Early ripe, fruitful, undersized hybrid of a tomato for an open ground and film shelters. In the southern regions, this tomato is planted in a seedless way, directly into the ground. The period from germination to maturity is 80-85 days.
The bush is of determinant type, it requires a garter to the support and partial shearing. Recommended to form up to the first flower brush. Can be grown without pinching.
The first brush is formed above the 5-6 leaf, each subsequent - through the leaf.
Fruits are flat-round, dense, in the stage of maturity of red, weighing 120-150 grams, fleshy, good for a hybrid of taste. These tomatoes are suitable for early fresh salads, tomato processing, home cooking.
This hybrid tolerates short-term cooling. Due to its ripening time, it has time to return the crop before the onset of cold nights and, accordingly, the onset of phytophtoras.
Yield in the film greenhouse - 9-11 kg of fruits from 1 square. meter landings.
Peculiarities of growing tomatoes
Sowing of seeds for seedlings in the middle lane is carried out 50-55 days before the intended planting in the ground. Dive seedlings - at the stage of two true leaves. When planting seedlings at a permanent place on 1 square. meter plot recommended to place up to 5 plants.
Further care of tomatoes consists of timely watering, fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizer, pasynkovaniya and preventive measures to protect against diseases and pests.
How to form a low-growing tomato, video
3. To keep the seedlings from stretching, watch the temperature.
Usually, seedlings are drawn from the lack of nutrients that the plant receives as a result of photosynthesis. The efficiency of photosynthesis is influenced by many factors: air humidity, CO2 content, foliar dressing with microfertilizers, and lightness. but the most important factor is temperature. Infrared radiation (heat) is a controlling factor in the process of photosynthesis and metabolism (growth rate) of a plant. It follows from this that a higher temperature “forces” the plant to accelerate its growth. Rapid growth, in turn, requires a lot of energy (which the plant gets through photosynthesis), which means that the need for light increases. Lacking light, the plant begins to stretch. To avoid this, it is necessary to lower the temperature and / or increase the illumination.
The normal temperature for the growth of tomato seedlings in our lane is 16-18 degrees, and not at all 25-30 which may be in the room or under the lighting lamp brought too close to the plant. How to make the tomato seedlings not stretched? Keep an eye on the temperature and light!
4. When the seedlings grow, sprinkle a little earth (0.5-1 cm) to make the stems more resilient.
In addition, tomatoes sometimes pinch the central root to make the root system more fibrous. This procedure is called "dive", and is usually carried out simultaneously with a transplant into separate, larger cups.
Whether it is necessary to do a dive or not is a moot point, much will depend on the further maintenance, soil, temperature, irrigation and many other factors. The best option would be to dive one part of the tomato, and the other only to transplant and fill the ground. This experiment will allow you to find out which of the tomatoes (with or without a dive) will be better developed by you.
5. When planting in a permanent place, do not drop tomatoes.
There are a lot of recommendations on the Internet to drop tomato stems when planting to increase their root system. In Moscow it is absolutely impossible to do it! The fact is that a large root system will actually increase the yield and vitality of the plant, but this method is only suitable for the southern regions, where the growing season is much longer than ours.
The prikopannaya plant stops in growth until lateral roots are formed. This can take from a week to a month (depending on the temperature of the soil and the degree of digging). This is quite logical, because it takes more energy and time to build a more powerful root system. But is it necessary? In the southern regions with rare rains, dry soil and hot air - yes. But in the suburbs, where half the summer it rains? I doubt it. Do not forget that tomatoes are extremely drought-resistant plants that can practically bear fruit on stones. How to grow an early crop of tomatoes in the suburbs? Do not drop them in any way!
6. Insulate the soil.
For an adult plant, soil temperature is much more important than air temperature, so there are often situations where even under shelter tomatoes continue to develop poorly. This may be due to the cold soil, especially if the groundwater is close (the river flows close by). To solve this problem, often use "warm beds" elevated above the ground and loaded with horse manure, which, when loosened, begins to liberate heat.
However, together with the heat, manure releases a large amount of ammonia - that is, the very nitrates with which we are constantly frightened. As a result, everything grows remarkably on manure, however there is a crop obtained in this way may not be safe for health. A good alternative for laying in warm ridges is straw, spilled with heavily diluted bird droppings that you can buy (packed in a beautiful package) at any garden store. The straw begins to rot and warm up (besides, because of its structure, it acts as a heater). Also, for the cultivation of tomatoes, you can use a specially designed container, as I will tell you in one of the following articles.
