What kind of onions can be planted for the winter
For winter landing only frost resistant varieties are suitable. They easily tolerate the winter and quickly go to growth with the arrival of spring.
Popular winter varieties include:
- "Ellan" (sweet, shoots withstand brief frosts up to -2 ° C).
- "Strigunovsky" (if it is grown from sevka, then it can form two onions in the nest, the taste is sharp).
- "Ruby" (red variety, ripens 110-115 days, grown in the southern regions, has a well-developed root system).
- "Stuttgart Riesen" (German variety of yellow shades, flattened, ripening from seeds for 3.5 months, from the seed - 65-70 days).
- “Chalcedony” (very large variety, ripens 110 days).
- “Buran” (a universal variety bred by Ukrainian breeders, ripens 68-83 days, resistant to fungal and bacterial diseases, spicy in taste, lies well).
- Danilovsky-301 (red variety, ripens 100-110 days, tastes semi-sharp).
- Myachkovsky-300 (early, ripening 65-75 days, high-yielding).
- "Mouzon" (ripens 90-110 days, the taste is semi-sharp, round, white variety, stored for 2 months).
- "Lugansk" (one-year-old, ripens 130 days, the bulb weighs 71-146 g, has a golden color).
- "Tamara F1" (medium early, ripening 105-108 days, high-yielding, suitable for growth in a sharply continental climate, golden brown).
- "Black Prince" (ripens 100-105 days, semi-sharp, universal variety, red).
- "Panther F1" (ripening 130-135 days, long stored, gives a good harvest, round shape and bronze-brown color, Japanese variety).
- "Radar" (ripens 250-260 days, tolerates cold without snow to -15 ° C, and with snow to -23 ° C, golden brown).
- “Siberian” (it ripens 90-100 days, grows well on a feather, is stored for about a year, rarely shoots arrows).
Winter onion planting is divided into three periods:
- Early. Produced in August-September. Produced after harvest. During this period of time, only the most frost-resistant varieties can be planted, since the plant has time to put on some feathers and they must survive the winter.
- Average: end of September - October. The most common. During this period, most winter varieties are sown.
- Late: the first of November, before the soil freezes. A small seedling is planted. Seeds can be planted in frozen ground.
Features of the region
Onions are grown everywhere, so that before planting you need to take into account the local climate and take appropriate measures.
The country has a moderate continental climate. It is characterized by the onset of the temperature described above in late October - early November, with a slight correction to the regions.
It is not advised to plant onions early, as it will have time to take root and will actively grow in warm weather. Then the probability of successful wintering of the culture is very low.
With the arrival of permanent frosts, beds are covered with sawdust and branches. When the snow falls, it is advisable to well cover them with crops. The most suitable varieties:
Belarus and Moscow region
These regions also lie in a temperate continental climate. Therefore, the onion disembarkation period approximately coincides with the disembarkation period in Ukraine. The only thing that distinguishes the regions is the more severe frosts in the north-eastern part of Belarus and in the suburbs. This requires more careful harboring. And with a large thickness of snow frost is not terrible.
There is already a sharp continental climate with very cold winters. The landing moves in September-October. Choose for planting recommend local varieties, bred specifically for the harsh climate. Warming beds for the winter should be good.
The region also falls into a sharply continental climate, but with even lower temperatures and a shorter warm period. Here planted onions for the winter is extremely unprofitable. It is very difficult to guess the weather. However, if the desire to plant onions is still there, it is necessary to strictly follow the rule: the daytime temperature remains at 5 ° C for several days - you can plant it. It is also necessary to plant the seedling at the optimum depth, so that the culture does not freeze and does not rise prematurely.
Choose a piece of land in a sunny and dry place. It should not stagnate moisture. If this happens, it is necessary to form an elevation. Position the beds on the southern or south-western part of the plot, preferably on a slope, so that it protects the seedlings from the wind.
The best soil is drained humus-sandy or humus-loamy. Onions will grow well on silt river sediments.
It is undesirable to plant after:It is possible to plant a second crop after: rapeseed, winter barley, beans, peas, radish, carrots and table beets, but only if these crops were harvested before the third decade of July.
Dig up the soil with humus in advance. Fertilizer is added at the rate of 5-6 kg per square meter. Mineral fertilizers are added to it (10-15 g of potassium salt and 20-25 g of superphosphate per square meter). In the absence of mineral fertilizers, ecofosc will be suitable with the same calculation. Before lowering the seeds and seedlings into the ground, it is necessary to scatter ash over the bed with the calculation of 10 g per square meter.
Preparation of planting material
Seedlings should be prepared 10 days before disembarkation.
First stage - onion sorting. There is an oversized (very small onions, less than a centimeter in diameter), the first category (up to 1.5 cm in diameter), the second category (up to 3 cm in diameter), the third category (more than 3 cm in diameter). Ovusuzhka not suitable for winter seva. It is too small and during the frost just dries in the ground. It is better to leave it for spring sowing or throw it away. Also in the spring plant the third category. The first and second is ideal for winter sowing. They are called sevke.
Second phase - disinfection. Spend it a week before the landing date. Sevok soaked in a light solution of potassium permanganate for six hours. You can soak in saline solution (1 tablespoon. Salt per 1 liter of water). In it, the onions are held for three hours, after which they are placed in a solution of potassium permanganate at the same time. Then the seedling is laid out for drying in the attic. From time to time it is turned over.
Before planting, you need to view the bulbs and select the spoiled.
- We form a bulk bed of any length and about a meter wide. With this width, it is more convenient to care for crops.
