Growing garlic in different countries and regions differs significantly due to differences in soil and climatic conditions. Gardeners have to take into account the adaptability of the variety to the conditions of a particular region, the amount of seed, the timing of planting. Today we will talk about when to plant garlic for the winter in Ukraine, what conditions require planting.
Features of the cultivation of garlic in Ukraine
The soils of Ukraine are fertile black soil, therefore, a minimum amount of fertilizer is needed to feed the plants. The climate of this country is temperate, without critically low temperatures, unexpected frosts. Planting garlic for the winter does not require additional weatherization of beds. Regular mulching is sufficient.
There are many varieties of garlic that have been bred specifically for this region. The varieties "Ukrainian purple" and "Ukrainian white" have large, dense onions. The yield of varieties - 20 tons per hectare. The variety "Lyubasha" with proper care is characterized by high yield, can yield 35 tons per hectare.
The variety "Spas", despite the low weight of the bulbs, gives 20 tons per hectare. It is considered resistant to pests. Is not subject to fungal diseases and grade "Purple Kharkov". It is often used for conservation, grown for home use. Harvest - 100 kg per hundred.
Garlic Planting Rules
Planting time of garlic in Ukraine is the main issue that worries most novice gardeners. It is believed that the garlic should be planted at the end of September, when the air temperature will reach 12-15 degrees. In some parts of the country this temperature is set sooner or later. Approximate calculation should be done in such a way that a month and a half has passed from the moment of planting the crop to frost.
Such a period is needed by the plant to strengthen the root system, which is necessary for wintering and further growth. If winter garlic has time to plant seedlings before winter, do not worry. In Ukraine, not so severe frosts to kill garlic. It will only say that the garlic has got accustomed, and in the spring will please a good harvest.
According to the planting scheme of winter garlic in Ukraine, the following factors can be identified that affect the growth and yield of the crop.
- Novice gardeners need to know that when the temperature drops below 1-3 ° below zero, the growth of roots stops.
- At a temperature of + 3-5 ° the garlic stalks stop growing.
- Dental plants form at + 15-20 °.
- For normal growth and maturation, the culture requires a temperature of + 20-25 °.
The timing of planting winter garlic
Terms of planting garlic are determined depending on the region of Ukraine, they are constantly shifting due to climate change.
- In the northeast of the country - the last decade of September.
- In the west and in the center of the country - the first half of October
- Cultivation in the south of Ukraine - the second half of October.
Even if all the rules of planting and timing are observed, weather conditions may affect the amount of the crop:
- early frosts,
- dry soil in the fall,
- small amount of snow.
Deadline for planting winter garlic
The end of October can be called the last possible date for planting winter garlic. After that, frosts occur, in the absence of snow garlic can die. For many gardeners, the lunar calendar is the main reference point. Judging by the lunar calendar, the garlic should be planted with the waning moon while in the constellations of Capricorn, Pisces or Taurus.
The best time for planting dry garlic, which did not pass the soaking stage, is the last decade of September. Those who missed this time, we can recommend to use another method of landing. The teeth are soaked in a solution of humate for 2 hours, then they are poured with sawdust, moistened with a solution. All put in a warm place for 2 days. On the teeth should appear the beginnings of roots. Such garlic can be planted after the deadline. The soil will need to be watered with warm water and mulched with dry peat and sawdust.
Choosing a place for landing
You should not plant garlic in one bed every year. Every year it is better to change the place, returning to the old after 3-4 years. It is important to consider which crops grew in the area where the garlic will be planted. It grows best after pumpkin, legumes, early green crops, cabbage. The beds should be cleared two weeks before the expected date of planting. It should be noted that after bulbous crops, tomatoes and potatoes, garlic does not grow well.
Planting winter garlic
Super sandy soils are better suited for planting winter garlic. 2 weeks before planting, the beds are dug up to a depth of 25 cm. Humus is introduced into the soil. On 1 square. meter will need 5-6 kilograms of humus. Potassium salt (20 grams), superphosphates (30 grams) is added.
Healthy garlic cloves are selected. From the head they need to be separated before the landing. Do not do this in advance, dried teeth will lose their ability to germinate. If the quality of garlic is in doubt, rot is noticed, damage is worth soaking the garlic briefly in a saturated solution of potassium permanganate.
Rows are determined on the garden bed, the recommended distance between rows is 11-14 cm. If you plant garlic randomly in the ground, its growth and formation of the root system will be difficult. In order for the bulb to form correctly, it is necessary to place the clove into the ground with the pointed end up. Experts do not recommend planting garlic too deep, but it should not be very close to the surface. Planted garlic is covered with a layer of peat or sawdust 5 cm, brushwood can be spread out so that it keeps snow in the beds.
Winter garlic planted. Now we need to wait for spring, when the mulch, brushwood is removed. After garlic comes up, it requires a certain amount of care. Care is in watering the plant at the time of active growth, timely weeding from weeds, feeding urea in early spring, in summer bird droppings.
Planting garlic in the fall in Ukraine has a number of advantages over that planted in the spring, for example:
- this garlic is used in food all summer and spring,
- cloves larger, higher yields
- its varieties are less likely to be affected by pests,
- the beds planted in the fall do not need additional weeding, because the crop springs up before the weeds,
- no need for watering, rain and snow do their job.
Before planting the teeth for 3-4 days, they must be soaked in ordinary warm water for two hours. After which the teeth placed in a package with sawdust or sand. Place the bag at the heat source and after 2–3 days, when the green sprouts turn on, plant in the ground.
Now you need to make a series. They are recommended to mark at a distance of 10−15 cm. The distance between the teeth 7−8 cm. The depth of the rows is not too superficial, but not deep. Rows shed warm water and start planting seeds.
For the correct formation of the bulb the tooth is placed in the ground sharpsprouted end up, strictly perpendicular to the ground. It must be firmly pressed to the ground. After, cover the bed with a layer of peat, sawdust or twigs. This is so that the snow lingers on the beds and harbors seedlings.
After the snow melts, you must remove the cover from the garden and take care of the seedlings. Care is weeding, watering, fertilizer droppings or urea. The arrows of the plant in the process of growth must be cut off, otherwise a good large harvest can not be expected. This is done when the arrow reaches a height of 10 cm. A little later, the upper layer of the earth is otgrebayut, which allows the fruit to ripen and fill faster. Willingness to harvest is determined by the leaves. If the lower leaves are yellow - it's time to collect.