If you want to grow an apple orchard on your plot or plant just one such tree, and get abundant crops, you should first figure out how to do it right: how to plant an apple treewhen exactly to land in the spring, which place to choose, which scheme to follow, etc. We will discuss this and many other things further.
Did you know?Our ancestors always ate the fruits of wild apple trees. The charred remains of these trees were found by archaeologists at the lake sites of the Neolithic times (in Switzerland). But the domesticated apple comes from the territories of modern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. There and now you can meet the wild apple Sivers, from which comes the popular home tree today.
Planting apple trees in spring: when to start work
The advantage of spring planting is that before the onset of frost, the trees will have time to get stronger and easier to survive a decrease in temperature. The answer to the question “When is it possible to plant apples in the spring?” Depends largely on the region of your residence. For mid-latitudes, the planting period is in the middle of April, and for the northern regions - at the beginning of May. To check the readiness of the soil, just dig it with a shovel: the bayonet should be fairly easy to enter the soil. Do not expect complete thawing of the soil or the beginning of sap flow. When too late planting a tree is not enough moisture, it will begin to ache and lag behind in growth. Everything must be done before the buds bloom. Perhaps the seedlings lose their quality through a sharp jump in temperature. This applies particularly to areas with an early drought. It is very important to choose the right time for planting apple seedlings in the spring, since this largely depends on the favorable outcome of growing the tree.
Important!Trees planted in spring must be constantly and regularly watered. Insufficient watering can cause a noticeable drying out of a weakened root system, which ultimately leads to uneven development of the sub- and above-ground parts of the seedlings.
How to choose seedlings for planting: general tips and recommendations
Having defined the variety of apple trees, you can go for planting materials. Natural markets are not very suitable for this, because in such places there is a possibility of buying the wrong sort or weakened plants that were stored incorrectly. Therefore, it is better to contact a specialized store or nursery. When buying, be sure to inspect the bark of the selected specimen: it should be without damage. At the time of planting apple seedlings in the spring, they should have 1.5 m of growth, a two- or three-year-old developed root system (at least 3 skeletal branches 30–35 cm long) and several branches (at least 3, 50 cm each). In a high-quality seedling, the cut will be bright and juicy, and any signs of pests and diseases should be completely absent. Often, the trunk of the plant at the time of sale is already beginning to harden.
Did you know?On the territory of Kievan Rus, cultivated apple trees first appeared in the 11th century. In 1051 (the period of the reign of Yaroslav the Wise) a whole garden was planted, which later became known as the garden of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. In the XVI century, apple trees began to grow in the north of Russia.
Choosing a place to plant seedlings
Before planting an apple tree in spring, take care of a suitable place. Choose a plot with good lighting (preferably not on the south side). and make sure that it is protected from the wind, because insect pollination will be better, and yields are higher. Also be sure to make sure that the groundwater is deep in this place and over time they will not begin to wash the roots of the tree. Apple trees prefer fertile, light, loamy soils.
How to prepare the ground for planting an apple tree in spring
Of course, you can simply, without any preparation, bury the seedlings in the ground, but then it is likely that they will not take root or the yield will not be too high. Therefore, it is advisable to dig up the chosen place in advance (at the end of summer / beginning of autumn), and immediately loosen the top layer of soil right before planting the trees.
Important!When you decide to plant a large number of apple trees on your plot, a year earlier it is better to sow lupines, mustard, phacelia or other green manure plants on the selected site. Let them grow, not allowing flowering, and mow. Do not remove mowed grass, leaving it on the site before digging.
If the soil is clay - it will not be able to pass moisture and apple trees will quickly wither. To avoid this, raise the surface level by 80 cm, using compost, coarse river sand and peat.
Landing pit preparation
Preparation of the pit for planting an apple can be carried out in the spring (a week before planting) or even in the fall. This procedure is very important because it will be not just a place for the roots, but a nutrient medium for plants for the next few years.
- Dig the required number of holes 70 cm deep and about 60 cm in diameter.
- If necessary, organize drainage.
- Fix the stake in the center, leaving 30-40 cm on the surface.
- Add peat, rotted manure, humus and compost to the extracted soil.
- Completely fill the top of the hill with yamuin.
- Liberally moisten the soil.
Speaking about how to plant an apple tree in the spring, it is necessary to include in the step-by-step guide also the plantation for planting seedlings.
