The presence in the home interior of a tangerine tree is not uncommon for a long time. Fans of subtropical crops have reached certain heights in their hobby, thanks to which representatives of the citrus family today successfully coexist on the windowsill with traditional geraniums and violets. However, some enthusiasts have taken a step further, having mastered the technology of growing the most real tangerine trees in their backyard. Of course, this unusual activity cannot be called simple - it will take a lot of time and effort, so only the most purposeful gardeners will be able to try their tangerines.
Which grade to choose
Despite the thermophilic culture, from the extensive range of existing varieties for cultivation in the garden should choose the most cold-resistant of them:
- Sochi 23 is an early ripe variety with large, very sweet pear-shaped fruits,
- Unshiu broadleaf - leafy tree with a pyramidal crown. Large, flattened fruits have a pronounced navel,
- Pioneer 80 is a medium-sized plant with a sparse cylindrical crown and bright flat-spherical fruits of a sweet-sour taste,
- Kavano-Vase is a very popular dwarf variety of culture. A tree with drooping branches reaches a height of not more than 1.7 m. The fruits collected in clusters have a thin peel and light orange juicy flesh,
- Clementine is a low growth variety with a thick crown and very sweet orange-red fruits.
Do not be upset if the appropriate material could not be found. Using the technology of florist, mandarin landing can be grown out of the stone. The varietal characteristics of such a plant will be slightly lower, but with proper care, the seedling has every chance of growing into a full-fledged healthy tree. However, for seed reproduction, you should not take bright, elegant tangerines from Spain or Morocco, it will be better to opt for fruits brought from Abkhazia.
Growing mandarin from seeds
To obtain a seedling of its own, seedlings are taken from ripe, high-quality fruits, seeds, washed well and soaked in warm water. After swelling, they are sown in a sterilized soil mixture with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. The first time crops contain under the film, which is removed with the emergence of shoots.
Caring for a young sapling of mandarin involves timely watering, spraying, lighting up, monthly fertilizing with citrus fertilizers, annual transplanting into a larger capacity. During the winter period of rest, the pet provides a comfortable coolness - about + 8-10 ° C. Enhanced care and favorable conditions of maintenance will allow the seedling to develop a healthy root system and a powerful trunk. Before transplanting into the garden, the tree should spend 3-4 years in the room. Every spring, with the onset of heat, the young Mandarin is relocated to the open air (in the garden or on the balcony), where he will get used to the natural conditions. In the last 2-3 months, the pet is recommended to arrange in a cool place - on the veranda or on the glazed loggia.
In regions with a mild warm climate, it is not at all difficult to prepare a seat for mandarin - it is enough to choose a sunny place in the garden, protected from cold winds, and dig a suitable size pit. In the middle lane, where the gardener's biggest problem is severe, frosty winters, it is possible to grow a full-fledged tree only in a properly equipped trench. It is long and difficult to prepare it, so you should start to work in advance.
- On the southern or southeastern slope they dig a hole 1.5-1.8 m deep and 1.2-1.5 m wide. The length of the trench is arbitrary and directly depends on the number of plants intended for planting.
- During work, the extracted soil is divided - the upper nutrient is thrown back into a separate pile, and from the depleted lower immediately form a protective ridge on the north side of the shelter.
- The ends and the wall of the trench from the north make sheer. For strengthening and warming them it is recommended to lay out a brick or stone, thick boards are also suitable for this purpose. To ensure uniform illumination of the future garden, brick or stone masonry is whitened, and the boards are painted white.
- The southern wall, on the contrary, is formed by a sloping, at an angle of 45 ° -50 °. To prevent it from becoming overgrown with weeds, the surface of the soil is covered with a thick black film.
- At the bottom of the pit stack drainage of gravel or coarse gravel.
- The fertile soil, prudently left aside at the first stages of work, is generously seasoned with organic matter — manure or compost. A third of the mixture is placed on the drainage and stomped hard. Note! Peat cannot be used to feed mandarin - the culture does not like sour soil.
- The last stage of the arrangement of the seat is the installation above the trench of the gable wooden frame, covered with film, or the polycarbonate roof.
So, the shelter is ready. Moreover, other subtropical crops such as laurel, fig, pomegranate and lemon can be grown in such a trench next to the tangerine trees.
