to develop well. This should be done in June or early July. Cuttings from the mother plant is recommended to be removed during the flowering period. The fact is that at this time the growth of the bush stops.
For shoots, shoots with 4-5 leaves are selected. It is important that they do not have time to wood. It should prepare in advance for the fact that not all prepared cuttings germinate. By the way, some species of lilac can not be propagated at all in this way.
To cut the cutting, it is recommended to choose a bush as young as possible, the cut must be made at an angle of 45 degrees. After cutting, the branches should be treated with a root formation stimulator. Then the prepared cuttings are planted in pre-dug holes with fertilizer.
You can plant lilac in greenhouses, but in this case it is necessary to increase the humidity there to almost 90-95%.
Usually, young stocks are planted, which were previously grown from seeds collected in the month of October. Before sowing the seeds, they are recommended to dry. The best time to plant is autumn. For this, you should first prepare a bed. It is enough to bury the seeds to a depth of 14-16 mm. When spring comes, you can carry out a picking and grow the already saplings.
Planting seeds is allowed in spring time. Only for this purpose it is necessary to withstand them at low temperature, i.e. to stratify. After that, around mid-March, the seeds are planted in boxes with prepared earth.
It should be said that the germination of lilac sprouts largely depends on its type. So, the seeds of common lilac usually take about 2-2.5 weeks, and for Amur lilac it takes about 2-3 months. When at least 4 leaves are formed on the seedling, a pick is taken at a distance of 30 mm from each other.
On a permanent place sprouts usually land in May.
To instill lilac, you can take stock of one type of plant. For example, from an ordinary, Amur, Hungarian or other. A stock is cut obliquely at a slight angle.
At the same angle, the selected stalk should be cut. The graft is applied to the stock at the level of the slice, after which they are fastened together with a rope.
This is the easiest method of grafting plants, called copulation.
Diseases and pests of lilac
Almost all plants are exposed to pests and diseases, including lilac. However, with the right approach, many of these problems can be prevented. So, in particular, lilac very often affects bacterial rot. You can cope with it by spraying with non-concentrated chlorine dioxide of copper.
This should be done on the 9-10th day when the first signs of the disease are detected. Lilacs can pick up late blight of the kidneys. To solve this problem, spraying the shrub with Bordeaux liquid is used. Also on the bushes of lilac sometimes the mole moth is attempted, from which you can get rid of with the help of chlorophos or a rotor. Among the pests of lilac found more lilac hawk moth.
If it is seen on a bush, then it should, as soon as possible, be treated with 0.1% phtholophos.