It includes the following actions:
- To begin, place the roots in water for several hours before planting.
- Then, dig a well of the required size in the well prepared in advance (the rhizome should be easily placed).
- Place the seedling in the well so that the stake is on the south side of the plant.
- Spread the roots.
- Water them with warm water.
- Sprinkle the roots with soil before moisture is absorbed. Make sure that the place where the trunk and the rhizome connects is 4-5 cm above the ground.
- Wait for a while and tamp the ground with a shovel.
- Tie an apple tree to a support (near the root and above).
- Water the hole (40 l of water is brought in at a time), and then do not water for about a week.
- Mulch pristvolny circle with sawdust or pine needles.
- Trim to form a crown.
Did you know?When planting apple trees in spring and autumn, it is necessary to observe a certain distance between the trees. It depends on the type of tree. Earlier, most often, they planted large apple trees (at a distance of 6 m from each other). These varieties are planted now, but fruit trees on a dwarf rootstock have become more popular. This is due to their compact size, which is very convenient for harvesting. They can be planted at a distance of 4 m from each other. Colon-shaped varieties are often grown, keeping a distance of 2 m between them.
How to plant an apple tree in spring: common mistakes
So that you can avoid mistakes when planting apples, we will tell you what to consider first.
- These trees grow best in the southwest and southeast.
- When calculating the scheme of planting apple trees, please note that the distance to pipes and underground utilities, gas pipelines, cables, etc. must be at least 3 m.
- Do not alternate apples and other fruit crops.
- Fresh manure or compost introduced into the planting pit will surely burn the roots.
- So that the root system of the seedlings does not dry out, process it with an earthen chaff before planting.
- Securely fix the sapling (you can use the construction not of 1, but of 3 pegs connected by jumpers). Without this, he will lean to the side.
Apple tree — one of the most popular garden crops, so information on how to plant an apple tree in the spring, knowledge of the basic rules and planting schemes for seedlings will help to achieve the most positive results when growing these fruit trees. We hope this article was useful for you and the planted apple trees will quickly take root, and will long please you with abundant crops.
Choice of date
The main question that is of interest to gardeners - how and when to plant apple trees? If you follow the rules of landing, a good survival rate and rooting possible throughout the season.
However, according to experienced gardeners, optimal period for most regions of Russia, are early spring or mid autumn.
Complete information about when to plant apples, you will receive from this section.
In the spring to plant an apple tree is better in late March - early Aprilin other words, when the air temperature is already consistently above zero. On planted seedlings buds should not be dissolved.
At the same time planted trees should plenty of waterwithout letting the roots dry out.
Read more about planting an apple in the spring in our instructions.
The best time to plant in the fall is mid october, that is, two weeks before the onset of negative temperatures.
To protect young seedlings from freezing, seedlings planted in the fall need to pile up earth, humus or compost. Trunks desirable to whiten chalk solution. In winter, ensure that there is enough snow around the tree.
Apple planting is optimal in autumn.
In summer, apple trees are planted. in rare cases. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully prepare the ground for the landing, do not forget fertilize, pay special attention watering.
If you decide to plant an apple tree in the summer, how to do it correctly read here.
When planting several apple trees, the distance between them is maintained from three to five meters. Removing seedlings from each other depends on the variety. Therefore, the question is not which apple tree to plant, but at what distance to plant the already purchased apple tree:
- tall trees with a large crown are planted at a greater distance from each other,
- dwarf and undersized varieties are planted at a distance of 2.5 to 3 meters.
The distance between the trees when planting.
In central Russia, particularly in the suburbs, it is better to plant apple trees from mid-September to mid-October. This period of the year is characterized by high humidity, frequent rainfall, and this favorably affects the development of the roots of the seedling, they have time to get stronger.
Planting an apple tree in the fall Leningrad region principled no difference.
In Siberia, it is necessary to plant apple trees not earlier than mid-May. To grow in harsh winters and short cool summers, you need to carefully approach variety selection.
Large-fruited varieties will not grow in Siberia. Lto use winter hardy varietiesthat can withstand low temperatures down to -50 degrees.
How to plant an apple tree with a closed root system?
If you have already decided what sort of apple in the country you want to plant, it is better to purchase a seedling in a nursery or specialty store. Apple seedlings are better to buy with closed root system.
