This variety appeared by natural breeding and is not grown for commercial purposes.
- Characteristic: the pros and cons of the variety
- Features of growing
- Landing place
- Soil requirements
- Landing technology
- How to choose the seedlings
- When to plant a variety
- Landing process
- How to care
- How to water the fruit tree
- Soil care
- Feeding the apple
- Pruning varieties
- Breeding features
- Harvesting and storage
- How to prepare an apple tree for winter
Characteristic: the pros and cons of the variety
The tree has a branched crown and very branchy branches, rather dense foliage. Fruits are small or medium in size, have a spherical, slightly flattened shape.
The advantages of apple varieties "Moscow pear" include:
- frost resistance - can withstand temperatures up to -50 ° C,
- early variety - fruits ripen by early August,
- high yield
- fruiting for 5-6 years after planting,
- high content in fruits of vitamins of group C and B, pectins.
Despite the large number of positive qualities, this variety has its drawbacks:
- apples are not suitable for long-term storage,
- trees do not tolerate drought,
- susceptibility apple scab,
- fruit ripening on one tree is uneven.
Features of growing
Apple tree of this variety is quite unpretentious, because originated naturally, and not by artificial selection. However, to get a good harvest, you need to follow certain rules.
An important factor is the choice of landing site. It is desirable if it will be some kind of elevation. Otherwise, you need to organize the drainage: the tree does not like an excess of moisture. It is also recommended to choose a sunny place.
The most suitable soil for the Moskovskaya Pearka is slightly acidic, preference is given to soddy soil, super sandstone or chernozem.
In order for the Moscow Pearl to take root normally and eventually give a good harvest, it is necessary to follow certain rules of planting and cultivation, as well as to take a responsible approach to the selection of seedlings.
How to choose the seedlings
Before buying carefully inspect the seedling, the trunk should be smooth, without flaws. Also pay attention to the root neck, and more precisely, to a slight bend in the area. It has a prolonged wound - a trace from the stock. If this wound is not healed, it is highly likely that the seedling is affected by the fungus.
When to plant a variety
The optimum time for planting seedlings is the end of April or the first half of autumn. At a later time, night frosts may occur, so if you do not have time to land, it is better to postpone this business until spring.
A hole under a sapling is dug not less than 70 cm deep and about 1 meter wide. Three days before landing, humus is placed at 1/3 of its height, and mineral fertilizers are added. Then the mixture needs to be loosened, fill the ground and form a tubercle.
How to care
In the first year after planting, from 80 to 100% of flowers are removed from the tree, thus the probability that the tree will take root is much increased.
How to water the fruit tree
For good growth, the apple tree must be watered up to 2-3 times a week during dry periods. It is preferable in the evenings by sprinkling. Before watering the ground around the trunk should be loosened. At one time it is recommended to pour out about 30 liters of water. Watering is stopped by the end of August in order for the tree to slow down growth and start preparing for winter.
Around the tree should definitely equip pristvolny circle. It is necessary from time to time to loosen, weed from weeds. Do not plant in this area any other plants, it can be separated curb tape.
In the spring it is recommended to feed trees with mineral and organic fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers are best applied in the summer after fruit ovary. Fertilizers are applied about four times per season according to the following schedule:
- end of april
- before flowering,
- during fruit ripening,
- in the fall, after harvest.
Pruning of trees is carried out with the aim of forming a crown, removing dry branches and increasing the number of fruit-bearing ones, as well as preparing the tree for wintering. Pruning is carried out in autumn and winter. Places cuts treated garden pitch.
Variety "Pear" is considered samobzlodnym, and for the ovary of the fruit in the garden must be present trees of another variety. Optimal pollinators are Anis Striped, Bellefle-Kitaika, Antonovka, Korichnoe and Papirovka. These varieties must grow no farther than 60 meters from the “Pear”, in which case the bees can easily carry pollen from one tree to another.
Apples "Grushovka Moscow" - an early summer variety. The trees of the “Pear Tree” are large with a dense crown, which is pyramidal in young trees and spherical in mature trees. The bark is colored orange-yellow.