The temperature of the soil under the plant can be increased without the use of warm ridges. To do this, you need to install insulation between the upper (warm) and lower (cold) layers of soil. In practice, this is done by instilling empty closed plastic bottles to a depth of 50 centimeters. Extruded polystyrene foam can be used instead of bottles. The organic variant of such warming can be brushwood and small branches left from pruning trees, covered from above with a layer of foliage or mowed grass (so that the ground is not poured from above into the brushwood and does not fill the air voids playing the role of insulation). How to grow powerful tomatoes in cold soil? Insulate the soil using: raised beds, warm beds, planting tomatoes in containers and installing insulation between warm and cold layers of soil!
7. Graft tomatoes to get one stem on two root systems (growing tomatoes on two or more roots)
The vaccination is being made "closer to the tongue", more will be discussed in one of the following articles.
Having received a "head start" in the form of a second root system, a tomato can transfer all resources to the development of the aerial part and fruits, as a result of which the harvest will ripen earlier and be larger. Inoculation is carried out when the thickness of the stem is about 4-5 mm. or more. Inoculation can be done simultaneously with the landing in the ground, so as not to damage it during transportation and transplantation. After the tomatoes have grown, the stem of one of them above the grafting site is removed. How to grow early tomatoes with larger fruits? Graft tomatoes to get one plant on two or more roots!
8. Feed tomatoes with microfertilizers.
It is best if microfertilizer is suitable for growing hydroponics (hydroponics is a way of growing plants without soil). This ensures that it really has all the necessary elements, and the plant could grow on this mixture without any soil at all (for example, “florist growth” refers to such fertilizers).
Microfertilizers for plants are like vitamins for humans. You can do without them, but only if you eat right, which in the case of plants means good, fertile soil. After the start of flowering fertilizer should be stopped. How to grow healthy and strong tomatoes? Feed them with microelements!
9. Mulch the earth with organic matter to attract earthworms that loosen the soil and produce humus.
Earthworms do not feed on the earth (as many people think from childhood), but on organic matter, that is, everything that can be rotten. As a result of their livelihoods, they produce humus - a valuable fertilizer that makes the soil fertile. In addition, they loosen the soil by improving the access of oxygen to the roots.
If you mulch the surface of the beds with organic matter (it can be both grass and food waste), it will attract a lot of earthworms. Worms do not eat sour organics (for example, peels of oranges), so it will be useful to sprinkle it with small amounts of dolomite flour, which can also be bought at any garden store.
However, be careful: a large number of earthworms will attract moles, for which they are food. How to improve the quality of the soil to increase the yield of tomatoes? Mulch the earth with organic matter to attract earthworms that loosen the soil and produce humus!
10. Mulch the ground with black ground cover material to reduce the evaporation of water from its surface, as well as slightly raise the temperature and suppress the growth of weeds.
If you are not going to mulch the earth with organic matter, then this can be done with a nonwoven material with a high density, which can also be bought at any garden store, or, for example, here (though the price is somehow 4 times lower than in regular stores perhaps quality is lame or low density?).
Covering material retains moisture, preventing it from weathering out of the topsoil. This is the main and extremely important advantage. As an added bonus, it raises the temperature of the soil and inhibits the growth of weeds, although perennial feels rather well under it, being fully pressed to the ground.
You can get rid of weeds in the spring by putting the ground cover material on the ground, and sprinkling it with a thin layer of fertile land (so that the sun does not penetrate) and planting a lawn (the roots of which will easily grow through the nonwoven material). It is convenient to fix the material on the ground by thrusting a shovel into it, thus pushing the edge of the material under the ground (it will hold firmly). How to improve the microclimate and soil temperature when growing tomatoes? Use black ground cover material!
11. Pasynutum tomatoes, removing all side shoots and forming the plant in one stem
A pasture is a lateral shoot that goes from the leaf axils (that is, from the place where the leaf stalk connects to the stem). So, all these side shoots must be mercilessly removed (it is better to work with gloves, as the tomato juice is poisonous, and can leave indelible brown marks on the skin).
