Iput - early ripe sweet cherry of selection of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Lupine. Derived through the crossing of two numbered forms - 3-36 x 8-14. Authorship belongs to M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov. Since 1993, the variety has been included in the State Register of breeding achievements in the Central and Central Black Earth regions.
The trees are vigorous (height up to 4 - 5 meters), raised crown, wide pyramidal, moderately broad. The buds are large, vegetative - with a moderate deviation, cone-shaped, generative - ovate. The shoots are thick, hairless, straight, olive-gray color. The leaves are of large size, oblong-ovate, with a long sharpened tip and a rounded base, the edge of a sheet with bichenate serrations. The lamina is dark green in color, with a smooth surface, undressed, wavy in shape, slightly concave. Petioles are thick, medium or short, pigmented, on each - 2 - 3 pieces of large colored glands. The flowers are large in size, gathered in the inflorescence of 3 - 4 pieces. White petals in contact. A saucer-shaped corolla. The cup is narrow, glass-shaped. Sepals without serrations. The stigma of the pistil is on the same level as the stamens. Pistil and stamens long. Fruiting is focused on the bouquet branches.
Cherry Fruits Iput appear to be attractive: large size (average berry weight - 5.3 - 6.3 g, maximum - 9.7 g, height - 2.1 cm, width - 2.2 cm, thickness - 2 cm), one-dimensional , obtuse, with narrow funnel and rounded tip. The skin is glossy, painted in dark red color, at the top of the berry there is a white dot, fully ripe fruits become almost black in color. The stem is thick, short. The abdominal suture is well marked. Stone weighing 0.27 g (5.1% of the total weight of the fetus), with a pointed tip, rounded base, egg-shaped, light brown color. The pulp is medium. The separation from the stem is good.
The flesh is juicy, tender, medium density, dark red in color. Juice is dark red. The taste of fruits - dessert, sweet, with a barely perceptible bitterness. Tasting score - 4 - 4.5 points. By chemical composition, the berries contain: dry substances (15.6 - 16.6%), the amount of sugars (11 - 11.7%), acids (0.5 - 073%), ascorbic acid (11.5 mg / 100 d). By application, the grade is universal.
The level of precociousness average: fruiting cherries begins from 4 - 5th year after planting.
Flowering takes place in the early stages. Early fruit ripening (mid June). The berries grow in small "bouquets", so they are convenient to collect. In wet years, the fruit partially cracked.
Crops of sweet cherry Iput regular. The average productivity of the variety is 25–30 kg / der. (or 73 kg / ha), the maximum yields under favorable conditions and good care - up to 50 kg / der. (or 146 centners per hectare).
The variety is winter-hardy: after severe winters, the level of freezing of trees did not exceed 0.6 points, the degree of freezing of flower buds - up to 21%, pestles after spring frosts - up to 60%. Resistance to fungal diseases is high, pests are slightly affected.
The variety is self-infertile. The best pollinators of this sweet cherry include varieties: Bryansk Pink, Ovstuzhenka, Raditsa, Revna, Tyutchevka.
The main advantages of Iput cherries include: beautiful large fruits with dense flesh, early ripening, regular harvests, high winter hardiness of flower buds, good resistance to fungal diseases.
The described variety requires root feeding, and produced in three stages.
- For the first feeding, use potassium sulfate with urea (complex). Fertilize before the flower buds bloom.
- Carry out the second top-dressing, when the trees ottsvetut, with the help of special fertilizers for pleasing plants, adding to them organic.
- Feed for the third time after harvesting. Sprinkle potassium sulphate with superphosphate next to the plants, and then pour plenty of water over the soil.
After each watering / rain, wean and loosen the wells.
On a note! Do not use manure as a fertilizer - because of this, the number of buds will decrease, and in winter trees can easily freeze.
In addition, do not forget about the additional feeding:
- once every three to four years - organic fertilizers (during digging),
- three times a year - nitric,
- every autumn - phosphate and potash (also during the digging).