The advantages of such seedlings are high survival rate, since during planting they are simply removed from the container together with the earthy clod, as a result of which their roots are not injured. These seedlings can be planted at any time of the year: spring, summer or autumn. The question of how to choose a place for planting an apple tree, we consider below.
Tips experienced gardeners on how to plant apple trees with a closed root system, you can get here.
If near groundwater
In lower places groundwater is close to the surface of the soil. Excess moisture can ruin the root system plants, and it can rot.
In this case, the seedlings are planted on artificially raised tubercles up to 70 cm. Later on, earth is added to the hillocks to create a gentle slope.
Selection of apple trees, depending on the level of groundwater.
Expert tips on planting an apple near groundwater can be found here.
Planting apple seedlings
An important condition for obtaining a beautiful and high-performance apple orchard is the correct planting of seedlings. First you need to choose gradewhich should take root and grow precisely in your climatic conditions.
When buying is important young agehe should be no older than 1-2 years. The younger the sapling, the faster it adapts and it is easier to take root in the garden.
So, how to plant apple seedlings? When purchasing seedlings, it is necessary to examine tree trunk. A quality seedling should have straight, smooth, with a smooth bark, without damage, defects, traces of resin flowing. On sapling branches there should be no leaves as with loose leaves, he poorly take root.
After planting young trees it is IMPORTANT to provide them with the necessary care. It consists in:
- preventive works from pests and diseases,
- in top dressing.
The rules of planting apple seedlings you can see on the video:
When deadlines are missed, it is better not to risk and prikopat sapling until spring. To do this, dig a hole 50-60 cm deep (the northern wall should be almost vertical, and the southern one should be flat) and place the seedlings so that the roots of the plants do not touch each other, and the crowns “look” to the southern side. Sprinkle the roots with sand and water, and with the onset of frost, sprinkle the whole plant with earth so that only the ends of the branches remain on the surface.
Spring planting of apple trees in southern latitudes, it is produced in mid-April, in the middle lane - at the end of April, in Siberia and in the Urals - in mid-May. Its advantage is that during the season the apple tree will get stronger and how to prepare for wintering.
Pit for planting apple
When choosing a place for planting an apple tree, remember that these fruits like good light. If the site is sheltered from the winds, this will have a beneficial effect on the crop, since it will be easier for the insects to pollinate the plant. The ideal soil for an apple orchard is light loam. When digging clay soil diluted with sand (2: 1), sand - with humus and peat (2: 1: 1).
Selection of the season for planting an apple tree
Ideal planting material takes root in the new place in the rest period. Trees completely fall asleep in winter, but winter planting in frozen ground is impossible, so it is customary to plant the apple trees in the spring before the start of sap flow or in the fall after it ends. Additional information will help determine the timing more accurately.
Landing time by region
In order not to kill the root system from the cold and, on the contrary, the kidneys did not dry out from the heat, it is necessary to move the tree to a permanent place at the optimum temperature of the air and the soil. The following are average data on planting dates in different climatic zones of the country.
- Northern regions of Russia. In Siberia, in the Urals, in the Leningrad region, it is advisable to carry out planting in the spring, from the last decade of April to mid-May. During the growing season, the root system will produce new shoots, the frosted apple trees will not be afraid of the coming frosts. Planting young stock in the winter is fraught with its freezing, even when hilling and mulching.
- The middle band (this includes, in particular, the Moscow region). In principle, both spring and autumn versions are possible here. The first one is still preferable, since winter here is characterized by sudden temperature changes and gusty winds that are harmful to unviable plants. It is allowed to carry out planting work in the autumn starting from the end of September and no later than mid-October (three weeks before the frost).
- Southern areas. Equally acceptable spring and autumn planting. Towards the north, it is preferable to plant trees in spring (from mid-April), and in the southern regions - in the autumn period (from October to mid-November).
When planting apples take into account not only the natural area, but also weather conditions. In the spring, to test the readiness of the thawed soil, it will be necessary to work a little with a shovel. If the bayonet enters the ground without resistance - warming up is sufficient, you can start landing. If the canvas bends, do not risk it: the seedlings may freeze. It is worth starting the check around mid-April.