- Loosen the soil with a rake, get rid of large lumps of earth. We remove the weed.
- In the prepared area, the grooves break through with an interval of 18–20 cm between them and a depth of about 2.5 cm. We can make holes in a checkerboard pattern. If sowing of seeds is supposed, they are sown densely.
- In the furrow fit seedling with a gap of 5-7 cm between the bulbs. Sprinkle with a layer of ground 1.5-2 cm thick. Condense. If the frost is around the corner, we insulate a bed of mulch.
- Water 10 days after sowing.
How to protect from winter frosts
With the arrival of constant frosts we harbor beds of dry foliage or spruce leaves. More spruce branches need to be applied when snow falls. This will help keep him on the bed and protect the crop from frost.
It is better not to use straw and peat, they freeze to the ground and in the spring they are difficult to clean. Also, do not recommend covering the seedling with oilcloth and special material. With the arrival of spring, an overabundance of moisture forms under the oilcloth, and the covering material will freeze through and will not normally pass oxygen.
As soon as the snow melts and the earth warms up a bit, we begin to remove the mulch. The bed cleared of "insulation" is filled with ashes (10 g per square meter) and loose soil. Water as the soil dries (10 liters per square meter). After watering and rain necessarily loosened the earth, remove the weed.
When four leaflets germinate, fertilize again and thin the seedlings, if necessary. We make mineral fertilizers, as described in the section on soil preparation.
In general, planting onions for the winter is a rather painstaking job. But this culture, which is familiar to us, does not require too complicated care and is quite capable of enduring strong cold. So if all recommendations are followed, the harvest will be good.
Features of planting onions before winter
The advantages of planting winter onions:
- Bulbs less than 1 cm (oatsuzhku) sell very cheap in the fall because of difficulties with storage.
- Ovsyuzhka, planted in the fall, not the arrow.
- From a small sevka grows a full-fledged bulb, which is perfectly preserved in winter.
- The harvest ripens earlier than during spring planting. Therefore, in place of dug onions, you can plant greens and vegetables of the second wave (for example, dill, parsley, lettuce, spinach, beets, radishes, etc.).
- The green feather appears very early, practically from under the snow.
- The onion fly, which damages the spring plantings, is almost not terrible to winter onions.
- After quenching with cold, the vegetable grows hardy and does not undergo diseases.
- When the onion is planted in autumn, time is available for spring work.
Small bulbs (oatsuzhka) are very cheap because of difficulties with storage
A significant disadvantage is that large bulbs (more than 2 cm in size) should not be planted to produce turnips. They will almost all go to the arrow. You can put them exclusively on the pen.
I once planted in the winter large bulbs Sevka. In early spring, friendly shoots appeared. What was my surprise when there were huge flower stalks thick in the finger. But the bulbs remained the same size. Now I plant a bit of a large crop for greenery - a full-fledged feather grows from it immediately. As soon as the shooter begins to appear, I pull out a young onion and serve it on the table.
Not all varieties of onions are suitable for autumn planting - choose zoned and cold-resistant. They are not afraid of cold, they sprout well in the spring.
Onion varieties that are grown in the southern regions of the country are not suitable for northern latitudes. Therefore, it is recommended to plant several suitable varieties, and then choose the most effective ones.
Onion seeds, called chernushka, can be purchased at the store or get from his garden. Do not break all the arrows - they will appear inflorescences with seeds. When the boxes begin to open, cut them off and dry well. In the autumn, chernushka is sown on early greens, as well as for growing seedlings.
Chernushka can be bought at the store or collected from his garden
Onion varieties for autumn planting
The best winter varieties of onions include:
- Stuttgart Riesen,
- Danilovsky - 301,
Onion Ellan is an early winter variety and is popular with gardeners
The terms depend on the climatic conditions of the region where the winter onions will be planted. Orient in such a way as to plant onions 20-30 days before the onset of the first frost.
In the northern regions of Russia, the procedure is carried out in September - the first days of October. In the middle lane are usually planted onions from 5 to 20 October. In the southern regions - until November.
To determine the timing, plant onions at different times. Next year you will understand when it is best to start planting in your area.
Sow Chernushka in frozen soil (at the end of November) so that the seeds do not germinate.
Preparation of bulbs and seeds for sowing
Seven bulbs 7 days before planting. In size, they are divided as follows:
- oversized - less than 1 cm
- the first category is 1–1.5 cm,
- second category - 1.5–3 cm,
- samples - more than 3 cm.
For the cultivation of turnips, select oatsuzhku and bulbs of the first category, for the green feather - the second category and samples. Sevok should be solid, with no signs of rot. Do not cut off the neck of the bulbs, otherwise a feather will grow instead of a turnip.
Sprinkle the bulbs before planting them in the ground. Lower sevka for 3 hours in saline solution (1 tablespoon. Salt per 1 liter of water), then for 3 hours in a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. Dry the bulbs for a week, turning them over periodically.
Onion seeds are not soaked in autumn.
The site where you plan to plant onions should be well lit by the sun. Choose a place on an elevation where there is no stagnation of water. The best option is the southern slope.
For disinfection, spill the earth with copper sulphate (1 tbsp. Per bucket of water): for 1 m 2 of land - 2 liters of solution. Add 4–5 kg of humus, 5 kg of peat and 2 tbsp. l superphosphate on 1 m 2 of land and dig on the bayonet of the shovel. Sprinkle the soil with ashes before planting onions.
Onions like to grow after potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers and legumes. It is not recommended to plant it after onions and cabbage.