Replanting young trees in the ground is recommended in the spring when night frosts recede.
- At the bottom of the trench slurry poured nutrient mixture.
- Sapling set on vershinku without destroying the old earthen coma.
- The space around the plant is evenly covered with soil.
- After planting, the soil under the seedlings is tamped down, richly moistened and mulched with humus.
- On both sides of each tree at a distance of 20-25 cm from the base of the trunk, irrigation grooves with a depth of 15-20 cm are excavated.
Since the climate in the trench is very close to subtropical, trees take root quickly and feel quite comfortable.
Timely and balanced soil moisture is one of the determining factors for the full development of mandarin. Watering is carried out every 5-7 days, feeding water into the previously excavated grooves. Irrigation water consumption rate - 6-8 liters per plant. In subsequent years, the number of approaches is reduced, and portions of water are increased to 9-11 liters. Every 2-3 days, the crowns of mandarins in the evening are recommended to be sprayed with clean cool water.
Like all citrus fruits, mandarin is very responsive to systematic fertilization, which is carried out three times per season.
- At the beginning of the planting season, water is sprayed with fermented dung infusion or urea solution. The nitrogen present in their composition is responsible for the development of young shoots and leaves.
- In mid-July, granulated phosphate fertilizers, which promote the formation of ovaries, are embedded in the soil after abundant watering.
- The last potash supplement for the season provides high-quality wood ripening.
In addition to root dressing twice a season, mandarins are useful for spraying the foliage with a solution of complex fertilizers.
The correct shape of the tree give the first three years of life. By this age, a young mandarin should have a strong, stable trunk with a height of not more than 1.5 m and 3-4 healthy skeletal shoots growing in a spiral with an interval of 20-30 cm.
Each spring, mandarin is shown sanitary pruning, in which the crown is freed from shrunken, damaged and weakened branches. In the summer, the tops of the shoots periodically pinch, thereby preventing their active growth in length. If a tree blooms too much, branches should be shortened by one to 2/3 of the length, and tear off the extra flowers.
Preparing for the winter
And, finally, the most important event in the trench growing tangerine - preparation of planting for the coming winter, which is carried out as follows:
- First of all, all the fruits are removed from the trees, otherwise, due to the lack of good ventilation, they will rot and serve as a breeding ground for dangerous infections.
- The base of the trunk is covered with fir paws.
- The irrigation grooves are filled with manure mixture (1: 1).
- Polycarbonate roof is removed.
- The trench is covered with a wooden shield made of thick planks.
- The boardwalk is covered with two or three layers of sackcloth, over which a layer of soil 15 cm thick is poured.
The covering structure is disassembled in the spring, with the onset of stable heat. Perederzhivat trees in captivity is not worth it - they will begin to heave out. Fir branches and fallen leaves are removed from the trench, polycarbonate is put in its place and the overgrown tangerines provide adequate care.
How to grow tangerine in the country +
Practically every gardener wants to have a tangerine on his plot, however, the majority refuse to grow, mistakenly believing that in moderate climatic conditions the plant will not bear fruit, or it will not take root at all. However, many gardeners already know how to grow mandarin, who are not afraid of experiments, and this knowledge is bearing fruit in the form of a stable crop of fragrant citrus fruits for the New Year.
Preparation of material for landing
The best way to grow tangerines from the stone.
The fact is that far from always the saplings that are sold in the markets have sufficient viability, and in fact the survival rate and the possibility of fruiting depend on how strong the tree is by the time it lands on the ground.
Therefore, you should plant several seeds to provide yourself with several seedlings. It is better to take seeds from dwarf varieties, for example, from the Abkhaz "Mix" grafted on figs. Excellent grade Robinson.
The best way to grow tangerines from the stone
The first three years the sapling is aged at home - it is regularly watered, fertilized, light up and wiped from dust. Such “greenhouse” conditions in the process of initial growth and development provide not only a powerful root system, but also a no less strong stem.
In the last year before planting, the tree is hardened - in the warm season with a slight daily temperature fluctuation (within 7 ...
10 degrees) Mandarin is put up on the balcony, on the other days it “lives” under the open window, until the moment when long frosts begin on the street.
But when hardening, there is a risk of the death of the plant, so it is necessary to regularly monitor its “state of health” - when hypothermia, the foliage of the seedling will start to fade slightly, dim. The sign that hardening was successful is the juicy color of foliage, its pronounced shape and texture.