Removal of lateral shoots is carried out to form a plant in one stem (no longer makes sense in the Moscow region - the harvest will be too late). Growing in 2 and more stems is justified only in the southern regions, with a long growing season. If you do not remove the stepsons, then instead of harvesting a tomato, you will get a harvest of foliage. After the tomatoes grow to their final size (they will acquire a characteristic luster when the filling is completed) they just can tear off all the leaves - this will only accelerate the ripening of the fruit.
By the way, the total mass of fruits from one bush practically does not depend on the number of fruits: you can get a lot of medium-sized fruits, or a smaller number, but larger ones. How to grow an early crop of tomatoes in a short growing season near Moscow? Form a plant in one stalk, removing the stepchildren!
12. Dig the tomatoes with the root, shake the ground, wash the roots and the tomatoes ripen indoors
There is no need to wait until all the fruits hit phytophthora.
You can collect the full fruits (the full fruit has a characteristic luster, they will no longer grow - just blush) by cutting off the brush on which they grow, and ripen them in a warm and dry room (they can be treated with warm water to prevent the development of late blight, however, already damaged fruits must be thrown out, as they will infect the rest). In addition, if space allows, you can dig up the tomatoes with the root, shake the ground, wash the roots and hang the plant upside down on a rope - the stem and the roots contain moisture and nutrients, and the tomatoes during ripening will be more juicy.
How to ripen tomatoes? Collect the fruits that have a characteristic luster and put them in a cardboard box - they ripen themselves!
A description of the variety suggests a story about fruit characteristics. As for the Bison tomatoes, we note the following in them:
- Fruits in mature form are red, sometimes crimson-pink, and rounded-heart-shaped.
- Vegetables are not very large, the first ripe ones weigh 350 grams, and the next ones are 100 grams less.
- According to the number of chambers, the number is 4-5, the content is 5-6% of dry filling.
- The collected fruits are arranged for long storage, which is especially attractive for those who intend to grow a good amount of vegetables for sale.
- The grade differs in fine flavoring qualities, very sweet, is optimum for the fresh use.
- Tomatoes are also used for making juices and pastes, and due to their compact size, tomatoes are good for canning in general.
Describing the tomato "Bison" should be said about the presence of several varieties of the variety. So, there is a determinant species called "Bison yellow". Reviews gardeners with experience say about the preferred formation of this species in two trunks. As for the vegetables themselves, they have a flat-round shape, with the presence of a slight degree of ribbing.
Another variant of the determinant type is “Black Bison”. The height it can reach 180 cm. The bush develops powerful, so do not forget about the special supports and garters. Those who planted this tomato variety know that the fruits are not just tasty, but endowed with a special aftertaste of fruits.
"Bison black" is optimal for salad use, but the hostesses are not advised to salt: the fruits in the banks are cracking.
On the specifics of care for tomato bison
Tomatoes "Sugar Bison" does not play a crucial role in the region where it will be grown, because this is a greenhouse variety. Of course, preference is given to the central and southern regions. It is very important to know that this variety of tomatoes is highly resistant to moisture deficiency, which means that excessive watering is contraindicated for it, and special attention should be paid to this.
Be sure to cut the bush when it is growing, and the formation, as mentioned above, it is better to do in two stalks. A garter branch is also required to avoid the risk of breaking them off. In terms of dressings, the variety is very respectful of them, especially the variants with potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Also, there is a regular organization of soil weeding, and irrigation features - not abundance, but timeliness.
The main enemy of all tomatoes is considered the greenhouse whitefly. She has a good modern government - the drug "Confidor". For the quick elimination of brown rot, which can cause trouble for this variety, just take a note to immediately remove the infected tomatoes, reduce the number of fertilizers on nitrogen, make a more moderate watering. The results of the curation are fixed with the preparations "Hom" and "Oxis". For prevention, it is important to temporarily air the greenhouse and to regularly harvest a new crop.
Tomato "Chief of the Redskins" F1 - a relatively new hybrid, referring to the super early varieties. The fruits ripen about 80-85 days after the first shoots appear.
Due to such high precocity, this variety is not terrible ordinary diseases characteristic of tomatoes - they just do not have time to develop and destroy the plant.
Fully mature fruits in the northern latitudes of the European region can be collected by the beginning of the third decade of June. In the south of Eurasia, the variety can be planted without the use of seedlings.