Line up the bed, make grooves and plant the bow as follows:
- the distance between the rows is 10–15 cm,
- groove depth - 5 cm,
- distance between bulbs - 7–8 cm.
For ovsuzhyuzhki grooves do not deeper than 2-3 cm, because it can not break through the layer of soil. Sprinkle the bulbs with earth and compact slightly. Watering planting in the fall does not need to sevok not go into growth.
Sow Chernushka in prearranged beds. In October, when the soil has not yet frozen, prepare the same beds as for sevka. Make furrows not deeper than 2–3 cm, the distance between them is 15 cm. When permanent frosts are established, sow them in chernushka, sprinkle with earth and warm with peat, foliage, branches, etc.
Departure after landing
For winter onions, care is practically not required. Cover the garden with the bow, do not rush, because it can sopret. Wait for the onset of a light frost and grumble the bed with fallen leaves, spruce leaves, dried stems and other materials. In winter, pour it with snow - this is the best protection against freezing.
Reviews on autumn planting onions
I planted a bow for the first time last year, never regretted it! Straight freak on glory! All large, juicy! And since spring I have been collecting greenery from him - I made a lot of pies))) I read a lot of information on this topic and made conclusions that any onions and any garlic can be planted before winter. Variety choose to your taste and color.
I will share my experience in planting onions. This will be especially interesting for those whose garden is low and in the spring there is water for a long time. I planted 2 beds for the winter (I bought it on the joint venture from Botany), it rose early in the spring and quickly grew, even standing water did not prevent it. By the beginning of harvesting the bulbs had time to fill, the harvest was excellent. About the spring planting - she couldn’t have planted early, since even the foot was sinking in the mud. Planted late, in early June. And in early August, all the foliage withered, did not have time to fill. Dug, a little more than planted. I made a conclusion for myself - landing at winter is my salvation.
By analogy with winter garlic, there are varieties of winter onions. 3 years in a row I bought sevka such onions (Radar), on the price tags it was indicated that winter onions, planted before the frost, and sometimes removed the top frozen layer and planted (Moscow suburbs), on top covered with hazel leaf and tape. The result is excellent, the turnip is poured early, but it is stored not for long (it just occupies a niche between last year’s and fresh onions). Then she found the seeds of Hibern's winter onions (in “Semko”), also a success for the glory. Of the common varieties are now selling "oversized" - a very small sevok, here it is quite possible to plant it in the winter, it does not shoot, the bulbs form normal.
Autumn planting onions expedient and cost-effective. Winter onions perfectly tolerate winter frosts and produce friendly, healthy shoots.
Why winter onions and why fall?
Onion sets are small onions that grow in the first year after sowing. In fact, it is the seed of the first reproduction.
Despite the diameter of the order of 1 cm, sevok has great potential: early shoots, all the qualities of the parent material without loss.
Winter onion sets for planting, or how to grow a turnip from ovus: the secrets of agronomists.
Planting onion seedlings in the fall - a pledge of early harvest, a powerful feather and a large size of turnip. And yet - sevok free from disease, almost not damaged by pests.
The yield of onion seed: 30-45 kg / m2 in irrigated areas, on bare land (without artificial irrigation) up to 20 kg / m2.
Winter onions are planted from sevka in the fall for many reasons:
- picking up after lodging a pen 1.5 times earlier compared to the planted spring,
- plantings are not damaged by pests at the height of summer,
- early beam greens for sale and onions with a cut feather - in late April-May or in early June, the bulbs are suitable for sampling in late May-June, early July, adjusted for the region,
- bows from sevka not the arrow,
- productivity at the level of spring sowing.
Important: when landing a small sevka the shooter does not form, the landing of a large one will end with a arrow.
About terms: when to plant winter onions
Before steady frosts, the onion should take root, but do not have time to forgive - the first frost will destroy the seedlings. When to plant winter onions - planting dates vary in different regions. The following factors will be decisive:
Landings of winter onions - reference points:
- Время посадки – от середины сентября до середины октября в зависимости от региона.
- Температура – до устойчивых +5 °C .
- До наступления устойчивого заморозка – до 20-30 дней.
Так, в Подмосковье сажают подзимый лук вплоть до 15 ноября, в теплые годы любящие риск садоводы – до 20-х чисел. At t below -15 ° C, and especially in little snowy winters, it is desirable to cover the landings.
Planted in the Urals for 2-3 weeks earlier: in mid-September to early October.
Important! Early landing reduces winter hardiness, late - contributes to bolting.
The deadline of the people are Pokrova - October 14. Agronomists also advise planting inclusively for the second decade of the month, until October 20, depending on the year.
When to plant winter onions according to the lunar calendar
For those who respect the lunar calendar: the timing of planting winter onions on the lunar calendar in the autumn of 2018 - September 27-28. For those who did not succeed, landing 6 or 7, as well as 25 calendars, will be successful.
Fans to keep up at the last moment will have to focus on November 2, 3, 22, 30 and take risks: this is a deadline.
Soil preparation: it is important
Sodium nitrate is added for plowing or digging, calcium (ammonium) nitrate, phosphorus (100-150 kg / ha), and potassium 200-250 kg / two weeks before planting as the main fertilizer.
Here is such a sniff: both a bow on a feather, and a turnip.
Superphosphate, ammonium phosphate are used as phosphate fertilizers; potash fertilizers are more often represented by potassium sulfate.
The proportion of nitrogen supplements in the fall should not exceed 20% of the total, the remaining 80% are contributed in the spring.
In total, 75% of potash and 25% of phosphate fertilizers are added to the main preplant treatment.
