In any garden you can find dill. Spicy fragrant grass with a mass of useful properties can grow self-sown on the plantation, like a weed. But most often the gardener chooses varieties and hybrids, determines the place of sowing culture. Planting and care for dill in the open field has features. To get a lot of fragrant greens you need to know the agrotechnology of the plant.
How to grow dill in the open field
Any plant is only an ornament of the garden, if it is healthy and well developed. It depends on the type of soil, the nature of watering and feeding dill. On the basis of knowledge about the culture, the place of sowing is selected.
So, for dill requires:
- neutral light soil
- sunny or slightly shaded planting place,
- deep topsoil
- moderate watering without stagnant water
- timely balanced feeding.
At the same time, dill develops poorly and turns red on acidic soil and turns yellow on alkaline. For dill health it is necessary to have a good humus layer of soil. Fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers when growing dill in the open field will help get a lot of vitamin greens.
Terms of sowing seeds and soil preparation
Sowing dill seeds to produce herbs and seeds can be podzimnym and early spring. For greenery and umbrellas for salting, you can sow the seeds during the whole season until mid-August. In the future, cold-resistant culture, falling under brief frosts, does not die, but loses its decorative foliage, it becomes red and dried.
Dill should not be placed on the soil after liming and making dolomite flour. It is impossible when sowing seeds and in the future to sprinkle with a bed of ashes against pests. Sour marshy soil is detrimental to dill.
Dill soil is prepared in a place open to the sun with a deep digging. At the same time for each square of the earth should be made a bucket of humus or compost, two tablespoons of superphosphate and a spoonful of potassium sulfate. No ash is added to the crop. With a high standing of groundwater, the bed is raised higher. The predecessors of dill can be any plant, except for celery.
Seeds germinate at a soil temperature of 5-7 degrees, while maintaining a brief decrease in temperature. Preliminary preparation of seeds for quick germination consists in the destruction of the covering layer. How to plant dill seeds in open ground depends on the season. So, podzimny sowing make seeds without pre-treatment. It is not necessary to accelerate the seedlings with early sowing. In this case, the optimum time for germination is suggested by the biological calendar of the plant set by nature.
If sowing is carried out later, when return frost is not possible, seedlings can be obtained earlier. To do this, pre-seed germinated within 4 days. In a warm place in a linen cloth, the seeds are naklonut, and shoots appear in a week. You can hold the seed in advance in growth stimulants, ash extract. Water when soaking seeds is replaced 2 times a day.
If you grow dill seedlings, the plant development will accelerate. Seedlings are planted in the evening and in a few days pritenyut. Plant survival is good.
Sowing should be carried out to a depth of 2 cm on the previously spilled hot solution of manganese grooves. The distance between the seeds is 5 cm, between the grooves is 20. You can plant dill seeds in open ground as a compaction culture among other vegetables, leaving enough space for its development. For receiving greens during the whole season, dill crops are made in two weeks. Another way would be the use of varieties of different ripening periods, sowing bush two-year hybrids.
Growing dill in the open field
In order for dill to develop well it needs nitrogen fertilizers. But spicy greens accumulate nitrate compounds, which makes it less healing. Therefore, the best will be to feed the plant fermented for five days with nettle infusion. This is a good nitrogen supplement and does not tolerate aphid. You can immediately perform the protection of the plant and its feeding. Use insecticides in dill can not.
To repel and remove aphid colonies on a vegetable bed, spraying with a solution of an alcohol liquid can be applied. If you use 2 tablespoons of Troy per 10 liters of water, spraying will drive the pest. Alcohol should be only crude ethyl, with fusel odor or fragrance. Aphids will fall, it needs to be covered with earth.
Another way to prevent the main pest of dill greens will be sowing a few thyme bushes, the smell of which will scare away aphids. In addition, you can use liquid fertilizer organic fertilizer, saltpeter. But it should be noted that fungal diseases, rot, develop on wet, nitrogen-rich soils. It is necessary to keep a balance, do not overfeed, do not flood the plant, after each watering loosen the soil, delivering oxygen to the lower layers.
How to grow dill in the open ground, if there are changes in the color of openwork foliage. If the twigs acquire yellowness, you need to feed the plant with saltpeter, watering at the root. Red bottom leaves signal phosphorus deficiency. Bush wilted, despite watering, you need to remove the diseased plant and determine the cause. Often this is due to root rot with improper care. To save such a plant is already impossible, you need to take measures so that the infection does not spread to neighboring bushes.