Smooth bark on the shoots has a dark cherry color. The leaves are large, yellowish. Blooming apple tree pale pink flowers. Fruits, shaped like a turnip, small (50 g each) with a smooth skin. They are colored in yellow-green with a blurry blush and pink speckled stripes on it. The flesh is white with yellowness, friable, juicy, tender, aromatic, has a sweet-sour taste. The first apples appear in early August. And they do not ripen at the same time, but for a couple of weeks and are prone to shedding.
The description of the merits of the variety is reduced to good tolerance of cold, high-yielding, early maturation.
The disadvantages include: not the best presentation of the fruit, their ripened maturity, susceptibility to scab, poor transportability.
The nutritional value
The content of nutrients in apples "Grushovka Moskovskaya" is the following: sugar - 9%, acids - 0.9%, ascorbinka - 9.2 mg per 100 g, P-active substances - 129 mg per 100g.
These apples normalize digestion, are useful for anemia, vitamin deficiency, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Apples "Pear" make juice, which is recommended to drink for diseases of the bladder, kidneys, liver, acute bronchitis and nervous diseases.
However, Moscow Grushovka is a rather sour variety of apples, therefore, after eating, you should brush your teeth or rinse your mouth so that the tooth enamel does not collapse. This should be done after drinking juices and mashed potatoes from these apples.
You can not eat these apples to people with a sensitive system of digestion and with symptoms of stomatitis.
Comparative characteristics of varieties "Pears"
"Grushovka moscow" was the basis for other varieties.
- "Winter Pear" differs from it in larger fruits. The collection of this variety of apples is carried out in October. These fruits are more hedgehog, can be stored for several months. The variety is very productive. At least 100 kg of fruits are harvested from the tree. They are larger than the Moscow pear. This variety did not receive wide distribution, since it is rather low winter hardiness, and disease resistance in these apple trees is also low. You can meet them in Central Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, but the variety can grow further south.
- Reviews of specialists say that the most successful variety is “Early Beer” or “improved”. The fruits of this variety are twice as large as those of the progenitress. Productivity reaches up to 200 kg from a tree. The variety is resistant to scab, has good winter hardiness. Apples appear at the end of August. But ripen non-simultaneous. Yes, and apple fruit is irregular, and a year later. Therefore, this variety is used only in amateur gardening and is common in most areas of the European part of Russia.
Most of all the apple tree "Pear" loves brightly lit places, then the fruits of it ripen sweet. Apple trees do not tolerate stagnant water. Therefore, it is better to plant them on a mound or provide for drainage of the soil. It is better to choose soils with slightly acidic sod, light loamy, sandy loam, sod-podzolic or leached chernozem. The best landing time is either in late April – early May or in September – early October.
Before spring planting, the autumn preparatory work is carried out:
- Dig a hole up to 1 m wide and 70 cm deep.
- Manure or humus is introduced into it so that he can perepret before planting.
Apple planting is carried out as follows:
- 3-4 days before, 30 kg of humus are introduced into the pit, making an indentation for the roots.
- A support stake is driven into the pit on the north side, which will protect the tree from frost and burns.
- If a tree has bare roots, then leaves are cut from it, leaving only a couple of them on each branch. Roots should not be cut.
- Along the edges of the pit do earthen roller.
- After planting, 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the hole.
- When water is absorbed, the wells mulch with humus or compost.
Apple "Grushovka" need the following farming practices to care for them:
- Early in spring, trees are fed with organic (manure, humus) and mineral (urea) fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers are best applied at the beginning of summer, when the fruits began to set in. The composition of fertilizers determines the composition of the soil itself.
- From the young tree after the first flowering, most of the flowers should be cut off so that it develops better. Also cut off half the unripe fruit. Then the rest of the apples will be bigger and sweeter.
- Watering should be once a week at the rate of at least two buckets on a tree. If the summer is not dry, then watering is finished in August so that the tree does not grow, but prepare for winter.
- For the winter, horse manure is added to increase the winter hardiness of the trees.