The last winter before planting in the ground the plant spends in a cool, but not cold place - this will be the final stage of hardening.
Preparation for landing
When it comes to how to grow a mandarin in the garden, the right choice of a place to plant a tree should be considered the key to success. It should be:
- on the sunny side
- covered from all sides from the winds, especially from the north,
- located far from waterlogged places.
The key to success should be considered the correct choice of place for planting trees
The most convenient way to drop tangerine is to use the trench method. For this purpose, a trench is dug in the ground
1000mm and 1500mm wide. Further, all the bottom must be filled with fertile soil with nitrogen and potash fertilizers to a height of 200-300mm.
Then, at the bottom of the trench with a 4000mm pitch, dug holes of 400mm depth and 500 mm diameter, which are filled with a mixture of humus, manure and soil in a proportion of 5/1/5, a third cup of ash is added to each "liter" of the mixture. The walls of the trench are reinforced with boards.
about how to grow tangerine
A gable frame with a height of 1000-1200 mm is built on top of the trench, on which the film and covering material will then be stretched.
The framework must have an opening for entry, because proper tent care is required behind the mandarin in our latitudes. The film and covering material are superimposed in such a way that the covering material first comes, and only then the film.
This is necessary to maintain the temperature and prevent excessive waterlogging.
Tangerine tree reaches a height of 5 m, and its life expectancy is more than 70 years. Among its sprawling crown with oval and pointed leaves, in the time of flowering fragrant white or cream flowers are revealed. They are assembled in brushes of 6 pieces, which makes the tree look very impressive.
From July on the tree begin to form fruits, which are fully ripe by October. They have a rounded shape and a thick peel of a rich orange color. Mandarin fruits are incredibly beneficial due to the presence of vitamins and valuable trace elements.
The benefits of this fruit were known several thousand years ago. For the first time, tangerine trees began to grow in India around 900 AD. Since then, these exotic trees have spread throughout the world, and their fruits are the most popular among all citrus fruits.
Such fame is due to the amazing benefits of this exotic fruit. The sweet and sour tangerine pulp contains ascorbic acid, B vitamins, beta carotene, magnesium, iron, and valuable dietary fiber. Due to this complex, this orange fruit is indicated for use by people with weakened immunity, and those who have problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
Ways to grow mandarin
Growing tangerine trees is a responsible business, but quite feasible. It is only important to decide on the method of planting a mandarin and follow further instructions for the care of young plantings.
Two methods of planting these exotic trees are popular among gardeners. These include the germination of planting material from seeds taken from ripe fruit, or grafting of mandarin.
If the gardener has enough time and patience, you can opt for the germination of seeds. This is a very simple way of cultivation, which does not require much effort and care, but the seeds planted in the ground sprout only 3 weeks later, and young saplings gain strength several months.
Mandarin vaccination is considered a more difficult job that requires a certain amount of effort. But all the efforts are paid off immediately after the planting of the planting material in the open ground, because it is more resistant to diseases and pests, and the fruits are very large.
The right vaccine mandarin
Mandarin grafting method is good because it helps the sapling to start fruiting faster. To do this, you need to take a sapling purchased in a specialty store, and a stalk from a 2-year branch of a fruitful exotic. The vaccination procedure should be carried out in May, then the landing of a mandarin will be most successful.
Use a damp cloth to clean the sapling from dust and at a distance of 6 cm from the ground make a T - shaped incision of the bark. Its edges are bent, after which a cutting is inserted into the incision. Next, you need to cover the bark of the embedded element and wrap the place of inoculation with insulating tape, be sure to cover it with polyethylene, pour the seedling and put it in a warm place.
Where are tangerines grown?
Citrus fruits are whimsical to the climate: their homeland is subtropic, so they need a short warm winter and a long wet summer.
This rule applies to cultivation in the open field, because the heat-loving tree in the apartment can bloom and bear fruit almost all year round.
Recommendations on how to grow a tangerine at home vary according to growing conditions. Their main differences are that:
- For planting in the garden should be chosen early-ripening crops with small sweet fruits, so as not to worry about the loss of the crop due to early frosts and heavy rains. The development of indoor varieties can be regulated artificially - the choice is not limited here.