Useful properties of dill
Greens can be used as they grow. The grass gets the greatest aroma during the formation of the inflorescence, before its opening. At this time, and harvested fragrant greens for winter use. The substances contained in this spicy greens have a beneficial effect on the body in small quantities.
In addition to cooking, where dill is indispensable, it is used for medicinal purposes:
- reduces pressure in hypertensive patients,
- improves the digestive tract,
- has an analgesic effect
- improves the urogenital system,
- improves lactation.
Dill oil and seeds are used with special properties in the use of both drugs. However, you can not abuse the fresh herbs, you can bring your body to a reduced tone and drowsiness.
Dill: a description of herbal seasoning
Dill (Anéthum) refers to annual umbrella plants. Dill has a dark green straight stalk (height from 40 to 150 cm), covered with very thin grooves. At the top of the stem branches. The leaves are pinnate four times (the last lobes are in the form of threads). From June to July, flowering occurs: dill flowers are collected in inflorescences and form a large umbrella (up to 15 cm) of 25-50 rays. The color of the petals is yellow. Seeds (up to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide) fully ripen in September.
The content of vitamins B2, B6, C, A, P, PP, macro-and micronutrients (magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), acids (oleic, palmitic, petroselinic), flavonoids dill occupies one of the leading places among garden cultures. It is especially rich (primarily seeds - up to 4%) with essential oils.
Did you know?Dill enhances blood formation in the body, has a disinfecting effect on the gastrointestinal tract, urinary system, improves digestion, normalizes metabolism, reduces high pressure. Anetin contained in dill, dilates blood vessels, improves blood flow to the brain. The combination of useful substances and properties, their easy digestibility make dill equally useful for both children and adults.
What loves dill, choosing a place in the garden
Dill does not differ capriciousness. This plant is cold-resistant (withstands slight frosts, and the seeds begin to revive in the ground at a temperature of +3 ° C). If you want to achieve a good harvest of green spices, you need to take into account that he loves dill, and the proper cultivation of dill involves the creation of favorable conditions for it.
Important!Adding frozen dill to salads will spoil the dish - an unpleasant herbal flavor and wateriness will appear. A pleasant smell and taste of salads will be given by dried (salty) dill. Frozen dill is used in soups and sauces.
How to sow the dill? There is nothing complicated about it.
First of all, you need to provide the right lighting. Bright sunshine is what dill like. Open areas are suitable for it. With enough light, dill has an emerald green color, it develops normally. Ideal conditions - solar lighting 12 hours a day at a temperature of 18 to 25 ° C.
Secondly, it will be necessary to ensure the availability of the necessary soil.
What soil prefers dill
Selecting a plot for planting dill, it should be borne in mind that the plant prefers neutral soils with good ventilation and hygroscopicity. Dill does not require special fertility of the soil (for its planting suitable areas on which previously grown cabbage, cucumbers or other vegetables - last year dressing unpretentious plant will be enough).
It is best to prepare the beds for dill in advance (preferably in the fall). It is necessary to dig, fertilize (you can fertilize with manure, urea, superphosphate or potassium salt - at the rate of 20-30 g per square meter). Such a dressing of dill will help to harvest a large crop.
Sometimes dill begins to change color to yellow-green, its growth slows down. These are signs of nitrogen "starvation" of the plant. The remedy against this is the introduction of nitrogenous fertilizer (20 g per square meter).
Planting dill: how to prepare the seeds
Practice shows that even beginners can grow dill early on. Before preparing the seeds for planting, you need to select the variety of dill. Dill varieties vary in terms of aging:
- early varieties - ripen on 30-35 day, umbrellas quickly form, very unpretentious, fragrant, but you will not get much greens from them (Redut, Dalny, Gribovsky, Grenadier)
medium varieties - ripen 10-15 days later, have up to 10 leaves on the stem, more fruitful greens ("Alligator", "Umbrella", "Kibray", "Amazon", "Richelieu"),
late varieties - the time of ripening is 70 days, more than 10 leaves are formed on the stem, give high yields of greenery ("Kutuzovsky", "Hoarfrost", "Ozornik").
When choosing seeds should be borne in mind that we sow dill in open ground. Early ripening varieties are more cold-resistant, they will easily endure frost to –4 ° С. Late varieties - more thermophilic.