Every five years, the soil should be lime, then such a procedure cannot be combined with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, since this may cause a loss of nitrogen.
In most cases, Iput road cherries are affected by the diseases listed below.
- Monilioz. It is the most harmful disease, which is manifested in the drying of branches and flowers, early falling off of leaves, drying out and rotting of fruits.
If you detect signs of disease, spray the trees with chorus, adding soap to the solution so that the drug does not wash off. Do this very carefully, especially when processing the inner surface of the foliage. When the crop is harvested, remove and burn damaged leaves / branches to avoid spreading the disease.
If we talk about pests, then the most dangerous of them is definitely aphid. If there are signs of aphid development, treat with Iskra (still adding soap).
On a note! So that the cherries are not so often sick and were subjected to pests, regularly monitor their condition, apply fertilizing in a timely manner and trim, water moderately.
Cherry varieties Iput
The most important thing in the cultivation of a garden tree is to choose a sapling that in terms of its growth and fruiting indicators corresponds to the climate and the soil in which it will take root. With the development of genetics, a look at the purely southern plant, which is the sweet cherry tree, has left without a trace. As a result of the work of the All-Russian Research Institute in Bryansk, about a dozen winter-resistant cherry crops were born. Among them is the Iput variety.
By attaching to the genetics of the sapling competent care about him, the gardener will receive a tenacious and regularly fruitful tree. Before you start planting, you need to master the necessary minimum knowledge of the care of the Iput cherries. Then neither the freezing of the soil, nor the icy wind of the tree is not terrible.
Cultivar Iput breed bred specifically for central Russia.
It is necessary to immediately inform the amateur gardener that the tops of the branches are not afraid of thirty degrees of frost. But winter “windows” are terrible for them, when some warming gives the kidneys an impetus to movement. After the "closing of the window" and the subsequent frost above twenty degrees, the buds naturally freeze or die at all, after which there is no hope of a harvest. Therefore, in the northern suburbs, Sergiev Posad, Dmitrov planted Iput need to be careful. In these lands, she is threatened with freezing of the tips of branches and buds (up to 20% of the potential yield). Often the cold lead to interruptions in fruiting.
Gardeners note. All varieties of culture are divided into two types:
Guini - early table varieties with sweet, delicate, juicy pulp of fruits not intended for long-term storage and long-distance transportation
Bigarro - varieties of late and medium-term fruiting, designed for a sufficiently long shelf life, with good properties for transportation
The path refers to the mind of the gini. This factor is a priority for amateur gardeners in the selection of fruit trees.
Tree description, fruit characteristics
Iput has elongated toothed leaves. They have a smooth dark green color, bent inward. The branches grow long, thick and without a gray-brown shade. The buds are egg-shaped. The flowers of the tree are small in size with round white petals, the stamens and pistils are long, located on the same level, the cuttings are short.
The tree is partially self-pollinated. It is also called samobozplodnym. Yield stable average (25-30 kg). Iput is impressed by the fact that it does not have a break in fruiting, as, for example, it happens to apple trees. And its yield exceeds cherry 2-3 times. With proper care, the tree will give birth for the first time in 4–5 years. Sometimes the crop reaches 50 kg.
It is noteworthy that the Iput is very convenient at harvest. This is facilitated by the fact that the stems with cherries grow on the branches of a single point at once by 4 pieces. They are well separated, which greatly facilitates the work of the gardener.
When choosing a site for a sort of sweet cherry Iput, it is necessary to take into account some features of its “character”.
- Loves the sun
- Does not tolerate excessive moisture
- To weakly acidic soils
- It cannot do without a society of pollinating trees.