- When experienced gardeners talk about how to grow a tangerine, they first mention the landing site. It should be the sunniest in the garden and protected from the cold wind. On the windowsill or in the winter garden is set dosachivanie and sprayer.
Growing tangerines in the open field
If the planting place is nevertheless a garden, the most frost-resistant varieties from the existing ones are selected. Pay attention to the hybrids: they are artificially bred, which guarantees good varietal characteristics.
In the open ground, they grow both through direct planting of seeds, and after transplanting the cutting.
In order not to have to puzzle over whether it is possible to grow a tangerine in an ordinary garden after buying seeds, you need to pay attention to such varieties:
- "Pioneer 80"
- "Sochi 23"
- "Unshiu broadleaf."
How to grow a tangerine in a pot?
At home, any plant is easier to grow, because you do not have to deal with weather vagaries and pest attacks.
It is not worth buying a grown tree from flower shop sellers, if only because plants are prepared for sale with the addition of potent fertilizers, without which a tree can die at home in a couple of days.
The following knowledge about this culture will help you to understand how to grow mandarin on the window:
- From planting a bone or stalk until the fruit appears, at least 2-3 years pass. За это время растение сменит тонкие листики на плотные, будто покрытые воском листья и укрепит ствол, а также корневую систему.
- Правильная форма цитрусового дерева – шаровидная или приближенная к ней. Специалисты, знающие как вырастить мандарин, настаивают на такой форме, потому что она позволяет вовремя выявить болезни ствола и верхней части корня.
- Худшие соседи для мандарина, влияющие на энергию роста и вкус фруктов – ядовитые комнатные растения (цикламен, молочай, диффенбахия или полосатое алоэ).
How to grow tangerine from the bone at home?
Everything connected with the answer to the question of whether it is possible to grow a mandarin from the stone at home is similar to the method of sprouting any fruit on the windowsill. The bones are soaked in gauze for a week so that they swell. Gauze cloth should be slightly damp, but not wet. It can be replaced with a hydrogel that retains moisture. After the spitting of the shoots, they are transplanted according to the following principle:
- In a peat pot with a mixture of base soil and sod land with the addition of clay, seeds are buried 2-3 cm.
- The first feeding is carried out when the height of the sprout reaches 5-6 cm.
- When the mandarin is strengthened, it, along with an earthy lump, is transplanted into a large pot.
Do I need to instill a mandarin grown from the bone?
Without grafting mandarin will surely give fruit, which in most cases will be bitter to the taste.
The guaranteed result of a full-fledged harvest with excellent taste properties can only be promised by graft.
Before grafting a mandarin grown from a bone, the future workplace is disinfected to ensure the survival of the shoots. The manipulation itself does not require special skills:
- A miniature T-shaped incision is made on the stem of the plant, the vertical of which will be 2 times longer than the horizontal.
- From a graft taken from a fruit-bearing plant, a section of a branch with a bud is taken, without a leaf plate and thorns. It is inserted into the incision, and after the injured section of the trunk is wrapped with elastic tape - otherwise, how can you grow a tangerine if it is ruined by an infection? The plant is placed under a glass jar or covered with a package.
- When the bud germinates, the jar is removed, and the incision site is treated with garden pitch.
This variety is a hybrid plant derived from Clementine and Orlando Tangelo. Breeding was done in 1964 by Dr. Joe Fourr in the USA. This variety is well suited for the desert regions of California and Arizona, where it began to be grown. The fruits ripen from November to January.
The Fairchild mandarin tree has numerous extended branches with dense foliage, almost without thorns. For better fruiting of fruit, additional artificial pollination is necessary. Fruits are medium sized, slightly flattened, have a medium-thin dark orange peel. Fruits of this variety are not very easy to clean, they contain a lot of seeds, but the taste is rather juicy, sweet and fragrant. The surface of the mandarin has a smooth texture. The weight of one fruit on average is about 100 g. The acidity of the variety is 0.7%, and juiciness is about 40%.