Essential oils in seeds inhibit the process of spitting and germination. Reducing their concentration before sowing dill in open ground, will significantly reduce the time of germination. For this you need:
- make a cloth bag and fill it with seeds,
immerse in hot water (60 ° С) for two minutes. Heat treatment disinfects planting material from possible infection,
leave seeds for three days in water (water needs to be changed 3-5 times a day, with seed washing),
remove the seeds, spread out for half an hour in the air. After that, they are ready for landing.
Did you know?The use of a compressor for the aquarium and aeration of soaked dill seeds will help three times to reduce the period of their preparation for planting.
When and how to plant dill
Dill sown in any season (while receiving the harvest). It all depends on weather conditions and temperature.
To properly sow dill, you need:
- on a flat surface of the prepared area, make the grooves 2 cm deep. For convenience, you can use a long board (the distance between the two grooves should be at least 20 cm)
having moistened the soil well, sow the prepared seeds. Dill seeds are usually sown at the rate of no more than 1 g per square meter (so that the plants do not drown out each other),
sprinkle with soil and slightly compacted (for good contact of seeds with the ground). The first two days of planting seeds do not need to be watered - water can wash them away, deepen their occurrence,
A clear answer when you can plant dill in open ground, no. The first spring disembarkation is often carried out after the disappearance of snow, and in the fall - at the beginning of November and later.
Did you know?The healing properties of dill are actively used in cosmetology. Dill is a part of various cosmetics. You can get rid of bags under the eyes with the help of dill infusions (herbs and seeds). Frozen dill water whitens and refreshes the skin.
When to plant dill in the spring
Dill sowing time in spring depends entirely on weather conditions - if the spring is warm and early, then the dates will be earlier. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing after April 20.
After germination of the seedlings, they should be thinned so that there is no thickening (the distance between the shoots should remain from 5 to 10 cm).
Important!Dill reproduces perfectly by self-sowing - you need not to miss the moment, otherwise the whole garden next year will be planted with dill. Experienced gardeners advise: to avoid spontaneous sowing with dill, ripen baskets with gauze.
Planting dill in summer
Summer landing has certain features. This is an opportunity to get fresh greens every day (it is enough to sow a new portion of seeds every 10-15 days). Another feature is that in the summer the garden beds are all distributed, occupied by other plants. There are questions whether it is possible to plant dill and parsley, dill and other vegetables together. Dill does not get along with some plants, for example, with fennel, beans. With others (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, celery) - is friendly, protects with its oils from pests (aphid, caterpillars), improves their taste, increases the fruiting period. Instead, dill uses the fertile soil of its neighbors.
How to sow dill before winter
Certainly popular planting dill in the fall. The purpose of the autumn planting is to obtain the earliest possible harvest of greenery in spring. Autumn planting should take into account that:
- seeds need to be laid 1-1.5 cm deeper than in spring,
seed rate increases by 25%,
the area is covered with mulch for the winter,
To decide when to sow dill in the fall, you need to remember that you need to complete sowing before the start of frost and freezing of the soil.
Important!If the dill soil is not moist enough, it can accelerate the "transition" of dill in the stem and flowers.
Winter is also the time when you can sow dill. To do this, prepare a place in the garden (for example, remove the snow). Dill seeds are scattered on the cleared area (no preliminary seed preparation is necessary). Humus mixed with the soil is put on top of the seeds and covered with snow (as the snow melts, the seeds will gradually begin to germinate). In case of severe frosts, the area can be covered with a film.
Planting dill in the winter and winter allows you to win one or two weeks in obtaining the first crop of greens.
Features care for dill, how to get a rich harvest
Dill, planted in open ground, requires more attention to itself than growing in a greenhouse. One should remember the preferences of dill (sunlight, light neutral soils and moisture) and adhere to several rules:
- feed (if necessary),
- water (not abundant, but regularly),
- loosen the beds
- time to weed and thin out (this is especially true in case of dill planting with a solid carpet),
- do not plant near "unfriendly" plants - cumin, fennel, etc.
Harvesting and storage
For daily use, dill is best picked at a young age, when the height of the stems is 17-25 cm. This happens about 30-40 days after planting. With the beginning of flowering taste data greens deteriorate.
Dill is collected by different methods:
- tearing out the root of the whole plant
- breaking leaves from the stalks,
- thinning with carpet sowing. Higher plants are selected, the rest remain for rearing,
- harvesting raw materials (stalks, umbrellas) for canning - at the beginning of the wax ripeness phase (50-70 days after emergence).