In the autumn, the soil is warm enough, it is better not to rush into planting: if you move them by the end of August, the roots will be badly taken root. Experienced gardeners advise planting apple trees when foliage begins to fall. In extreme cases, if necessary, a summer transplant, a tree is dug out with a large lump of earth, they pay more attention to watering, they increase the rate of additional feeding.
It is preferable to perform work on a quiet cloudy day. Under the scorching rays of the sun, youngsters can dry up, and gusts can break thin trees. In the spring evening planting is more favorable: in the morning the soil is cold, and in a day it has time to warm up better.
How to choose apple seedlings
When buying, you should consider several factors that affect the timing of planting and make adjustments to the method of care.
- The age of the tree. In spring, young seedlings are not older than 2 years, and more mature, resistant plants can be planted in the autumn. It is advisable to transplant mature trees closer to winter, when the growing season has almost completely stopped - this will protect the apple trees from death when changing their location.
- Type of root system. Saplings with open roots are more suitable for a mild climate. Near Petersburg, in the Urals and in Siberia, even for spring planting, it is worth choosing trees in containers.
- Varietal affiliation. Crown-shaped apple trees with not too developed root systems are usually planted in spring. During the growing season, the roots will “grow together” with the soil, and in winter they will have to be further warmed. У карликовых и полукарликовых деревьев корни такие же, как у высокорослых сортов, поэтому к срокам посадки они менее прихотливы.
In an effort to acquire quality apple trees, you should not choose the largest of them. In nurseries, seedlings are extracted from the soil with the help of a plow, which thoroughly injures the roots of large specimens. So that they are less sick during the adaptation period, the branched crown will have to be cut almost completely. At the same time, odd-looking one-year-olds and two-year-olds suffer less when digging, because their roots are more compactly placed.
Experienced gardeners are not advised to buy trees in spontaneous markets, from random traders. In this case, the risk of acquiring non-grafted or non-re-zoned apple trees increases. It is much safer to contact nurseries or specialty stores offering customers high-yielding, winter-hardy or drought-resistant varieties adapted to local environmental conditions.
Preparing a landing site
Sometimes they mistakenly believe that an unpretentious apple can grow where it is necessary. But this culture has certain preferences:
- plenty of sun in the summer,
- fertilized soil
- lack of swampiness
- protection from strong winds and, at the same time, sufficient ventilation of the site.
If there is no place on a personal plot with a similar combination of conditions, they should be created. Covering the trees from the wind will help a high fence, enrich the soil - organic fertilizers or green manures, prevent root rot from groundwater - drainage. It is undesirable to have the young where the apple trees were previously grown. From year to year, plants emit specific substances that remain in the soil and inhibit the growth of seedlings of the same breed. Good precursors for apple trees are plum, cherry. On the waste ground a suitable place for a sapling will be a corner where nettle has grown wildly.
Before planting, find out if the selected variety is self-pollinating. If this is not the case, it is worth taking care of pollinators: break up a garden near the apiary or plant certain varieties of apple trees next to them (found according to the table). In the middle lane, Antonovka is a practically universal pollinator.
Features of autumn planting apple
If the climate and the weather make it possible to plant the apple trees in the fall, it remains to wait until the end of the leaves, prepare a hole in advance, buy a 1-2-year-old sapling of medium size and plant it. Up to the ground temperature reaching +4 & # 176С, the plant with the “falling asleep” top will intensively release young roots. The following are the main agricultural practices of autumn planting of apple trees.
- For about a month (in extreme cases, 10–12 days), a 1 x 1 meter hole is dug, to a depth of about 70 cm. The top fertile layer of soil is laid separately from the rest of the soil. In the middle of the groove, hammer the stake so that it then protrudes 0.3-0.4 m above the ground.
- Deferred top layer is mixed with lower barren soil, 1/3 of this mixture is separated. 3 buckets of rotted manure, 10 tablespoons of wood ash, a glass of superphosphate, 4 tablespoons of potash salt are added to it and mixed thoroughly. The resulting fertilized mixture is discharged into the pit, and the remaining 2/3 (the unfertilized soil) is poured on top. The landing pit is watered, the ground is filled after settling
- At the appointed time, the apple tree is planted, after making a hole in the pitted hole and adding some black soil there.
- The roots are immersed in a hollow, covered with earth in such a way that the root collar remains 5 cm higher than its level. The tree is tied to a support.