Based on the foregoing, the place for the seedling should be chosen from the leeward south side of the house. The soil has special requirements. As already mentioned, Iput does not tolerate excess moisture. At the same time, its roots dry up, annual shoots gains weaken (they grow only 1 cm instead of 1 m). Groundwater flow should be at least 1.5m. If this condition is not fulfilled, the idea of planting cherries may fail. Sometimes the owner can not understand why his tree dies. And the answer is simple - the wrong place is chosen. If the quality of the soil can be changed with the help of turf, salinity, loosening and fertilization, then nothing can be done with groundwater.
For a tree, you need to make a small artificial mound (about 50 cm) so that the water does not flood the roots. Drainage grooves that will save the tree during a flood or heavy rain will be useful.
The path, like most plants, to subacid soils. If you live in the suburbs, then planted cherries, most likely, will have to sod-podzolic land, which prevails in this region. Therefore, at intervals of 3–4 years, it is necessary to normalize the acidity of the soil due to liming.
If the soil is light (sandy and sandy), then you need to take 300–400 grams of lime and evenly scatter it with a tree over an area of about 1 square meter. m. Then the ground needs to be dug up to a depth of 20 cm. If the soil is heavy (clay, loamy), then the rate of lime per 1 sq. m is 600–800 g. Introduction of lime will help the best assimilation of batteries during feeding.
In the vicinity of Moscow, the soil is light. In order to verify this, it is enough to dig the ground with a shovel. No shovels at hand - look around. Willow, white willow, juniper, pine, immortelle sandy, creeping thyme, sedum, young roofing, growing in abundance in the suburbs, prefer light soil.
The Iput variety, which belongs to partially self-pollinating (only 5%), is considered to be self-infesting and requires that other varieties of cherries be planted next to it for fertilization of flowers. The best grade for this is Fatezh, which has an average pollination period. Planting material is planted from each other by not less than 3 m. A cherry that blooms with cherries will bring great benefit for pollination.
Given the appropriate care, good groundwork for planting and regular feeding should be expected that the tree will be distributed in height and width. On this occasion, pollinating trees are planted at a distance of 7 m.
For fertilization, trees need to be planted next to each other at least two cherries with different pollination periods. Next to the early flowering tree, a medium flowering tree should grow. And next to the last - late flowering. Then there will be a pollination.
Soil preparation for planting
Proper planting of the tree - the key to its further development. It often happens that one-year-old seedlings, grafted on a 2-3-year-old stock, give the first crop the next year. On the lungs, breathable with neutral acidity of the soils of the Moscow region, Iput road will feel good.
Soil preparation for autumn planting:
- We dig a hole 70 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep
We blend the rotted (!) Manure in the amount of 3 buckets with wood ash (300–500 g) or potassium sulphate (60 g), as well as phosphate rock or superphosphate (60 g)
When spring planting, the soil must be prepared 15 days before planting the seedling:
- We dig a hole and mix all the extracted earth with organic matter.
- The above potash and phosphate fertilizers are used in the same quantity.
- Fertilizers in the amount of 2/3 need to be poured to the bottom and dig with the ground
For spring planting, the remaining 1/3 of the fertilizer is used at the final stage.
Planting landing material
- Dig a hole for planting
- Roots distribute at the bottom of the pit
- Fill the root system with previously prepared ground in half with organic fertilizers (see above) so that at the location of the root system there are no voids that harm the growth of the roots.
- Pour a bucket of water
- Fully fill the pit and trample, forming a mound
- During spring planting, the remaining third of mineral fertilizers is mixed with the land from which the mound is formed.
- next to the seedling, drive a wooden stake and tie a seedling to it with an eight rope
- A watering ring is pierced around the knoll, where you need to pour another bucket of water right after planting.
To protect the soil from local acidification, 300–400 grams of dolomite flour or carbonate lime are added to the podzolic soil, which is the land of the Moscow Region.
Some features of seedlings
The choice of healthy planting material - the guarantee of health of the entire tree. It should be intact, zoned, preferably two-year. The height of the trunk is not less than 50 cm. If during the transportation the roots had time to dry, then they should be cut and placed at 8 o'clock in water. A two-year-old already branched sapling at early planting dates should be pruned to form a tree skeleton. If time is missed, pruning of branches should be postponed until the next spring. The one-year sweet cherry has no branches.