The variety belongs to the determinant type, has an ordinary bush structure, whose height is 0.6-1 m. After germination of 5-6 leaves, the first brush appears. Then, after the next leaf, - another ovary, and so on.
"Leader" is perfect for growing in open ground and in greenhouses. In the northern regions, seedlings for seedlings are planted around the second week of April, and they are transferred to the ground in 55-60 days.
The advantages of the variety include the following:
- short-term cooling of the plant are not terrible
- the tomato is well suited for whole preservation,
- resistant to diseases
- fruits of large size with excellent taste characteristics.
Некоторые недостатки, характерные для данного сорта:
- структура плода напоминает арбуз, она имеет клетки большого размера и довольно рыхлая,
- практически полное отсутствие кислоты, плоды сладкие даже в зелёном виде,
- в период дозревания плод морщится.
Как уже было сказано, в южных регионах томат сорта «Вождь краснокожих» при благоприятных погодных условиях можно высаживать и семенами. But if you decide to stay in a more familiar way - planting seedlings, and the purchase, then its choice should be taken very seriously.
After all, the quality of the seedlings depends largely on what kind of harvest you will collect.
Of course, the most acceptable option is to purchase seedlings from a trusted manufacturer. If this is not possible, talk to the seller, ask him about this variety.
In the event that he confidently answers questions, shows and talks about the characteristic features of this species, it is likely that this is a bona fide manufacturer and he should be trusted.
In this case, you can proceed to the next stage of testing and conduct a visual inspection of the seedlings.
Attention should be paid to the following signs of plants:
- Age of seedlings should be no more than 7 weeks. To all the plants began to bear fruit at the same time, you should choose seedlings of about the same growth.
- Choose seedlings up to 0.3 m high. The seedling should be about 10-12 leaves.
- Pay attention to the stems (they must be of sufficient thickness), the root system must be developed, without dry spots.
- Check plants for pests and various diseases. In the event that the foliage is twisted, irregularly shaped, lethargy is clear evidence of an infectious disease. On the stem should be no different spots or pigmentation.
- In some cases, seedlings manufacturers use various growth accelerators for seed germination. Foliage, lowered down, while having a bright, unnaturally saturated color, is an indicator of abuse of such substances.
- Seedlings should be in containers with soil: if the seedlings are contained without soil, it is better not to acquire it.
Soil and fertilizer
Tomatoes are very fond of sandy loam or loam of neutral acidity (pH not lower than 6), medium or above average fertility.
The soil under the tomatoes should be dug up in the fall, destroy the weeds and at the same time make fertilizer. It is necessary to fertilize with humus (5 kg per 1 sq. M) and mineral fertilizers (50 g of superphosphate or 25 g of potassium salt per 1 sq. M).
In the spring, just before planting the seedlings in the ground, the soil should be fertilized with bird droppings (1 kg per 1 sq. M), the same amount of wood ash and 25 g per 1 square. m of ammonium sulfate.
Tomatoes do not like the soil with high acidity. If you have one, you should treat it with lime (approximately 0.6-0.7 kg per 1 sq. M).
Tomatoes feel great on the ground, where they grew onions, beets, carrots. It is acceptable to plant after cucumbers and radishes. And do not break the beds where they grew the same tomatoes, zucchini, potatoes or legumes.
In order for future seedlings to develop well, it needs to create favorable conditions:
- good illumination - it is better that the windows face the south side, not be shaded (if there is little natural light, you need to add artificial),
- sufficient moisture - the seedlings should be sprayed twice a day,
- normal air temperature: in the afternoon - + 18-24 ° С, at night - + 13-16 ° С.
Growing from seed to seedlings at home
The estimated time for planting tomato seeds is 8-9 weeks before planting in open ground (greenhouse). Approximately in 1-1,5 weeks after planting the seeds the first shoots will appear.
Therefore, the estimated time that the seedlings will be on the window sill after emergence is 1.5-2 months. You need to carefully consider the timing of planting seeds, because if you overexpose the seedlings on the windowsill, an adult plant will not grow well and have low yields.