These are application rates for industrial plantings; a simple recipe is useful for giving: up to 15 g / m2 of viburnum salt, 20-25 g / m2 of superphosphate. On poor soils, ash is applied at the rate of 10-15 g / m2. The introduction of humus, manure is appropriate under the predecessors.
Fertilizer before planting
Before winter planting, 1/3 of nitrogen is introduced (up to 60 kg / ha), later in two doses of 60 kg / ha: in spring, at the beginning of the growing season, with a period of two weeks.
In the photo planting winter onions.
For summer residents: the same 15-20 g / m2 of superphosphate, 10-15 g of a viburnum salt. The second feeding is carried out during the formation of the fourth sheet.
And no organic. Maximum - under the previous cultures or mulch humus-syptsa. Why? Nitrogen is not conducive to good wintering. On the contrary, it removes the rest period. But the main thing - gives the active growth of the aerial part to the detriment of the turnip. This means lush green feathers and miniature turnips.
Distance and landing pattern
The generally accepted rule - planting on 1/2 diameter works for winter sevka. The depth of the groundwork depends on the caliber.
Scheme of winter onion planting and seeding rate: note for a gardener and a farmer.
Scheme of planting onions at their summer cottage: between rows of up to 40 cm, between rows - an average of 15 cm, or from 10 to 25 cm.
The distance in the row is 4-10 cm depending on the size. The distance for class I is 3-4 cm, for II - 5-6 cm.
The smallest specimens are killed at a distance of 3-4 cm, with a diameter closer to 10 cm - at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other.
How deep should winter onions be? The seeding depth depends on the size and region: in cold areas, sowing is deepened to a depth of 10 cm, in regions with a temperate climate - by 5-7 cm.
Important! Before planting, the neck of the bulbs is not cut to prevent rotting.
At a depth of less than 3-4 cm sevok not buried. First, it will freeze out, secondly, it will bulge out in the spring: and this is an irregular shape, under-nutrition and watering.
Planting pattern and seeding rate in large areas
Sowing rate of onion seed - 450-460 t / ha for order I, 750-1000 kg / ha - II. Maximum consumption per 1 ha 1500 kg, and depends on the size. When using a sample, the seeding rate increases to 2,000 kg / ha.
For gardeners interesting consumption onion sevka 1 weave. These are 550-800 g / 10 m2 (at a density of 456-650 plants per 10 m2 for planting grade 1, 800-1200 g / 10m2 for the second group.
And if it is simpler, then it will take a little more than 1 kg per 5 m2. Weave - twice as much - about 2-2.5 kg, or about 400-450 bulbs.
For industrial planting for sowing with seeders of type SLN-8A, SLS-12, the wide-row method is used - 45 cm between rows, belt - 50 + 20 (55 + 15, 60 + 10), belt two-row (60 + 40 + 40).
Spring onion care and spring cleaning
Caring for winter onions is different from caring for a spring planting culture.
Winter onion care: everything is simple, and not easy, as is the four-row method of planting.
- In the spring, the fully mulch layer is removed so as not to impede the germination, warm the soil, do not rot.
- For growing turnips, crops are thinned - however, thinning is necessary when growing on a feather.
- Loosen the aisles. During loosening, the cultivation of powdered soil is not permissible: the bulbs will form poorly.
- Fertilizers. Complex NPK, trace elements.
- Watering - as needed: the culture does not like waterlogging.
The permissible humidity of the calculated moisture layer of 0-40 cm is within 70% of HB.
Spring landing is important to thin out.
At industrial plantings, 7-8 irrigations are carried out with a frequency of 8-12 days, which equals 350-400 m3 / ha, at the summer cottage - as needed.
Tip! Watering is stopped before lodging leaves.
As an intensive diet, spring fertilizing with microfertilizers is carried out - Master, Plantofol, etc. Given that the drugs are not cheap, every farmer and summer resident will solve the dressing in his own way: who makes the ashes, who the microfertilizers at a lower price. The main thing is to be careful with nitrogen. Nitrogen is introduced during the second feeding, using calcium nitrate.
Tip! Do not water planting manure, do not make fermented chicken droppings.
Firstly, it will provide abundant feather and miniature bulbs. Secondly - it is not safe: it is bacteria, pests and helminths on the green!
Onions are harvested at the time of softening of the false stem, when the feather reaches 20-25 cm, or when lodging, dyeing the scales in the color inherent in the variety is yellow, yellow-orange. The harvesting equipment is used at industrial plantings - LKG1-4, LPK-1.8, onion diggers Grimme, etc.
With the mechanized harvesting technology, the sheet is mowed with a KIR-1.5 B mower, after which it is laid in rolls by means of LKG-1.4 lukouborochny combines, etc.
After harvesting the crop is dried in placers in a well ventilated place.
For the autumn planting choose a variety and hybrids short (average daylight hours), forming the so-called. bulb bulbs with a day length of 12-14 hours.
When choosing a variety, pay attention to whether the onions are suitable for winter planting, whether they are regionalized for a particular region.
The varieties Radar, Kip-Well, Ellan, Odintsov, Shakespeare, Centurion, Strigunovsky, Stuttgarter Rizen, Arzamas, Bessonovsky, Danilovsky are good for Central Russia.
In general, fruitful, suitable for planting onion seedlings in the fall a lot. But - it will be a completely different story. For now - let the feather be green, turnip - large, and winter - snowy. Good harvest!