Apple-tree Grushovka Moskovskaya: variety description
This variety originated in the process of natural evolution. The tree grows large, high (up to 8 m) with a rather lush pyramidal (in young) or rounded (in mature trees) crown. Shoots from this apple smooth-barked, dark cherry color. The leaves are quite large, green with a yellowish tinge. The apple-tree blooms with pale pink buds (by May), which, dissolving, turn into white lush flowers. Fruits ripen small, round. The color of apples is the most diverse: from pale yellow with pinkish strokes on the surface, to yellow red with ruddy barrels. The skin of the fruit is thin, smooth, like polished wax. The flesh is yellowish, friable, sweet, very juicy. If the fruit overrides, then the flesh becomes powdery.
Council Since the fruits of the apple tree Pears of Moscow contain a considerable amount of ascorbic acid, it is necessary to use them with caution, as you can damage the tooth enamel. After tasting fresh apples, do not forget to rinse your mouth with water or brush your teeth.
Grushovka Moscow early ripe summer variety, which gives the first crop in the second half of August, but due to the unevenness of fruit ripening, the fruiting process is delayed until the end of the month. This variety has an incredible durability - up to 50 years and yield - up to 200 kg from one tree.
Unfortunately, in commerce it is not used because of poor keeping quality (no more than 1 month) and the small size of the fruit. But reviews of amateur gardeners about the variety are the most flattering: they simply adore him for his unpretentious care, rich harvest and excellent fruits that you can enjoy not only fresh, but also make excellent jam, juice, even light wine.
Grushovka Moskovskaya is a self-productive fruit that needs pollination by another variety (the main one, hybrids do not suit it). The optimal pollinators are: Antonovka, Cinnamon, Papirovka.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantage of the variety is winter hardiness. A rare fruit tree can withstand frost damage up to -50 ° C. And Grushovka Moskovskaya can. This quality is used by breeders and they derive new frost-resistant varieties that exceed the maternal variety in fruit size and disease resistance, but they also tolerate low temperatures in winter well.
Early ripening of fruits, without a doubt, one of the main advantages. In central and central Russia there are not so many fruit trees that delight the crop in the middle of summer. And Grushovka Moscow for a whole month supplies vitamin products to the table.
Of course there are some drawbacks too. Short shelf life is probably not a disadvantage, but the usual characteristic of summer varieties of apples. It is unlikely that you will find a summer variety that will be stored for three or more months as winter varieties of apples.
The main and main disadvantage is the susceptibility of a variety to diseases. The main problem is scab. Frequency is also a disadvantage. Better when the apples on the table every summer, and not every two years.
Planting and care
Less sour apples and in greater quantities will be on your table if, planning to plant Grushovka Moskovskaya, you will find a suitable place for her. What criteria are important?
First of all, it is the soil. The best option is sandy soil with normal acidity. Increased acidity slows down the development of apple trees, reduces yields, impairs taste.
Sour apples and at the location of the fruit tree in the shade. The lack of light during the day adversely affects the taste characteristics. Therefore Grusovka Winter should be planted in a weathered place, which is well illuminated by the sun, throughout the daylight hours. Sunlight affects not only the taste. Fruit size is also very dependent on him.
A beginner gardener is always puzzled when to plant a sapling. In the case of Grushovka timing is important. A good result is obtained when planting seedlings in the spring - in the month of May. Or landing Pearsovka autumn.
Experienced gardeners prefer to plant it in September. Beginners should listen to the recommendations and engage in new plantings at the same time. In each region, they can be their own, as they depend on the specific climatic conditions.
Preparing a pit for planting
Properly dug pit is no less important for the development of the fruit tree than the illumination area. Its size should be large enough. A sufficient amount of planting pits contributes to the development of the root system. The better the root, the healthier the tree and the greater the yield.
Based on this, we are preparing a large pit. In depth it should be dug 70 cm, and the diameter should be at least 1 meter. Refueling should not be limited to one fertile land, taken during the preparation of the landing pit.