Variety Honey (previously had the name Murcott)
Murcott variety is a hybrid of orange and mandarin. Grown since 1916 in the United States. Named after Charles Murcott Smith. Widely grown in Florida and ripens in January - March. Trees are medium in size, grow vertically upward, but have curved branches, since the fruits are placed at their ends. Leaf size is small, lanceolate, pointed. The variety is very productive. Tangerine tree can die because of the abundance of fruits, which leads to its carbohydrate depletion. Fruits are medium in size, have a thin smooth yellow-orange peel, which is not very easily removed. The fruit is divided into 11-12 moderately stuck together lobes. The flesh has an orange color, tender, very juicy, with a few small seeds. Trees are prone to diseases of citrus scab and Alternaria fungus and are very sensitive from all varieties to cold.
This variety was bred in Florida in 1979. It was obtained by crossing varieties Robinson and Osceola. The harvest period is from December to February. Fruits have good taste, small size, beautiful dark orange color and smooth skin that does not exfoliate well. Important!The white mesh between the mandarin lobules is rich in glycosides, which strengthen the heart, so it should not be thrown away.
The variety was obtained in Florida in 1962 from the Clementine and Orlando Tangelo varieties. Fruits ripen from November to January. They are medium-small in size, dark orange in color, with a rounded or slightly narrowed base. The peel is removed poorly, so the pulp looks disheveled. The segments of the pulp are numerous (12-14 units), easily separable. The flesh is sweet, juicy, aromatic, with a moderate amount of orange seeds. The tree grows vertically upwards and has a thick crown that expands at the top. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, have notches on the tip.
A hybrid variety that consists of 5/8 mandarin, 1/4 of an orange and 1/8 of a grapefruit. It has large fruits measuring 7-8 cm in diameter. The shape of the fetus is flat, with a small navel. The peel surface is smooth, 0.3-0.5 cm thick, has a dark reddish-orange color. The fruit is easy to clean and has from 20 to 40 seeds. The tree grows vertically up without thorns and does not need pollination. The fruits ripen in September - November. The variety is resistant to citrus scab and fungal diseases, but is susceptible to tla. This variety has a lighter in color and smaller foliage in size and does not belong to cold-hardy.
The variety was planted in Florida in 1867, where, presumably, it came from Morocco. The fruits are pear-shaped, oblate, of medium size. The peel is smooth, glossy, dark orange-red. The flesh is juicy, orange in color and of excellent quality. The fruits ripen in November-December. Was the leading industrial brand in Florida. Its popularity has lost due to its sensitivity to various diseases. The variety was instrumental in breeding hybrids.
The variety was created in 1902 by the French priest and breeder Clement Rodier. Belongs to a hybrid variety created from mandarin and orange of the blood orange from subspecies of oranges. The fruits have the shape of a tangerine, very sweet, orange. The size of the fruit is small, the skin is tight to the pulp. The ripening period is November - February. There are such types of mandarins Clementine:
- Corsican - has an orange-red peel, pulp without seeds and is sold with two leaves near the fruit,
- Spanish - can have both small and large-sized fruits and contains from 2 to 10 seeds in each fruit,
- Montreal - Mandarin rare species, harvest begins in mid-October, the fruit contains 10-12 seeds.
The pulp of mandarins Klimentin juicy, sweet, rich in vitamin C, carotenoids, micro-and macronutrients.
The hybrid variety was obtained from mandarin and grapefruit in 1897 by Walter Tennyson Swingl USA. A large fruit with yellow-orange flesh that has a sour taste. The peel is easy to clean and has an orange color. Trees of this variety are quite large in size and frost.
Did you know?The flag of the city of Batumi in Georgia shows three mandarins.Notable Chinese officials in ancient times were called tangerines.
The variety of tangerines Minneola is a variety of Tanzhelo. It was launched in 1931 in Florida. This is a hybrid variety derived from Dancy's mandarin and Duncan grapefruit. Mandarins are slightly flattened in shape, large in size, 8.25 cm wide and 7.5 cm high and red-orange in color. The skin is thin, strong. The flesh tastes sweet and sour, aromatic, consists of 10-12 cloves, which contain 7-12 small seeds. Variety refers to the late, but if the fruit is kept for a long time on the tree, then at the next harvest the fruit will have a light color. A valuable quality of this variety is a high content of folic acid: per 100 g of product - up to 80% of the daily allowance of a person. The Minneola variety is grown in the USA, Israel, Turkey, and China.