Surplus dill can be saved for future use:
- freezing (rinse, remove water, cut, put into container and freeze. Making dill cubes - a slurry of finely chopped dill and boiled water - fill in small dough cubes. An interesting option is to use them in cooking first courses and cosmetic purposes),
- salting (wash the dill, dry it with a napkin, cut and lay layers with salt in a jar and close. Store in a cool place. There are a lot of minuses: salt absorbs juice, dill loses flavor and some properties. But it allows you to stock up dill without a freezer),
- vacuum (use of special vacuum packaging),
- marinating (pour dill sprigs with marinade - 0.5 l of boiling water, 1 tablespoon of vinegar 6% and 1 tablespoon of table salt. Sterilize for 10 minutes in a water bath and roll up).
- natural drying (dry under a canopy with good ventilation. Can be dried in a room, finely cut and spread out on a sheet, stirring occasionally. Store in glass jars with an airtight lid, paper bags).
Из всех способов заготовки укропа на зиму наиболее «нежный», при котором аромат и большинство полезных веществ и свойств сохранится, — естественная сушка. Сушка укропа в духовке полностью убивает все полезные свойства и аромат растения.
Когда сеять укроп
Культура неприхотливая, можно высевать весь год, зимой – в теплице или дома, поставив емкости с растением на подоконнике. Выращивание укропа имеет несколько особенностей, и для получения урожая нужно их знать.
When planting dill seeds depends on the season:
- In early spring - after the snow melts. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 3 ° C, the greens grow at 15-20 ° C. Shoots tolerate frosts down to -4 ° C. In different regions of Russia, this may be mid-March - early May.
- In summer, dill can be planted as many times as necessary to obtain greens or umbrellas, every 15-20 days. The problem may lie only in the lack of space, but is easily solved by plowing greens to other cultures. It is desirable to preliminarily prepare the seeds in order to quickly come up and manage to produce a harvest.
- In the fall, they sow winter dill in open ground from mid-October to the first decade of November, inclusive. It should stay about 2 weeks before frost, but not more so that the seeds do not have time to germinate.
- In winter, greens are grown in a greenhouse or on a windowsill. Practicing sowing on the ground cleared of snow. Top should be mulched with nutritional insulation, such as dry manure.
Preparation of beds
For landing you need an open place, in extreme cases, partial shade. Culture does not tolerate overmoistening; therefore, it should not be sown near groundwater or where water stagnates. Suitable precursors are potatoes, garlic, cucumbers, cabbage, onions. It is advisable not to plant after carrots, parsley, parsnip, cumin.
Neutral soils are necessary for acidity, on others the green becomes either red (acidic) or yellow (alkaline). In order to get a crop of greens, you need to know how to grow dill in the wrong soil for it. The soil can be deoxidized by making additives such as chalk, dolomite flour, lime, at least 2 weeks before sowing.
Before growing dill in the open field should be in the fall to remove the remnants of the previous plants. If the organic matter is not damaged by pests, apparently not infected with anything, it can be burned, and the ashes can be used as fertilizer or left on the compost.
Before winter, add urea, potassium chloride, superphosphate to the soil. Until spring, harmful substances are neutralized, the soil is enriched with nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. Organic fertilizers (manure, humus, wood ash) are also applied to the beds in the fall.
Dill loves light, loose soil rich in nutrients. In heavy will grow slowly, get sick, the harvest will be small. To change the structure of heavy soil, you can use river sand (1 bucket per 1 m²). Together with him to bring compost into the soil, which will increase the looseness and increase fertility.
Before planting dill in the country, the soil must be dug up to 25-30 cm, previously scattered on the surface of future beds of fertilizer. Large lumps turn, break. For dill, which is planned to be planted in the spring in open ground with seeds, such preparation is carried out 2 weeks before winter sowing or as the beds are freed from the plants growing on them.
Choice of dill
How to grow a good dill - choose a variety suitable for given climatic conditions and time of year. Varieties differ in time of cultivation and planting, external characteristics, scope. There are 3 groups:
- Early - Gribovsky, Grenadier, Redoubt. Quickly emerge, fully developed in 35 days from the appearance of the first shoots. Used for processing umbrellas for seasoning, getting early greens. Bloom quickly, but you can use only 6-7 branches on the greens from the plant. In order to get quick shoots, it is better to sow dill seeds before winter or in early spring, as soon as the snow melts.