We need organic matter, or rather humus. Good and cow and horse humus. On one barrel will need at least 3 ten-liter buckets. To dig a hole and fill it with fertile substrate should be no less than three days before planting.
Stake boarding needed. It is especially important in those areas where constant winds blow. Put it in the center of the pit. We need it for garter to him the trunk. The stake should be located from the north of the seedling.
Standard landing requirements:
- Properly lay the roots on the surface tubercle, poured in the center of the planting pit.
- Pour the soil in layers of 10 cm and mix each layer.
- The root collar is not buried. It must be at least 5 cm above the ground.
- Attach the trunk of the seedling to the landing cola using soft ropes that do not damage the tender bark of the young tree.
- Shed planted seedling. It will take a sufficient amount of water - at least 3 buckets.
The importance of watering
The need for watering is difficult to overestimate. If you do not water the pear in the dry summer, most of the ovaries will fall off and this will affect the volume of the crop.
Throughout the summer, until the first days of August, water the young sapling 3 times a week. In August, they completely stop. The last, abundant watering to hold in late autumn.
Preparing for the winter
In the autumn, work is being done to prepare young trees for winter:
- Mulching the tree trunk with sawdust or fallen leaves helps protect the roots from freezing.
- Whitewashing the trunk and skeletal branches for the prevention of disease, removal of pests and protection against frost and sunburn
- Cracks and other mechanical damage to the trunk, branches, cover with garden pitch.
- Damaged over the summer, autumn branches cut.
- Remove all fallen leaves from the tree.
- Wrap trunks spruce coniferous trees.
Timely fertilization is a guarantee of the longevity of apple trees. If you do not make them annually, then the apple will decrease:
- frost resistance
During the season you need to feed at least 4 times. The first feeding is carried out in the spring at the end of April. The second time the apple tree needs fertilizer during the flowering period. The third time - during the formation of ovaries. The fourth and last time to fertilize after harvesting the fruit.
It must be remembered that fertilizers containing nitrogen can be applied only in the first half of summer. To begin to make fertilizer need 2 years after planting. In the first year there is no need for them, since the nutrients put together with the fertile soil in the planting pit are sufficient for the development of a young fruit tree.
What fertilizers to make under the apple tree? In the spring of organic matter - a bucket of humus or humus. For mineral supplements suitable carbamide need 400 g of fertilizer per square meter of crown.
In the autumn it is convenient to use fertilizer "Kemira autumn". Не нужно заниматься приготовлением раствора достаточно разбросать гранулированное удобрения по всему приствольному кругу.
Умалять значимость обрезки не стоит. Только благодаря санитарной и формирующей обрезке дерево сохраняет урожайность в течение длительного времени. Обрезку проводят ежегодно, она помогает поддерживать оптимальную густоту кроны и ее здоровье. All diseased and damaged branches are removed in a timely manner. In the presence of diseases and pests they are destroyed by burning.
Scab and pests - ways to fight
Scab - the main enemy of Pear. It is easier to prevent this disease than to treat it. The main measure of prevention is to keep the tree circle clean. For this summer you need to destroy all the weeds. In the autumn to collect and destroy fallen leaves.
Just in case, you should always have a mixture for the preparation of Bordeaux mixture. When the first symptoms of the disease appear - brown spots, treat all parts of the tree to it.
Apple Tree Grushovka Moscow: video
With a dwarf, especially vegetatively propagated stock, the situation is even worse.
Due to the multiplicity on the part of the Scruff of Pears and the poor splicing on the part of the stock and without proper backwaters, such trees often split completely or half.
Therefore, large plantations lay risky.
On the Internet spread the information that there is such a kolonovidny type. Like, he characterized by increased cold resistance, apples are small, lemon-colored with weak rosy cheekiness, sourish taste.
it another promotion. As in the area of the Leningrad region, because of the short summer, such an apple tree really brings apples, like the usual late autumn apple tree of any other variety. But there is nothing new in it.
This is typical "Synomical" variety name. So Grushovka sell in the southern regions. And because of the peculiarities of development, it cannot grow there normally, which is why sellers resort to various tricks.
Pear, grown in the southern regions.