Approximate dates of sowing seeds for seedlings:
- South of Russia and Ukraine - the last decade of February-mid-March (landing in the ground or greenhouse - from mid-April to III decade of May),
- the center of Russia - from the middle to the end of March (landing in the ground or greenhouse - from the beginning of the II decade of May to the beginning of the summer),
- North of Russia and everything farther than the Urals - from the beginning to the middle of April (landing in the ground - the middle of the third decade of May to the middle of June).
It is more accurate to calculate the time of planting seeds for seedlings using the following formula: from the end of the frost in your area, subtract 2 months (+/- 10 days) - this will be the optimal time for planting seeds on the seedlings.
In the event that you use packaged seeds of popular brands, you do not need to process them, they have already received the necessary disinfection. If the seeds are purchased on the market or they are your crop, they must be subjected to antiseptic processing.
For this fit the following tools:
- Potassium permanganate solution (1 g per 100 ml of water). Planting material is wrapped in gauze and kept in solution for 20 minutes. Then wash the seeds with running water.
- Soda solution (1 g per 200 ml of water). Soak the material for 1 day, in addition to aseptic, such baths have an effect that stimulates germination.
- Solution "Fitosporin". If you use a liquid agent, you must dilute 1 drop of the drug in 100 ml of water. If powder is used, take 1 tsp. 200 ml of water. The procedure time is from one to two hours.
It is necessary to subject to decontamination and soil. Even if it was purchased in a package, this is not a guarantee of sterility, and there is nothing to say about garden soil.
You can perform the procedure as follows:
- ignite the soil in the oven for 15 minutes at +200 ° C,
- warm for two minutes in the microwave,
- shed the soil with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate,
- spill the soil with boiling water so that it comes out through the drainage holes.
You can complement one way to another, it will only benefit. After tillage, leave it for 1-1.5 weeks. This is sufficient time for the microorganisms useful and necessary for the plant to begin their vital activity in the ground.
Content and location
To begin with, fill the seed germination tanks with prepared and wetted soil. Peat pots, plastic utensils, plastic strawberry boxes (they have ready-made drainage holes) can serve as tanks.
A window sill can serve as a good place for germination if it is warm enough there. The location near the window increases the flow of light.
Seed planting process
In the soil need to make grooves 1 cm in depth. The distance between the grooves is 3-4 cm. The seeds are laid in the grooves (3-4 cm step). You can withstand a greater distance, then there will be no immediate need to plant seedlings from sowing tare. The grooves should be covered with earth.
You can go a simpler way: the seeds laid in the furrows are covered with a layer of soil 1 cm thick. The seeds container is covered with glass or film, this will create the necessary moisture and contribute to the retention of heat. The optimum temperature is + 26-30 ° C.
So, if the window sill is cool, you should create an additional source of heat (a central heating radiator, for example).
It is also necessary to monitor the soil moisture. If the soil dries - moisten it with a spray gun, if the humidity level is exceeded - remove the insulating glass and wait for the soil to dry.
Due to the strong moisture on the surface of the soil may develop fungus. In the event that this happens, carefully remove the top layer of soil and treat the rest of the soil with antifungal agents (Fundazol, Fitosporin).
The first shoots appear after 3-5 days, if the air directly above the surface layer of the soil is heated to + 25-28 ° C, and about two days later, if the air t is + 20-25 ° С. If the temperature is kept at + 10-12 ° C, seedlings will have to wait about 2 weeks or a little more.
For the normal cultivation of seedlings an indispensable condition is the presence of sufficient illumination. After the first shoots germinate, provide the plants with as much natural light as possible.
But even the brightest window sill at the end of winter and early spring will not provide adequate lighting, so it will be necessary to supplement it with artificial light.
A rather common method of Tugarov is practiced, according to which the first three days require continuous (round-the-clock) coverage of sprouts, after which the intensity should be reduced to 16 hours each day.
Recently sprouted shoots should be kept in conditions of 100% humidity. Insulating coating (film, glass) should be removed every day for a short time, gradually increasing it. Finally, the plant can be opened in 10-15 days.
Saplings can do for a long time without watering. An indicator of the need for irrigation is the condition of the soil. It should be constantly moistened, but so as not to turn into dirt.
But drying should not be allowed (the roots of the plants are still very small, are entirely in the upper layer, and its drying will cause the roots to dry out).