Seed material for winter planting
Podzimnaya onion planting is possible in the middle lane and in the south of Russia, in the Urals and in the CIS countries. In Siberia and the Far East, where the soil temperature in winter drops below minus 15 degrees, the autumn planting of this crop is not always successful, even with an abundance of snow.
Before winter they plant onion chernushka (seeds) or small onions. Planting material is sorted by diameter and planted separately, since the quality of the future crop depends on the size of the onions. Sowing onions by size are divided into:
- sample (diameter 3 or more centimeters),
- Sevok (diameter from 1 to 3 centimeters),
- oatsuzhku (less than 1 centimeter in diameter).
If the sample tolerates winter storage well, then sevok and ovus often dry out, especially in the conditions of a city apartment. Therefore, they are often planted in the fall. Podzimnuyu planting well tolerated and onion seeds - nippy.
The best varieties for planting in the fall
Vegetable practitioners determine the best subwinter varieties for specific conditions, guided by the recommendations of seed producers and their own experience. In the middle band for planting in the fall most often choose varieties:
- Stuttgarden Reason,
- Myagkovsky 300,
- Danilovsky 301.
All these varieties of onions belong to the early and mid-season. They almost do not throw away the flower arrow and are well kept. Selection hybrids are also suitable for autumn sowing.
The timing of the landing
Small onions before freezing the soil should take root and gain a foothold in the ground. At the same time, they should not release the green arrows and climb over the surface of the garden, as the frosts will destroy the greenery. A plant that consumes nutrients to form greens will die.
Terms of planting are different for different climatic zones. It is believed that the planting material should be planted 32-35 days before the onset of sub-zero temperatures. If the daytime temperature is kept within 5-6 degrees, you can start gardening. In the middle zone, the best time for winter planting is the last decade or end of October, in the southern regions - the end of November.
More information in our other article: Onion sets in open ground - planting dates and cultivation subtleties
After what garden crops can you plant onions
Improper rotation of crops leads to lower yields. Onions grow well if it is planted in place:
- cereal plants (excluding oats),
- all kinds of cabbage,
- sugar beet and table,
- leaf lettuce,
Onion plants should not be planted in the place of crops that were affected by common pests with onions. Larvae and worms eat ground parts, roots and tubers of garlic, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, potatoes, cucumbers, eat clover and alfalfa roots, parsley root, and celery. It is better not to plant onions in the place of these plants, especially if the foliage and root crops contain passages of worms.
It is not recommended to plant onions more than two times in a row on one bed.
Choosing a place for beds
Garden beds are prepared in advance, before the onset of stable cold weather. They dig up the earth (and form ridges) fifteen to twenty days before planting seeds and onions.
For the ridges choose a site that is well lit by the sun throughout the summer day. It is important for the formation and maturation of plants in spring and summer.
The beds are made on level ground or on a small hill, that is, in those places where the spring water is not stagnant. The soil should be loose and porous.
Agronomists advise to choose a soil containing a lot of sand (sandy, sandy-humus, humus loam with sand). Silt deposits in the river deltas are suitable for winter planting in the southern regions of Russia. For onions podzolic soils are good, sand is pre-applied to the black soil.
Heavy soil saturated with dense, waterproof clay is not suitable for planting onions.
Digging up and formation of ridges
Digging up the soil is enough for two-thirds of the spade's bayonet; deep digging and plowing onions are not needed. The height of the winter ridges depends on the tendency of the soil to retain water. If there is a lot of sand in the ground, and the aquifer lies deep, the beds are flush with the ground. After digging the surface of the beds slightly compacted.
Before digging up the earth, fertilizers are sprinkled on it (half a bucket of rotted manure and a glass of wood ash per square meter). Ecofosca, potassium salts, superphosphate in the amount specified in the instructions for the preparation are applied to the soil.
On a formed, leveled bed of a short board, furrows are pushed through. The depth of the furrows is 5-7 cm. If the bulbs are planted at the very surface of the ground, they will not survive the snowless and windy winter. In spring, melt water may even push them out of the ground. The distance between the furrows - 12-15 cm.
The soil loosening in the autumn contributes to the destruction of insect larvae and spores of fungi in the soil.
Planting winter onions
Oatsuzhku or sevok before planting carefully inspect and grope. Reject bulbs that have damage, traces of rot, worm moves. Dried, empty and half-empty onions are not suitable for planting.
Dry seed placed in the prepared furrows vertically (taking into account the "top" and "bottom" of the onion). The distance between seedlings - 3-7 cm. The larger the planting material, the greater the distance between the onions. After planting in the furrows, bulbs are covered with loose soil or old humus.
If onions are grown on greens, the distance between the onions is reduced to 1-2 cm.
Autumn onion planting seeds (chernushka) has a number of features. Healthy seeds are separated from the empty ones by pouring them into the water. Quality seeds will sink to the bottom, and empty ones will float on the surface. They are cleaned by draining water. The procedure is repeated at least three times. After the separation of defective seeds, the planting material is drained with water onto a dense fabric and dried in the shade (outside or in the house).
Chernushka sown in the grooves to a depth of 3 cm, and covered with humus or loose soil. The seeds are small, so plant them evenly difficult. In the spring, after the emergence of shoots, thickened places weed.
How to hide beds in winter
For the prevention of freezing in winter, it is recommended to sprinkle the ridge with peat or fallen leaves of the trees (mulch - All about soil mulch: benefits, technologies, materials). For this, the foliage of fruit and wild trees, berry bushes, dry or slightly damp from rain, will do. In the spring, after the snow melts, mulch is removed from the beds, as it holds water and re-moistens the soil.