By the following signs you learn that the seedling is of high quality:
- 1. The presence of 3-4 branches over 35 cm
- 2. On the cortex there are no blisters, spots, cracks, wrinkles
- 3. The root system is developed, in the cut root is beige
- 4. Diameter shtamba not less than 1.6 cm
Buy a seedling in a pot with soil. If the roots of the seedling are open, immediately upon purchase wrap them with wet rags and cellophane on top. Planting seedlings do not leave "for later." This must be done right away, at least on the same day.
In no case can not bury the root neck of a seedling in the ground. It should be above the ground level by centimeters by 5. In this position, the tree should be held with one hand while planting, and the second one should be buried in a hole. As a result, the root neck after sticking the landing site will remain in the correct position. In this case, the sweet cherry will be protected from flooding by precipitation.
The seedling can be grown from the stone itself, as well as planted on a two-year-old cherry. But the best specimens are the LTs-52 and VTs-13 stocks bred in nurseries, obtained by vegetative propagation.
Some gardeners from among the experimenters cut the cherry trees in the form of a bowl or a bush. But priority is the longline form. This is due to natural data cherries. The branches of the tiers grow on the trunk. The task of the gardener is to form a cone-shaped sparse crown, removing excess shoots.
For this you need:
- To form skeletal branches, co-ordinating their trunk, avoiding sharp forks and ensuring that the center conductor is 20 cm higher than the branches
- Before the buds swell, in early spring, remove annual branches growing upwards and inwards
- In the period of development of the tree, while it did not start to bear fruit, shorten promising shoots by 20% of their length in spring or pinch in summer
- Every autumn to carry out sanitary pruning, remove dry, diseased branches, cleaning and lubricating with special putty.
When the cup crown of cherries lay 4–5 branches and the tree is pruned like an apple tree. A tree formed by a bush has a short trunk, on which more than 10 branches grow densely and evenly. If the tree branches well, then there are all the prerequisites to form tiers of 5-6 skeletal branches. The first tier consists of three branches. The first two are adjacent, and the third is located 15–20 cm higher. The second tier is 70 cm from the first one and contains 2 branches. The third tier, the last, consists of a single branch, located at a distance of 30 cm from the second tier. Через год после того как последняя ветвь будет выведена, для того, чтобы дерево не выросло слишком высокое, по достижении 4 лет центральный проводник обрезается.
Расположение побегов относительно ствола 45–50 градусов. Такой наклон является оптимальным для скелетных ветвей. This parameter is important to observe, since very fragile cherry wood, when breaking branches, is capable of splitting to the base of a trunk. This can result in the death of the tree.
While Iput young shoots grow vigorously. Those of them that are directed upwards and into the crown should be removed, as they do not bring practical benefits, but only thicken the crown, reduce the penetration of sunlight and prevent the development of potentially fruitful branches.
Over the years, the situation has changed. Shoots become shortened, but the number of flower buds increases. But despite this, the yield is reduced due to a decrease in the life span of the bouquet branches. Crohn thickens, yield drops. The tree requires anti-aging pruning. All branches are shortened.
Unbelievable, but it is a fact. If, as a result of excessive cold, the tree has died, then this is not the end. The tree needs to be cut. Adventive buds form on the stump - future branches of the new crown.
In the harsh northern conditions, the sweet cherry is able to grow and bear fruit quite successfully in the form of a bush. To do this, the central conductor is cut above the fifth kidney, giving the opportunity to develop the lower branches. Saving on growth upwards, trees direct forces to fruiting.
Crown formation and trimming - photo gallery
The path needs regular feeding. Fertilizers applied at planting will last for 3 years. Stone trees are good in growth, if they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. In the second year (and subsequent) of the life of the tree, urea is introduced. Around him in early spring you need to scatter 100–120 grams of fertilizer and prikopat to a depth of 10–12 cm. It will be even better if you pour the ustyine circle with a urea solution three times from May to early June in a proportion of 30 grams per bucket of water.