- Mid-season - Ambrella, Richelieu, Kibray. Mature 10-12 days later than early. These are universal varieties grown for greenery and umbrellas. New branches grow about 3 weeks, then the plant throws an umbrella.
- Late ripening varieties - Alligator, Frost, Amazon. Bush, give green for a long time, do not let out an umbrella for a long time. There is no need to seed the seeds because of the constantly growing new twigs. Demanding on climatic conditions and soil fertility. For high yields, it is better to first grow seedlings in a greenhouse, then transfer to the beds.
For the cultivation of dill from seeds in the open ground before winter use early varieties. They are very unpretentious, ascend quickly. The first harvest will be 2 weeks earlier than that sown in early spring, but the yield of dill is low, as it blooms quickly, ceases to produce new branches.
On a note! The shelf life of dill seeds for planting is only 2-3 years, it is better to store no more than one year. Good seeds have a strong smell, cool and moist to the touch.
Bush varieties are grown in greenhouses in winter. They can be used for cultivation of fennel from seeds on the windowsill. Late-season more demanding care, so at home give a good harvest. At the window grows a large branching bush, giving all the new leaves.
How to sow dill
To obtain a good crop of dill in the open field should follow the rules of cultivation and care. It is important to choose a suitable place (light, not flooded), to prepare the soil in advance (to dig, fertilize), to water it plentifully.
In some cases, first prepare the seeds for planting, for example, for growing in a greenhouse or on a windowsill, speeding up the ripening of plants planted in the summer, and getting an early harvest. But untreated seeds better tolerate weather changes.
For sowing dill in the spring in open ground seed preparation is optional.
With the formation of umbrellas and seed ripening, the plant can be scattered around the garden by self-sowing. It is undesirable to admit it, since it does not get along well with all plants, some may even be harmful. In addition, high yields from the spice itself will not be. To get a good harvest, you need to know how to plant dill.
Seed preparation for planting
Before planting dill, seed should be prepared. This will help accelerate the emergence of the first shoots, reduce the time to obtain the first green. This is especially important for bush varieties. They need more time for development, they are more demanding on growing conditions.
Seed preparation is also necessary in cases where it is necessary for dill to ascend faster. There are essential oils on the seed coat that prevent it from opening, protecting it from external influences. At preliminary preparation, the oils are washed away, the seeds germinate faster. Accelerated germination is not required when sowing dill before winter.
The easiest way to prepare the seeds for planting so that they can quickly emerge is soaking. They can be laid out on a plate and filled with water or folded in a bag of gauze, dipped in water. Water temperature is 20-25 ° C, change every 4 hours, sometimes mix. You can use water at a temperature of about 50 ° C for disinfection. The duration of soaking is 3 days, a guide can also serve as the beginning of the spitting of some seeds. Next, dry the seed for about 30 minutes. and sow. If you soak the seeds before planting, the seedlings will be earlier than when using dry seed.
Important! Seeding seeds suitable for sowing fall to the bottom when soaking. Splash should be immediately removed, they will not give the harvest.
To speed up germination and disinfect the seeds, another soaking method is used. Pour for 3-4 hours with water, periodically pouring and pouring new, then immerse for 2-3 hours in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Rinse, dry before sowing.
For the same purpose, dill seed soaking in hydrogen peroxide is used. To do this, place the washed seeds in 3% peroxide for 6 minutes, then rinse and dry. You can use and infusion of wood ash. 2 tbsp. l dry matter pour warm water, leave for 2 days. Stir periodically. Infusion is drained, put a bag of seeds into it, hold in solution for 4-5 hours.
Before planting dill in open ground, seeds can be soaked, but it cannot be germinated, as this reduces the survival of the sprouts. The soil must also be prepared in advance. Many varieties do not require any preparatory measures, but preliminary fertilizer and digging the soil significantly increase the yield.
Pre-soil should be watered abundantly and left for 1-2 days. Make furrows 5 cm wide, pour water. Instead of water, you can use a hot solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect the soil. Fill the dill to a depth of 2 cm along the furrow in a zigzag manner. The distance between the future plants is 3-4 cm, and between rows 15-20 cm. Sprinkle with a thin layer of loose soil or humus from above. Do not water, otherwise the seeds will go deep into the ground.