Water the seedlings should be very carefully, under the very stem of the plant. You can use a syringe without a needle. After the film is removed, watering should be increased. With the growth of a sunny day, the plant will also grow faster, therefore, it will need more moisture.
To seedlings not dried, it is necessary to control the soil moisture in the morning. With intensive growth, young shoots are able to take all the moisture from the soil during the day. By evening, the plant may already have drooping foliage due to daytime sunlight and its own active growth, which takes away moisture from the soil.
Fill the young seedlings too. Keep in mind: dried and flooded seedlings look the same - sluggish foliage, lack of stem stiffness. In this case, pay attention to the condition of the soil: if it is wet, then the plant was flooded.
There is no question of any additional watering. Place the container with seedlings in a place without access to direct sunlight and wait until the soil is completely dry. After that, adjust the intensity of further watering.
It is extremely dangerous for young shoots to combine cold with moist soil. So, it is not advisable to spend evening watering until April, as nighttime temperatures can lead to freezing of the root system and the death of the plant.
With the onset of warm spring days, when there is no wind, take the seedlings to a balcony or street. On a warm sunny March day, the air temperature can reach + 16-18 ° С. This procedure is used to harden and develop resistance to sunlight in the plant.
Immediately after the shoot, tomatoes have a natural UV-protection (from ultraviolet). So, if you have a sprout cut through, and the weather is warm, windless, do not be afraid to bring the "baby" to the fresh air, nothing will happen to it.
If you didn’t manage to do this on the day of the shoot (you forgot or didn’t have the appropriate weather), you should not do it in a few days. In this case, you need to gradually accustom the plant to sunlight. You can start with a five-minute walk, adding five minutes daily.
Seedlings should begin to feed after 15-20 days after germination.Then shoots fertilize weekly. It is better to use organic matter - a light solution of manure or grass greens. Biohumus will also work, you need to apply 1/2 of the dose recommended for normal feeding.
When the seedlings reach the age of 6 weeks, the first ovaries of floral brushes will begin to appear. Their appearance is a sign that in 1.5-2 weeks it is time to plant the seedlings in the ground. If you do not have time to transplant seedlings for permanent residence, in the future it may reduce its yield.
If the seedlings will continue to be in the seedling tanks, take care of enough land for it (1 l / 1 shoot).
If the tomatoes are in small hotbeds for more than a prescribed period of at least 1-1.5 weeks and bloom at the same time, they will not grow anymore and will remain as small even after transplantation into the open ground.
This problem can be solved in this way: to cut off the first floral ovary, the next one will be no earlier than in 6-7 days - this is a delay for the transplant procedure.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
The distance between the bushes in the greenhouse or in the open ground should be about 0.4 m. In case you decide to make an individual container for each plant (for example, on the balcony), it should be borne in mind that each tomato bush of the “Red Leader "Needs 9-12 liters of land.
For tomatoes it is well suited chernozem mixed with peat in equal parts.
Try to pick up a cool day for planting seedlings in the ground so that there is no wind and no open sunlight. Dip the stem of each plant 2-3 cm into the ground. After 3-5 days, the root system will begin to develop and keep the plant well.
After planting, the tomatoes need to be watered with warm water.
Agricultural technology of growing tomato seeds in the open ground
To grow tomatoes, "The leader of the Redskins" can also be from seeds in open ground, especially in southern Russia and most of the territory of Ukraine. This variety is not afraid of short frosts.
And to the seeds in the ground, the light April frosts of the night, which are occasionally in our latitudes, are not dangerous at all.
For cultivation of tomatoes seeds suitable for both greenhouse and open ground. If you are going to grow in the ground, pay attention to the above compatibility of tomatoes and those crops that grew in this place before them. The place should be, if possible, protected from the wind.
Tomatoes do not like the overcooling of the root system, so the greenhouse is safer for the plant, although it requires a larger amount of work (it is necessary to prepare the soil and the greenhouse itself since autumn).
On the other hand, if the tomatoes are properly grown in the open field, they will be more hardened, tolerate both heat and cold, disease and pests.
Inspect the vending site. Calculate (based on the minimum 0.4 m between plants and 0.6 m between rows), how many bushes can be planted in this area.
If you have both a greenhouse and a suitable place in an open area, try combining - plant some tomatoes in a greenhouse, some in the open air. It will be interesting to compare the results after harvest.