Remember that overfeeding is dangerous. Excess fertilizer causes increased vegetation of shoots. By winter, they do not have time to become stiff and die.
In the fourth year of life, the roots of the sweet cherry grow and reach beyond the boundaries of the tree trunk. In order not to injure them, an annular groove is formed around the tree, into which in the early spring urea is introduced in an amount of 150–200 g. Then the furrow is irrigated with water. Potassium sulphate (100–120 g) and superphosphate (300–400 g) in granular form are added to the same furrow in autumn or late summer.
In the fifth year, in order to increase the yield, a completely adult tree is fertilized in the spring with ammophosh (30 grams per bucket of water). In autumn, the soil is dug up along with organic fertilizers (grass, straw, peat, humus, compost).
Having entered the fruiting period, to improve the yield, the tree receives urea (200) annually in early spring, as well as minerals of superphosphate (40 g) and potassium salt (30 g) in the autumn. These dry fertilizers are poured into the ring hole.
Once every five years, soil liming is carried out.
It is useful to recall that nitrogen and organic fertilizers can not be combined with lime minerals.
Liming is at the same time ameliorative process to neutralize the acidity of the soil and its supplementation with magnesium and calcium, the lack of which is experienced by many agricultural crops.
Before proceeding with soil liming, the sample should be taken to the laboratory, where they will conduct an agrochemical analysis and determine the degree of acidity, as well as the amount of lime mineral it needs.
The sod-podzolic bowels, which include the expanses of the Moscow region, are mostly in need of chalking. With a professional approach to the issue can significantly improve soil fertility. Wherein:
- Improves soil water resistance
- The soil structure is being improved.
- Plant development improves due to saturation of the earth with microelements.
- Beneficial microorganisms are activated
- Fertilizers do more good.
Cherries, though afraid of flooding and the close location of groundwater, still belong to moisture-loving trees. Therefore, she needs regular irrigation. It is considered sufficient watering that can moisten the roots located at a depth of 30–40 cm. The first time this is done in May, when the tree grows intensively. The second time in June, when the fruits begin to fill. The third time you need to perform moisture-discharge watering in the fall, before the onset of cold weather. In the dry summer, irrigating the root zone is often necessary, regardless of flowering and fruiting. Water is poured into the annular groove.
In winter, the moisture is frozen out of the crown of cherries. But if the tree is provided with moisture-discharge watering, then the frost is not terrible for it. Water, rising from the roots, rescues the branches from draining.
Should be aware of the drainage of the soil, the water should not stagnate. At the same time, the roots should always have enough moisture. Drip irrigation is welcome. If it is absent, then pristvolny circle will save from drying the loosening of the earth crust, as well as mulching with hay, sawdust, etc.
Preparing for the winter
The better the gardener cares for his sweet cherry tree, which grows in cold regions, the greater the confidence that his tree will remain whole and intact. Still, it is endowed with a southern genotype, very different from the nature of northern plants. In northerners, wood has less moisture; natural antifreeze, tar, accumulates in the cells. The way of such protection is deprived.
But she has a caring owner, who in advance will strengthen her immunity with potassium and sodium, tie the trunk to the support, protect the fence from the wind, pick it up with shtambl, and overlay it with lapnik.
There is another great way to ensure the prosperity of sweet cherry in the northern regions - to translate it into a stanza mold, such that the trees grow low and the branches spread along the ground. Stanzey trees blows of fate are not terrible. The killing north wind does not bother them because of their short stature. And with snow, like fur, you can cover the whole tree. In such a "coat" he is not cold in the most severe frosts.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Cherry variety Iput - a large tall-growing tree, which grows up to 4-5 meters in height. The crown has a broad-pyromidal form, slightly elevated, medium in lining. Shoots Iputi straight, thick, undressed, have an olive color with a gray tint. The vegetative buds are large, cone-shaped, the generative buds are ovoid. Iput leaves of cherry are oblong, large, have an ovoid shape: the top of the leaf is pointed and somewhat lengthened, while the base is round. On the edge of the sheet goes dvuyaukorchatchataya characteristic serrations. The surface of the sheet itself is smooth, slightly arched, dark green in color.