If the snow is laid down in a thin layer and does not protect the soil from freezing, it can be harvested and thrown over the onion beds with a shovel. This is an excellent insulation for the soil; it will not allow the soil to freeze to critical temperatures.
In snowless areas, beds are covered with a piece of polyethylene. If it is not removed on warm autumn days, the soil will overheat and the onions will begin to grow, green shoots will appear from the ground. Therefore, it is not recommended to cover the ridges with polyethylene until the temperature of the day air becomes steadily negative.
During the winter planting of onions, it is recommended to leave earthen ramparts up to 10 cm high between the rows. In the spring they will protect the gentle bow arrows from cold winds.
Pests and diseases of podzimnogo onions
Onion fly. This insect appears in the midst of flowering fruit trees. The fly begins active years in the second decade of May. She gains strength in spring flowers for a week, after which she flies over to bulbous plants. A week later, the larvae hatch in the clutches, which tend to get into the young, growing onion.
By the end of May, the bulb, rooted in the ground in autumn, becomes quite large and strong. She has formed external scales. Onion fly larvae less likely to damage winter onions.
Stem nematode. This larva is one of the main pests of onion crops. She also eats legumes, strawberries, garlic, cereals, garden flowers. Greens bend, turn yellow, dry. The bulb, affected by the nematode, becomes unsuitable for eating, since the inner scales first become soft and loose, and then rot. To rid the bow of nematodes, it is not planted in place of crops that were damaged by the worm in the previous season.
Other insect pests of onions. Planting onions damage weevil, thrips (or thrips) onions, shovels (winter and potato). Plants are harmed by aphids and mites, which are carriers of fungal spores.
Fungal diseases of onions. Fungi settle on the green foliage, in the basal part and roots, on the bulb itself. Onions affect fusarium, cervical, bacterial, black, green rot, rust fungus, powdery mildew. Onion crops are often affected and a viral disease - onion mosaic.
Fungal diseases are especially susceptible to onions grown on dense, over-wetted, poorly ventilated soil.
To combat insect pests and diseases, special preparations are used - insecticides, acaricides, copper sulphate, salt and tobacco infusion, soap solution, and other means. Before planting, the soil is disinfected with Bordeaux mixture.
For more information about diseases and pests in our other article: Diseases of onion, fight with them and treatment. Photos of diseases and pests
Top dressing of winter onions in the spring
In early spring, when the green onion feather appears from the ground, natural organic top dressing is applied to the beds. This is an aqueous solution of cow or bird droppings. 10-12 liters of water stirred to a kilogram of litter.
In the second half of May, the onions are again fed with a solution of the same composition. Instead, you can use mineral fertilizer Nitrofoska (aqueous solution, a tablespoon in a bucket of water).
During the formation of the bulbs in the soil with an acidic reaction contribute ash, scattering it on the surface. Ash is buried in the ground with a hoe or scraper. Superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to neutral soils (according to the instructions for fertilizers).
In the summer, rows of underwinter onions need weeding, regular watering and loosening. In a drought, one abundant watering per week is enough.
The collection of green feathers carried out in mid-June. By the end of July or at the beginning of August, the tops of the tops dry and fall on the ground, and the winter onion turnip is ready for harvest.
Crop stored in a cold dry cellar or in a barn. Most winter varieties give one large onion per plant. After harvesting, the crop is dried in the sun and then in the shade. Store onions in braids, in baskets, trellised boxes.
Successful cultivation of winter onions depends on experience and stable climatic conditions. If there is little sprouting in the spring, sevok or ovusculus is planted directly on winter crops.
Processing onions before planting in the fall: useful tips and techniques
For landing in the winter is suitable for the smallest ray - osyuzhka. From it grows a beautiful large onions. Севок сажают весной для выращивания луковиц. А вот выборка походит только для посадки лука на зелень.
После того, как выбрали овсюжку необходимо ее внимательно осмотреть. Удалить все сухие, если есть больные и гнилые, а также убираем повреждённые луковицы. Данный посадочный материал не пригоден для выращивания.
What to process onions before planting in the winter.
Onions must be processed regardless of the timing of planting - for the winter or spring. After all, treatment allows you to avoid the occurrence of fungal diseases, stimulates growth, and also allows you to avoid bolting.
1. Copper sulfate.
To prepare a solution in 10 liters of warm water we dissolve 30 g of copper sulfate. Put the onion in this solution for 30 minutes. After that within 20-24 hours we dry onions in a room with room temperature.
This solution disinfects onions, protects against fungal diseases.
2. Heat treatment.
To avoid bow shooting, it is necessary to conduct heat treatment. To do this, fold the onions into a cloth, cover them with a cloth and place them in a container. Put the onions in the microwave for 2 minutes. After that, the onions are processed in a growth stimulator, dried and planted.
How to plant a bow-set before winter.
In the prepared garden we make grooves 5 cm deep. In the grooves we plant onions and sprinkle with soil. If the winter in your region is cold, the temperature drops below +15 degrees, then it is best to hide a bed with planted onions for the winter.
As a shelter suitable lapnik, straw, sawdust. In winter, when the snow falls, we throw more snow on the garden bed for warming. And in the spring, when the snow melts, we remove the shelter.
And how to use the harvest you can find on my channel "The joy of being "where I publish for you many exclusive recipes for homemade products.5 small secrets of planting garlic before winterHow to treat garlic before planting in the fallHow easy it will get rid of the wireworm in the garden forever. The best folk remediesUnique onion planting for the winter
Preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring. How to plant a bow set
Properly performed onion planting is the key to the next harvest. There are several ways of cultivation, so each gardener chooses for himself the best, most convenient. How to grow a good harvest onion sets? This question is asked almost all novice gardeners. The secrets of this process, of course, are there, and we will reveal them in our article. Here every stage is important. This includes preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring, and maintenance of crops, and harvesting, and even autumn tillage for future plantings.