Soil loosening and weeding
Regularly conduct a visual inspection of the land around the bushes. In the event that a crust appears, it should be burst. This circumstance should not scare you: the crust, as a rule, appears regularly after each rain. Mulch the soil around the bushes, this will prevent the ground from drying out.
To loosen the soil should be after each watering, that is, about twice a week. The procedure is carried out in conjunction with the weeding. In the first 15-20 days, they are loosened to a depth of about 10 cm, later, when the root system grows, the depth is reduced to 7 cm in order not to damage the roots.
If the soil is heavy enough, in those places where there are no roots, loosen deeper.
When the bush grows up, loosening is combined with hilling. It does not allow naked roots and helps the normal warming up of the soil and branching of the root system. The first hilling is done 15-20 days after landing, the next - after the same time. Spud can be wet ground or humus.
Weeding is carried out as needed. We need to weed between the rows and the space between the bushes (neatly).
Gotting is the procedure necessary for removing the stepsons — shoots that can turn a shrub into a plant with a large number of stems. They will have many flowers and subsequently many fruits.
But all of them will be small and will not have time to ripen, as all the beneficial substances that the plant takes from the soil will go to the growth of green mass. Immunity of the plant is reduced, it is affected by various characteristic diseases that can go to other cultures.
"The leader of the Redskins" refers to determinant varieties, that is, those that are limited in growth. Such varieties in the early stages of development is not worth the stepson, otherwise the bush can stop growing. For normal development do not remove the stepson located under the upper inflorescence.
Later, this escape can be removed, it will replace the one that is located above, and so on. This procedure will allow the bush to grow and develop. In a warm climate is to give the bush to grow into three stalks. Such a method will create more favorable conditions for the plant to exist.
Some of the burying rules:
- the formation of a culture should begin after it confidently grows,
- it is better to remove the stepsons with their hands (after reaching them about 6 cm in length), so that there is a “stump” 1.5 cm high,
- strawberry tomatoes better in the morning.
Some gardeners believe that tying up tomatoes of determinantal varieties is not necessary. There is a logic to this, as low-growing varieties really do not really need this procedure. Therefore, we dwell only on the main points concerning the garter of tomatoes.
Some advantages of tying tomatoes:
- tall varieties are tied up in order to avoid breaking the branches during fruiting,
- the tied up plant gets more sunlight
- an unbound branch lying on the ground is defenseless against pests,
- even if the plant has a strong stem, it is vulnerable to wind or heavy rain,
- куст тратит свои силы на то, чтобы оставаться в устойчивом положении, подвязка избавляет растение от этого вида борьбы за живучесть,
- подвязанные растения проще поливать,
- пасынкование, сбор урожая и уход проще проводить на подвязанном растении.
То есть процедура подвязывания направлена на то, чтобы облегчить жизнь растения, и, соответственно, увеличить его жизнестойкость и урожай.
Ниже перечислены основные виды подвязывания:
- подвязка на колья,
- на шпалеру,
On the Internet you can find a lot of more detailed information about each of the methods of garter, but it is worth repeating that there is a rather popular point of view among experienced gardeners, that for determinantal varieties, such as the “Red Leader”, there is no need for garter.
If you still decide to tie up a bush, it is worth saying that the first two methods (stakes and trellis) are not quite suitable for this variety. Stop picking on cages or caps.
After the appearance of the first two leaves of tomatoes, shoots should be thinned. In each well, leave one plant, the rest are cut, in any case not pulled out. After 2 days, the plant must be fed with ammonium nitrate (15 g per 10 l of water). For one shoot, 500 ml of fertilizer is sufficient.
Repeated feeding will be needed when the plant begins to bear fruit. You need 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride. Fertilizers fall asleep in grooves up to 6 cm in depth, at a distance of 0.2 m from the plants, and the grooves are covered with earth. The procedure should be carried out on well-moistened soil.
Suitable as a fertilizer and water infusion of mullein (20 kg per 10 buckets of water, infusion time - 9-12 days). To feed the seedlings, you need to dilute 1 liter of infusion in a bucket of water. On one plant - 500 ml of solution.