Cherry Iput - rather large tree
The variety is zoned in the Central and Central Black Earth regions.
It blooms in late April or early May. The flowers themselves are combined into inflorescences of three or four. Flower petals are white, in contact with each other. Fruiting is mainly focused on the bouquet branches. The harvest ripens by the end of June or at the beginning of July. This sort of sweet cherry is considered early. The full volume of fruits can be obtained for 4–5 years after planting, so the varietal variability is average. Iput fruit steadily and annually at 25-30 kg.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Cherry Iput has its undeniable advantages. These include:
- stable fruiting tree
- high winter hardiness (easily withstands temperatures down to -28 o C),
- resistance to fungal diseases of cherries,
- the sweetness and beauty of the berries.
At the same time, the serious shortcomings of the variety are its self-barrenness, the average level of crop yields, as well as the large size of the tree, which complicates the care and harvesting of fruits. The minor drawbacks include poor separation of the flesh of the cherry from the stone, as well as partial cracking of the fruit.
Tree planting rules
Choosing a place for Iput cherries, first of all it is necessary to take into account the fact that this variety is self-productive. For fruiting Iputi, a pollinator variety is needed that will grow no further than 12 meters from the tree. As a good pollinator, cherries of Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, Raditsa, Bryansk pink cherries and Revna can come out. These varieties bloom and bear fruit at about the same time, which allows them to successfully pollinate each other and improve the quality of the crop.
A plentiful, sweet and tasty harvest of sweet cherries gives only if it receives a sufficient amount of sunlight. Therefore, a place for a tree should choose an open, remote from the high walls of not less than 4 meters. The site should be well lit, so from all existing trees should retreat at least 3-3.5 meters. In addition, sweet cherry does not tolerate excessive soil moisture. Therefore, the place for landing should be slightly elevated, thawed snow should not accumulate on it, and the level of groundwater in the area should not exceed 1.5–2 meters. To protect the cherry from damage and drafts, it is best to choose a sunny space for the tree, which will be protected by a small fence.
The planting of the tree itself can be carried out both in autumn and in spring. When planting in autumn, it is important to leave the tree for at least 6 weeks before the onset of cold weather for rooting. In spring planting it is necessary to take into account the temperature of the soil and possible repeated frosts. Thus, planting a sweet cherry in central Russia is better either in early October or in mid-April. It is better to prepare the landing pit for the tree six months before the landing, or at least 2 weeks before it. For this:
- Dig 3–4 square meters of the plot where you are going to plant the sweet cherry on the bayonet of the shovel, adding 15–20 kg of manure per meter of land to the soil to fertilize the soil.
- If the groundwater level in the area is higher than 1.5–2 meters, build a small mound for the tree 60–70 cm high and at least 1 meter in diameter. At the same time, the bottom of the landing pit will need to be additionally drained with large pebbles by 5–7 cm.
- Mark a pit with a diameter of 70–80 cm and remove the top 25 cm of soil for the preparation of a fertile mixture.
- To remove the top soil, add 900 grams of wood ash, 15 kg of manure, 30 grams of sulfuric potassium and 250 grams of superphosphate, then mix thoroughly.
- Dig a hole about 100–110 cm deep.
- Put the prepared fertile soil mixture on the bottom of the pit with a hillock.
- Cover the pit with a waterproof film on top and leave until the tree is planted.
When buying a seedling, carefully inspect it. For planting are best biennial trees. They should have a large trunk about 1.5 cm in diameter, 3-4 main branches covered with strong buds, and an extensive root system. The branches and trunk of the tree should be smooth, not dry, easy to bend and not break. Plant roots should not contain rotten or dry shoots.
