Pear - the most common fruit tree. It is quite unpretentious, so it can be grown in different climatic zones. The fruits are tasty, juicy and healthy, thanks to this every gardener wants to have the best variety.
In this article we will talk about the description of the variety of pears Conference, find out its advantages and disadvantages and understand how to deal with pests.
Description of the pear variety Conference
Conference - pear variety. The name of the fruit was due to the conference on the cultivation of pears, which was held in Britain. Mass acquaintance took place with this variety much later.
Fruit ripening occurs in the second half of September. Fruits of the extended form, large size. The color is greenish yellow, the skin is tough with a matte shade, with inclusions of small brown spots. The flesh is juicy, aromatic, soft and melts in the mouth. The variety has a tart taste due to tannin content in the skin.
The crown of the tree is wide and dense, reminiscent of a cone. Do not ripen the fruit can only if the summer is cool. Winter varieties bad.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Abundant and regular fruiting.
- Self pollinated.
- The variety does not need pollinating trees. Pear tree takes up a lot of space, so it can serve as a pollinator for other varieties of pears.
- Excellent taste of fruit, give the opportunity to grow pears for sale.
- Store a variety of pears "Conference" can be for six months, it is enough to put them in a cellar or a refrigerator. She will not lose taste and aesthetic qualities.
- Weak winter hardiness, temperature drops below 20 degrees will negatively affect the condition of the variety.
- Fruiting may depend on weather conditions. Cold, rain and wind will not give the fruits to ripen well, and this will affect their taste. The sun contributes to the proper ripening of the fetus.
- Unpresentable appearance, but this is not important, because the taste is more important.
- Susceptibility to diseases caused by fungi.
The fruit does not ripen on the tree, so the crop must be removed and folded in a cool, dry place. After lying for several days, the pear will ripen, will begin to gain flavor and delicate taste.
The advantages include flexibility for heat treatment without loss of taste and useful properties. From it you can make jam and other treats. Due to the fact that it contains acids, which contribute to the improvement of digestive processes.
The calorie content of pear is quite low, only 42 kcal per 100 grams of product. They are recommended to be included in various types of diets.
Planting in the garden begins with the choice of location. The variety loves loose soil, but at the same time it must retain moisture. Well suited for growing pears loose loam or black earth.
Pear likes sunlight, but does not like strong wind. During the winter period, winds can cause freezing, in summer and spring - knocks ovaries and fruits.. Therefore, put the Conference in a sheltered place from the wind. Harm to the tree can cause increased humidity, therefore, do not choose a lowland for planting.
Variety resistant to heat. Remember, the correct location of the tree will help you get a good harvest faster. An adult plant is quite large, so there should not be any perennial plants around it.
Planting of young seedlings is carried out - autumn. Planting pear varieties Conference is better at the end of September. A young tree will have time to gain strength, root and prepare for winter. Before the onset of frost, it is necessary to shelter a tree from rodents and frost.Flowering pears in the nursery
For planting, choose only annual seedlings with a developed root system. The branches of a young tree must be elastic. Before planting it, it is necessary to soak it in clean water with the addition of a growth stimulator for 12 hours.
- Pit preparation. It must be at least 1 m deep and wide. This depth contributes to good root development. At the bottom of the pit lay drainage, then covered with earth, which was dug out of the pit. You can add peat to the ground, humus. From mineral fertilizers use superphosphate or dolomite flour. Do not use fresh manure, it decomposes poorly and can burn young roots.
- Once the ground has been prepared make a small mound in the center of the pitOn which it is necessary to put a sapling. The root system gently straighten and cover with earth. Remember that the root neck of the tree should be 3 cm higher than the soil level.
- Ground the ground and form a circular shaft.
- The plant is good to water. As moisture is absorbed the ground mulch with straw or grass. For a more reliable planting, the tree can be tied to a peg, which is set 15 cm further than a tree.
- Young plant is afraid of direct sunlighttherefore, it is necessary to shade it, otherwise the leaves will constantly turn yellow, turn black and fall off.
Care spring and autumn
Care in the spring is to remove the winter shelter and inspect for damage. All damages must be disinfected. For this you can use copper sulphate. The lower part of the stem is whitened with a solution of lime with the addition of PVA glue. In this way, you can destroy pests and pathogens. Around the tree loosen the earth well, as a result of which bacteria, spores and larvae of pests are destroyed.
Before flowering, the tree is sprayed with a solution of urea, or vitriol. In the fall, the tree is fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. Feeding should be carried out immediately after harvest, otherwise the plant will not have time to prepare for winter.Fruits on the pear Conference, ready for collection and storage
Preparing for the winter is a fairly important event. In November, the tree must be sheltered. Cover the roots and the lower third of the trunk with a ground about 25 cm thick.