Pests, diseases and prevention
Among the pests that pose the greatest threat to tomatoes are:
- Medvedka - it is found on well-moistened soils with a large amount of manure. The danger is represented by both adult individuals and larva larvae. Insects make passages in the soil, gnaw a stem, harming a tomato bush. They fight with them with the help of various insecticides (Aktara, Cuts, Force, Grizzly, Konfidor, Bowerin, Medvetoks, etc.). Do not fertilize tomatoes with mullein, you need to loosen the aisles to destroy the eggs, you can land marigolds around the perimeter of the plot (scare the insect with its smell).
- Wireworm - harms the root and stem of the plant. The tomato stops development, withers and turns yellow. For prophylaxis use "Basudin". The tool is mixed with sand and sawdust and buried near the plant.
- Scoop on tomatoes - night pest. The caterpillar destroys the tops, and as it matures, it takes on buds and ovaries. When the fruits appear, scoop does not ignore them. They struggle with it with the help of folk remedies: planting calendula, spraying infusion of arrows and fruits of garlic, tincture of burdock.
The most characteristic diseases of tomatoes:
- White spot- fungal disease of leaves and stem. Red spots appear, the leaves fall, pathogens overwinter on them. To eliminate the disease, a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid is used, in the spring and autumn they destroy dead leaves.
- Blackleg- fungal disease of leaves and stem. The pathogen is in the soil. To avoid the appearance, it is necessary to treat the soil with colloidal sulfur (5 mg per 1 sq. M) and potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 l) before planting. In the event of a disease, diseased plants are removed along with the soil. It is necessary to control that the soil is not too wet and has a high temperature.
- Phyllosticosis - infects the lower leaves of the tomato bush. On the front side of the sheet - yellow spots, on the back - olive. Foliage dries and showered. It should reduce air humidity to 60%. Copper sulfate is used, and the plant is transplanted to another place (if it is a greenhouse).
- Late blight - fungal disease transmitted through air, soil, seed material. The cause of the disease is a lack of iodine, manganese, potassium and copper. It should be treated with 2% salt solution.
- Bacterial necrosis - leads to the death of the kidneys. White spots appear with black ulcers in the middle. The reason for the appearance are high humidity and temperature. A plant infected with this disease should be destroyed.
As mentioned above, the variety “Leader of the Redskins” is quite disease-resistant. Therefore, if you do everything correctly and follow the recommendations, it is unlikely that the above problems will affect you.
Harvesting and storage
Tomatoes have 4 degrees of ripeness: green tomatoes, milky, brown and red. Tomatoes that were going red should be consumed (processed) as quickly as possible. It is more expedient to pick tomatoes brown.
Tomatoes do not tolerate frost, if they are cooled for a sufficient time at t + 4 ° C, they will no longer ripen. From this it follows that, even if your tomatoes are bearing fruit until late, you should not delay their harvesting until the night temperature has dropped to the indicated figure.
If the tomatoes are collected on time, you can significantly extend their use. There is such a way: the bushes of green tomatoes are uprooted, placed in piles with a height of 0.6-0.8 m, covered with roots, covered with hay.
A week later, when it is warm outside, hay (straw) is lifted and ripe tomatoes are selected. And they do this until the remaining fruits ripen, periodically removing the diseased or rotten.
Tomatoes reach well in greenhouses at + 17-24 ° C and about 75% air humidity. The greenhouses are whitewashed to prevent sunburn, and the frost is covered with straw.
Tomatoes reach and in the room, laid out in a single layer. Fruits should be turned over and the room ventilated.
Possible problems and recommendations
There are some drawbacks when growing “Red Leader” tomatoes from seeds in the ground: you need more seeds than you did when you first started growing seedlings, fruiting starts later, and their number is about 1/4 less than with the seedling method.
But, thanks to this method of cultivation, tomatoes grow more disease-resistant, better tolerate heat and cold, and bear fruit to the frost.
There may be fairly common problems characteristic of the cultivation of tomatoes, for example, fallen leaves or fruits.
Here are some of the most common causes of leaf fall in tomatoes:
- the soil is heavily moistened - the soil should not turn into dirt, it needs to dry enough,
- a small amount of sunlight can also cause fallen leaves,
- nutritional deficiencies
- some diseases (white spot).
Thus, having gathered and processing the harvest of ripe tomatoes, necessary for September conservation, you can enjoy fresh vegetable salads from brown, gradually ripening fruits, up to the onset of winter cold.