Prepare a seedling before planting. To do this, 24 hours before planting, place it in a bucket of water so as to immerse the roots and part of the trunk. It is better to add manganese to the water to disinfect the wood. Prepare a solution at a rate of 30 grams of chemical per 20 liters of water. Before submerging the tree, thoroughly mix the resulting solution to distribute manganese and completely dissolve it. After disinfection, remove the tree and brush its roots with a clay mixture. For its preparation, take 2 kg of powdered clay and 1 kg of manure, mix thoroughly, adding water, to obtain a mixture, the consistency of a thick cream. Apply the mixture to the roots of the tree and leave to dry for 2–3 hours, then plant the plant itself. This procedure protects the roots from drying out and temperature extremes. It is especially important to do it when planting cherries in the autumn.
The planting of the tree itself is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Remove the waterproof film from the pit.
- Strengthen a support stake with a height of about 130–150 cm at a distance of 5–7 cm from the center of the pit.
- Place the seedling in the center of the pit so that the root neck of the tree is 4-6 cm above the final soil level. The deepening of this part of the trunk can lead to its decay and the disease of the tree.
- Spread the roots over the pit and cover them with earth in layers so as not to leave voids.
- Thoroughly ram the earth in the process of falling asleep to the roots.
- Tie a sapling to the support stake with soft twine.
- Water the tree with 20 liters of water into the groove 5–6 cm deep along the edge of the landing pit.
- Zamulchuyte pristvolny circle in order to preserve moisture in the roots.
Proper care - a guarantee of health and a good harvest of sweet cherries. By performing simple and regular actions, you will protect the tree from diseases and pests, help to survive the winter and increase the volume of the crop.
Cherry Iput grows a tall large tree. Without the correct formation of the crown to care for him and collect the fruit will be very problematic. To solve these problems, the tree has several types of pruning. Kronoform pruning is performed in the first 4 years of tree growth, sanitary pruning is also needed, and sometimes trees need rejuvenating pruning. Since the crown of Iputi is medium thickened, the problem of thinning is not too acute. Nevertheless, it is worth considering this moment and with every pruning think about lightening the crown.
The scheme of crown-forming pruning for cherries Iput is better to choose discharged-tiered. It involves the formation of a tree at several basic tiers of branches. For correct pruning, the following scheme should be followed:
- In the second year of tree growth, form the first tier of branches. The branches of the tier should be located at about the same height (the distance between them should not exceed 10 cm). Choose 3-4 branches directed in different directions. The competing branches of the tier should be removed, and the remaining trimmed at 20-25%. The main shoot is shortened by 20–25 cm.
- In the third year, the tree forms the second tier of 2-3 branches. It should be located above the first tier by 45-50 cm. The competing branches of the tier are also removed, the branches of the second tier are shortened by 20%, and the branches of the first tier are cut so that they are 25 cm longer than the branches of the second tier. The main shoot is shortened by 15–20 cm. In the presence of branches between the tiers, they are shortened by 40%.
- In the fourth year of tree growth, the third and last crown tier of 1–2 branches is formed 50 cm above the second tier. Competing branches are also removed, branches of the third tier are cut by 20% and the main shoot is shortened at the same level. The branches of the second tier are cut so that they are 20-25 cm longer than the branches of the upper tier.
At this crown formation can be considered complete. Then every year they ensure that the branches do not grow inside the tree and do not thicken the crown. Chronoform and thinning pruning is carried out in the spring before bud break. At the same time, the branches are cut to the outer bud, that is, they are cut above the bud that is turned into the outer part of the crown, so that subsequent branches grow from the center of the tree to the outside.
Anti-aging pruning of wood is carried out every 10–15 years. In this case, the sweet cherry is cut into three-year-old wood. If the crown is heavily thickened, you can also cut off the main conductor by 40–60 cm. This will lighten the tree and rejuvenate it.