The first harvest from a young tree will be after about 5 years of living in one place. About 40 kg of fruits are removed from one adult tree. Harvesting begins in late September. It is better to shoot the fruits unripe, as they will not be able to gain juiciness and softness on the tree.
Harvesting is necessary only in good weather, it must be dry. In order to avoid damage to the fetus, collect them in baskets, then place them in a ventilated room for several days. This is necessary in order for them to evaporate unnecessary moisture that prevents long-term storage.
Diseases and pests
Pear Conference is subject to various pests and diseases. Watch the tree and in case of any changes, immediately solve the problem fundamentally.
- White or brown spots on the leaves - This is a sign of manifestation of entomosporia or septoria. The disease can affect not only the leaves, but also shoots, fruits. The disease leads to deformation of the fruit, shoots grow poorly, and the leaves fall. To deal with the problem by spraying wood Bordeaux mortar or other fungicides. For example, Kuprostat, Skor, Champion. For the prevention of each spring, it is necessary to handle the stem near the trunk with Nitrofen.
- Scab affects the fruit sometimes and leaves. To touch it is avarous, brown in color. Small spots are small, but over time extend to the whole fruit. As a result, it is deformed, the skin is cracking, it is not recommended to eat such fruits. To deal with the problem you need to drastically. At the first occurrence of infection, the infected place is cut off and burned. Harvest Fresh Pears Conference
Tatyana, Moscow region: I can say with complete confidence that the pear Conference on my summer cottage has been growing for a long time. She is experiencing a good winter, gives a good harvest.
Marina, Rostov on Don: The conference is the taste of my childhood. My grandfather grew a pear in the shade. Every year they gathered a good harvest, they ate until the spring. If we compare the fruits with the store, we have them a little smaller, and even better in taste. The tree is not very tall, though it was frozen out last year, but we are inclined to think that a mulberry tree was planted next to it, most likely it influenced the development of the pear.
Katerina, Sumy: Growing on my summer cottage pear for many years. Fruits every year. They waited for the first harvest for almost 10 years, the crop does not ripen on the tree, so it removes the pears and folds on the cabinet. Taste qualities of this variety are extraordinary. Grade pleased and advise everyone.
Pear Conference - the most fruitful and unpretentious variety. Pledge of a good harvest depends on proper planting and timely control of diseases. Pay attention to the variety and you will get a rich and healthy harvest.
Typical organic fertilizing in gardens is rotted manure or humus. For fertilizer it is good to apply mullein.
- For its preparation, a barrel (or other container) is filled with one third of fresh manure, adding water to the edges.
- The resulting mass is stirred and left for 1-2 weeks.
- After fermentation is over, the fertilizer is diluted with water (1: 3) and applied to the soil.
In the summer for top dressing use diluted slurry. She watered pinging circles at a rate of 1.5–2 l / m2. To make the “semi-finished product” a full-fledged fertilizer, you can add simple superphosphate (about 12–15 g / l) to it. Also, slurry is used for composting. Peat is prepared by adding about 20 kg of slurry per 10 kg of dry peat.
The conference is grateful for organic and mineral fertilizers.
Excellent compost can be prepared from organic waste (windfall, tops, weeds).
- All this is laid in ground piles, trenches or boxes 1.5–2 m wide in layers of 20–30 cm.
- Each of them is poured with soil (4–5 cm layer) and moistened with water, slurry or a solution of chicken manure.
- When the compost turns into a crumbly dark mass that does not have an unpleasant smell, you can consider it ready.
Ordinary fruit and vegetable waste is “disposed of” in 3-4 months (in summer). Ready compost need to turn over with a fork and leave for 1-2 weeks "ripen". Then it is sifted through a large vibrating screen (if available) and applied to the soil in the same way as humus or rotted manure.Ready compost - friable homogeneous mass of dark color
In addition to root (applied to the soil) dressings, spraying gives a good result. They allow you to quickly provide the tree with nutrients, but must be used carefully, as they can burn the leaves. Before treating the garden with any chemical, check its effect on individual branches.
Pear sprayed with urea in the following concentrations:
- spring - 0.1–0.2% solution,
- in summer and autumn - 0.3%.
To increase the winter hardiness of the tree, it is possible to carry out the treatment with potassium sulfate (28–20 g / l) or superphosphate (30–50 g / l) in late August – early September. The concentration of these solutions is reduced when spraying in dry weather, otherwise there is a risk of burning the leaves. The best time for the procedure is early morning or late evening.
Top dressings are most often brought in a near-stem circle. Since its diameter is usually 2–3 m, the doses of fertilizers are quite large. It should be borne in mind that with the age of the tree the required amount of deposited funds varies.