Planting onions in the spring (on the head, on the feather - it does not matter) requires the preparation of the soil. Site selection is very important. It is better to take the territory, which is soon released from the snow. Onion sets likes sunny, well-ventilated areas.
This will protect future crops from powdery mildew. The soil must be fertile and weed-free. Re-planting onions in the same area is undesirable. It would be better if in the previous season tomatoes, beans, cabbage, peas, pumpkin or squash grew on the plot.
Preparation of beds
Preparation of the site is better to start in the fall. The soil is dug up to the depth of a shovel and leveled. It is possible during this period to fertilize the soil or to make unrepaired manure a year before sowing. In the spring the bed is loosened or dug up on a half of the spade to keep the bottom wet layer. You can impregnate the soil with any suitable mineral fertilizer. It is made at the rate of 100 grams per square meter.
Preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring is a very important stage. For 2-3 weeks it is necessary to sort and sort. Then selected healthy bulbs are heated at a temperature of 40 degrees for 8 hours and at a temperature of 45-47 degrees for about 10-12 hours. This procedure reduces the risk of shooters and various diseases. There is another preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring. Soaking accelerates the emergence of shoots and increases productivity. It is carried out in a solution of slurry and trace elements. For one part of the mineral preparations take five parts of organic fertilizer. Such preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring — soaking, sorting and warming — these are the best arrangements for a good harvest. You can soak in a one percent solution of copper sulphate.
Before sowing, the surface of the beds is lightly rolled down so that it is even. This will facilitate the planting of seed. Then on the surface mark shallow grooves. The distance between the rows should be about 20-25 centimeters. How to plant onion sets? The depth of embedment into the soil is 2-4 centimeters. It all depends on the size of the bulbs. With deep embedding, the shape of the future crop will be slightly elongated. If you plant onion sets too small, then the future harvest will be at risk. The root system will push the bulbs to the surface. They will be deformed. Onions collected in the fall, will be tasteless. Plant seed should be at a distance of 7-8 centimeters from each other. First they plant small onions, which are less than a centimeter in diameter. They do not form a shooter.
Dates of sowing
It is necessary to know not only how to plant onions properly. Exactly guessed landing dates significantly increase the yield. If the seed is fine, it is planted very early. Spring frosts onions are not terrible, he will tolerate them perfectly. In addition, small specimens rarely form arrows, and early seeding improves this indicator. Larger bulbs are planted later. It is necessary to wait for warming and the end of frosts. Early planting can lead to abundant formation of arrows. That is why the preparation of onion sets for planting in the spring (especially its sorting) is important.
Knowing how to plant a bow on a head is very important. But the subsequent care plays a huge role. The first time planting requires careful watering. The bed should always be wet, it should not be allowed to dry. This contributes to the active development of the leaves, and subsequently the bulbs. If there is not enough moisture, the crop will be sluggish and poorly formed. This is the minimum condition that is not so difficult to fulfill. We must also not allow the growth of weeds. They should not interfere with the full growth of onions. Loosening the soil is a prerequisite for a good harvest. After the emergence of shoots it is necessary to loosen the soil between the rows. You can not allow the formation of a crust, but pour the earth on the bulbs, too, is not necessary. Arrows may appear during growth. They must be removed, but not immediately. The best moment for this is the appearance of a thickening at the base of the plant.
How to plant a bow - on the head or feather, there is not much difference. The main thing is to comply with all requirements. Top dressing is a good help to improve growth. When the height of the leaves reaches 10-15 centimeters, you can make the first fertilizer application. To do this, you can use a solution of 10 grams of urea, 5-10 grams of potassium chloride and 10-15 grams of superphosphate. For the best development of the bulbs can be fertilized with urea. It is taken from the calculation of one tablespoon per bucket of water. The second feeding can be carried out at the beginning of the formation of the bulbs. To do this, apply phosphate-potassium fertilizers. For the prevention of diseases of the plant can be sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Before harvesting (this is about the end of July), watering the onions is stopped. At this point, the onion ripens. If you do not stop watering, the plant will enter a state of rest and will not pick up the necessary juices. The desired maturation will not occur, and the storage of the future harvest will be complicated. Onions are harvested when the base of the plant dries, and the leaves wither and fall to the ground. For this it is better to choose sunny and dry weather. Otherwise, the entire crop will be spoiled. Harvest should be done carefully. The bulbs must not be damaged or scratched. Harvest should be thoroughly dried. To do this, choose open solar areas. During this period, it is necessary to exclude moisture on the bow. Put the crop in a well-ventilated container, better - boxes, and stored in a dry place. Using all the techniques of cultivation, you can get a rich harvest. As you can see, there is nothing difficult in such a procedure as planting onions in the spring. Secrets of experienced gardeners will help get a good harvest and save it for several months.
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In the fall, be sure to plant onions before winter. To grow a strong and healthy onions before planting, I disinfect it. I will tell in more detail about the processing of planting material and its planting before winter.
Which bow is suitable for planting in the winter.
- Ovsyuzhka - up to 1 cm in diameter,
- Sevok - from 1 to 3 cm in diameter,
- Sample - from 3 cm and more.
Onions must be sorted before planting.