In the autumn, 4–5 weeks before the onset of frost, the tree is sanitized. At the same time remove all dried, diseased and deformed branches. It is important to take into account the duration of the onset of frosts so that the cherries can recover after pruning.
Cut the tree to spring and autumn
All wood cutting operations should be carried out with disinfected and sharp tools to avoid contamination of the wood, and after cutting with garden pitch or cover them with 3-4 layers of oil paint.
Watering is especially important for young trees. In the first year of growth, cherries are watered every week with 10–15 liters of water to facilitate rooting of the plant. From the second to the fourth year of growth, cherries are watered every 2-3 weeks for 15-20 liters. An adult tree is watered 3-4 times a year: before flowering, immediately after flowering, after harvesting and in the autumn 30–40 liters, given the weather conditions.
Young trees especially need regular watering.
In autumn, sweet cherry watering is carried out for the sweet cherry tree, shedding each square meter of the trunk circle with 50–60 liters of water. This procedure helps the tree to strengthen the root system and it is easier to survive the winter frosts. It is best to irrigate by sprinkling or form in the projection of the crown 3 irrigation grooves 7–9 cm deep each, radially spaced 60 mm, 100 cm and 140 cm from the cherry stem, respectively. After watering, as well as after natural precipitation, the ground under a tree must be loosened and mulched with straw or peat.
An important point in the care of cherries is to protect its harvest from birds. To do this, you can use special nets that cover the tree and do not allow feathered pests. In addition, you can arrange sound repeaters on the site or try to cope with the birds with cellophane bags and foil, attaching them to the tree.
Cherry netting does not allow birds to peck berries
For a stable fruiting, the cherry tree needs regular fertilizers. In the first year after planting, young sweet cherries are not fertilized, since all the necessary substances were laid in the planting pit. Молодые деревья со второго по пятый год роста удобряют до цветения аммиачной селитрой под перекопку по 15 гр на каждый квадратный метр площади в проекции кроны и 10 гр мочевины на 20 литров воды в мае после цветения. Для взрослых деревьев дозу минеральных удобрений удваивают.
Минеральные удобрения позволяют черешне давать обильный урожай
Также черешня нуждается в органических удобрениях. Они закладываются осенью на второй и четвёртый год роста дерева, а затем каждые 3 года. To fertilize the projections of the crown, they form grooves 7–9 cm deep and 15 cm wide, in which 15–20 kg of manure (two-year-old), 20–30 kg of compost or humus are laid, or they pour the mother brood of chicken manure. To prepare the stock solution for a young tree, take 1 kg of dry litter per 7 liters of water and draw for 5 days, and then further diluted with 15 liters of water. For an adult tree, take 3 kg of litter. The fertilizers put in grooves from above are sprinkled with earth. This method of application provides a uniform flow of nutrients to the tree, and also protects the roots from burns.
Preparing for the winter
Although Iput is a winter-hardy variety of sweet cherries, the tree needs preparation for the winter season. Such preparation is especially important for young trees. For wintering cherries perform the following operations:
- Pristvolny circle cleaned of leaves, branches, weeds and grass, and then dug up to destroy the pests that overwinter in the earth.
- The trunk of the tree and 30% of the branches of the lower tier each are whitened with a solution of 150 grams of copper sulfate, 0.5 kg of lime and 1 kg of powdered clay, diluting the components in 15 liters of water for young trees and in 7 liters for adults. Such a difference in concentration is important in order not to burn the trunk of young trees. This operation protects the tree from diseases, pests and rodents, and also makes it possible to avoid sunburn in the spring.
- The pristvolny circle is mulched with peat or sawdust for 15–20 cm, and in the spring, when establishing a positive night temperature, the layer of mulch must be removed to avoid rooting of the roots.
- Trees can be additionally warmed with fir spruce branches.
Properly prepared for winter, the tree will be protected from frost and pests, therefore, it will wake up faster in spring and give a better and bountiful harvest.