- Conduct abundant watering (3-4 buckets of water) to the soil better stuck to the roots. After that, fill the hole with earth, ensuring that the root neck is at the level of the ground or a couple of centimeters above it.
After water is absorbed, a not too thick layer of humus or peat crumb is poured into the bottom of the hole to prevent evaporation of moisture. With the approach of steady frosts, the layer of mulch is increased, seedlings are wrapped with spruce branches or thick paper - this will help protect them from frost, sunburn in early spring, as well as rodents. In areas where there is little snow in winter, the trunks are dripped with earth to a height of up to 20 cm.
Features of spring planting apple
- After thawing the soil (about 7-10 days before planting) prepare the pit. In good soil, a depth of 60 cm is sufficient, on poor soils - at least 70 cm. The diameter of the pit is maintained from 60 to 80 cm.
- Carefully moisturize the root system of seedlings, putting them for a day in a barrel of water. Having drunk moisture, the roots will be protected from drying out.
- Planting seedlings in the ground is carried out by the "autumn" technology. The only difference is the higher rate of watering. It is stopped when the soil ceases to absorb moisture.
- Planting colonized varieties in the ridges, first a strip of 3x3.5 meters is prepared for each plant, dug it to the depth of the bayonet. A mixture of fertilizers is spread over the surface: a bucket of compost (humus), 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 2 tablespoons of potash salt per 1 m2. The earth is curled with a rake, sprinkled with earth without fertilizer (layer 60-70 cm). Apple trees are planted in 2-3 weeks, in parallel between the rows between them digging grooves for removal of groundwater.
Nuances and major mistakes when planting apples
As already mentioned, the important point is the correct deepening of the seedling in the pit. If the root neck (the boundary between the trunk and the root) is deep in the ground, the tree will be stunted. With a shallow planting, the roots dry up, because of which the plant may even die. In order to correctly determine the position of the root collar, the lower part of the main shoot is wiped with a wet rag and the line where the color of the bark changes from green to brown is visually determined. Do not confuse the root neck with the vaccination site, which is 4-8 cm higher.
Beginner gardeners when planting apples will help a number of useful tips:
- Do not exceed the dose of mineral fertilizers. Their excess leads to the death of beneficial bacteria, processing useful substances for their better assimilation by plants.
- Invalid laying in the landing pit of fresh manure. Being deep in the pit, organic matter without oxygen access decomposes very slowly with the release of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. These compounds inhibit the roots of the seedling, slow down survival.
- Before planting, the damaged root tips are cut from a sapling, and if they have dried, they put the tree in the water for 1-2 days. To improve contact with the soil, the root system is dipped in a liquid aqueous mixture of red clay (3 parts) and mullein (1 part). In this composition, it is desirable to add a conqueror - Grandis, Rival, Epin.
- Lowering the seedling into the pit, all root processes should be directed downwards or horizontally.
- After the roots are powdered with earth, it is gently crushed with a spade or with hands. Do not trample down a pit or use a rammer.
- Tying the tree to the peg, twine is twisted in the form of a figure eight, so that the trunk swaying during the wind less and does not split. Under the twine on the shtamb they put a lining of ruberoid so that the friction does not damage the bark.
It is not difficult to care for the saplings in the first years: you need to remove weeds and periodically moisten the soil. There are different opinions about the state of tree trunks. They can be kept under the black steam and constantly loosen to avoid cracking the soil. The second option is mulching with dry grass or straw. The inter-row spacing in the summer is planted with siderata, mowed in the fall and embedded in the soil as organic matter.
After autumn planting, watering the tree is done only once, because the water evaporates slowly in the cold season. The apple tree, planted in the spring, is watered 2-3 times a week until it takes root. After that, on clay soils, irrigation is reduced to once a month, and during droughts on sandy soils it is carried out at least once a week. The rate of watering - 2-3 buckets per plant, the water must be settled and warm.
Shelter of spruce branches, strips of paper, mulching manure or hilling for the winter spend the first five years after planting, until the trees are strong. The formation of the crown begin in the second year, in early spring. Pruning branches growing in the shtamba area are cut, strongly growing shoots (more than half a meter in length) are shortened - this technique helps to keep trees from growing in height and to activate the development of side branches. The first two years on young apple trees cut off all the flowers, and then regulate the load, leaving 1-2 apples in fruit clusters.