Processing onions before planting in the fall: useful tips and techniques
For landing in the winter is suitable for the smallest ray - osyuzhka. From it grows a beautiful large onions. Sevok planted in the spring for growing bulbs. But the sample is only suitable for planting onions on the greens.
Once an oatsuzhu have chosen to examine it carefully. Remove all dry, if there are diseased and rotten, as well as remove damaged bulbs. This planting material is not suitable for cultivation.
CULTIVATION OF COTTED ONION FROM SEEDING
For large turnip onions, the best planting material is 1.5–2.5 cm sevka.
PREPARATION OF SEEDING FOR SEATING
Before planting, the onions sets out, remove all dried, bare, sick, damaged, cut, sprouted bulbs, the remaining sorted by size, so that the shoots are uniform. On the bed first planted large, then medium and small bulbs.
If for planting you take your onion sets, which are stored at a temperature of 18-20 ° С then additional warming is not required. If you buy planting material, then 2-3 days prior to planting, be sure to warm the onions near the heating devices at an air temperature of 30-40 "C.
It is possible to carry out another treatment: just before planting, put the sewage into a bucket, pour 1–2 minutes of hot water (55–60 ° C), and then lower it for 1 minute into the cold. If you do not do any processing, then a planted onion sets can go to the arrow.
After heating, the bulbs are soaked in a nutrient solution. In 10 l of water, dilute 1 tablespoon of nitrophosphate, or nitroammofoski, or “Growth-1”, or any complex fertilizer, mix well and put the onion in this tissue bag in 8-10 hours into this solution.
Processing onions before planting in the winter
The bulbs should be kept in this solution for about two hours and then rinsed with water.
Soaking onion sets in saline salt has a detrimental effect on pests such as onions, thrips and mites. A solution of potassium permanganate perfectly destroys the spores of fungi, thereby preventing the fungal infection of the bulbs.
Instead of potassium permanganate for disinfecting bulbs, other chemicals used in garden shops (copper oxychloride, etc.) are also widely used.
Often, to stimulate root growth, the bulbs are soaked in various growth stimulating solutions. More common here are solutions of humate and zircon.
At the end of the soaking and disinfection stage, the onions are always washed, dried and aired. Only after that you can begin his landing.
Onions are usually planted in the soil, waiting for the earth to warm up to plus 15 degrees. But also to delay with planting onions is also not recommended.
Edited Elena (2017-05-03 10:27:14)
Processing onions with salt and potassium permanganate before planting
Growing onions at the site seems, at first glance, a very simple task. However, if you want to get large and dense heads, and not just green arrows, you will have to work hard. Basically, it concerns the proper preplant preparation and meeting the deadlines for planting sevka.
Preparation of onions for planting
First you need to carefully select the bulbs for planting, sifting out soft, dried and too small. Then, to accelerate germination, the husks must be cut, dried in a warm and dry place and heated for 2-3 weeks at + 20ºС. Closer to planting, it must be heated well at a temperature of + 35-40ºС for 10 hours.
An important step in the preparation of onion is its disinfection. This should be done immediately before landing in the ground. The simplest and most effective method that our grandmothers used was the treatment of onions before planting with salt and potassium permanganate.
At the first stage, before planting, the onion is treated with salt. To do this, immerse the seed for 2-3 hours in saline solution, prepared at the rate of 2 tablespoons of salt (stone or table) per two liters of water.
Treatment of the onion with saline solution will give the plant a rapid development and will ensure its protection against aggressive environmental influences. Also salt disinfects onions from nematodes.
The second stage of preparation is the treatment of onion seed in the spring before planting with potassium permanganate. You need to dilute 35 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water and immerse the onion in this solution for a couple of hours. This simple method is the most effective against any diseases. And although today there are many new drugs for processing, potassium permanganate has been and remains the most sought-after, since it is very effective with its low cost.
Another option preseeding preparation of onions:
- Before planting, onions need to fall asleep in a bucket and pour hot water (65-70ºС) for 2 minutes, then put it down for a minute in cold water,
- then soak the onions in the nutrient solution (you can use 1 tablespoon of complex fertilizer per bucket of water) for 8-10 hours,
- drain the solution and drop the onion into the copper sulphate solution (1 teaspoon for a 10-tilitre bucket of water) for 5-7 minutes, without washing, for 5-7 minutes,
- rinse the bulbs and you can start planting.
Preparing the soil for planting onions
If you want to grow a good harvest of onions, it is not enough just to treat the seeds, it is also important to choose the right place for planting and prepare the soil. And you need to start preparing the beds in the fall.
Onion loves good light and grows best in sunny areas. He also moisture-loving, while not tolerate waterlogging. Because groundwater or should not be at all, or they should lie at a considerable depth.
Such crops as peas, potatoes, tomatoes, or cabbage are most suitable as precursors of onions. Можно также высадить вблизи от луковой грядки морковь, чтобы ее фитонциды отгоняли луковую муху.
С осени выбранный участок нужно вскопать, внести перепревший навоз и торф. Если почва кислая, нужно провести ее известкование, чтобы создать оптимальные условия для лука.
Весной перед посадкой удобрения вносить не желательно, поскольку от этого лук пустит много перьев, а луковицы будут недостаточно крупными. You just need to loosen the bed, destroying the surface crust, and you can proceed to the landing of the prepared onion.
It is necessary to plant the bulbs at a distance of 8-10 cm. It is necessary to cover the ground so that the layer above the shoulders of the onion should be no more than 2-2.5 cm. When planting it is necessary to water the garden bed. Further care is loosening, weeding, watering.