Mandarin Tangerine is a famous variety originally from China. Fruits differ excellent tastes, with a bitter aftertaste, bright orange color, with a reddish tinge. The rind of the fruit is smooth and thin. Have a stronger flavor than ordinary mandarins. The pulp has a sweet taste and does not contain seeds. In Europe, grown in Sicily. The main producer of Tangerine in the world is the USA. There are hybrid forms of Tangerine and other citrus fruits called Tanzhelo.
This variety is often called the Royal Mandarin. Fruits of large sizes have a thick, strongly bumpy orange peel. Fruit pulp is very fragrant, juicy, sweet, with a lot of seeds. Harvest period is from January to March. Important!If the skin of a mandarin seems polished, then it was waxed. This is normal for better preservation of fruit during transport. These fruits must be washed.
Osceola mandarins are medium-sized, oblate in shape, sometimes may have a crinkled skin. The skin is thin, moderately adjacent to the pulp, but easy to clean. Fruits have an orange-red color, smooth and shiny surface. The flesh is yellow-orange, juicy, rich and peculiar, with a small amount of seeds. The tree grows vertically upwards and has dense foliage, practically without thorns.
Summarizing the descriptions of the main varieties of mandarins, we can say that they have significant features and even superiority compared with oranges and grapefruits. Firstly, these are small sizes and flattened fruits, secondly, the peel and lobules are separated much easier, and the middle remains empty, and thirdly, the tangerine trees are much more frost-resistant and differ by leaf petioles, small sizes of flowers, edging of leaf plates and a small amount or lack of needles, and most importantly - an unforgettable taste and aroma of pulp.
Growing tangerine from the stone
For planting it is better to take fresh mandarin bones
For sowing, take fresh seeds from ripe tangerines. Use them immediately after removal from the fetus. Bones are poorly stored and after drying quickly lose their germination. Seeds take a little more, in case, if not all ascend.
Before sowing, they are soaked for 10-12 hours in Epin-extra, Zircon growth stimulants. This strengthens the strength of the future plant, stimulates the development of the root system.
A suitable time for sowing is the end of January - the beginning of February, when the light day becomes longer.
The soil for seedlings need loose, nutritious with a high content of phosphorus. This element plays an important role in early growth. A large amount of phosphorus is contained in humus and compost, so organic matter should be in the seedlings.
The bones are placed one by one in separate pots or in common containers, followed by picking. The depth of embedment into the soil is 1 cm. Crops are watered and covered with a plastic bag to provide a greenhouse microclimate.
At this stage, the seedling is not important light, the main thing - heat. For germination you need an air temperature of 20-25 ° C. Crops are regularly watered and ventilated. After 3-4 weeks, shoots appear and cover is removed from the containers.
Seedlings are transferred to a bright place. If it was grown in a container, then after the appearance of two true leaves, one plant is dived into each cup. As soon as the roots fill the entire volume of the cup, the tangerines are planted in larger pots.
Have you bought a mandarin sapling?
Finished seedlings are grown in special greenhouse conditions. Houses such an ideal environment is difficult to create. Therefore, you need to help the plant to adapt: pre-select a suitable place in the house, to create the optimum humidity and air temperature.
When choosing a seedling preference should be given to young copies in containers. Mandarin should have a small shoot with green leaves and healthy roots without damage. Also, be sure to check the seedling for the presence of pests.
Houses bought the plant must be sprayed with any anti-stress medication.
It is better to buy mandarin in early spring or summer, during this period it is easier for plants to adapt to the new environment. All summer he can spend outdoors: on the balcony or in the country. Young tangerine should be protected from direct sun.
Like all citrus, mandarin loves light. The best place for him is windowsills or places near the window on the east side. From early in the morning it will be lit by warm, but not burning sunshine. You can put the pots with a plant from the south-east, south or south-west side.
In nature, mandarin grows in subtropics with a humid climate. It is difficult in the apartment to provide humidity in 90-95%. But at home, the Mandarin will feel fine and with a humidity of 60-65%.
Simple and low-cost methods of increasing humidity are placing open containers with wet expanded clay or pebbles near the pots of plants. When moisture evaporates, water is poured into the pallets periodically.
But the best and most reliable method of controlling humidity is the use of modern air humidifiers.
We should not forget about the important rule - to keep tangerines away from the heating devices, desiccating the air.
How to achieve fruiting mandarin?
To speed up fruiting will help the use of a number of techniques:
- Presowing seed treatment with growth and fruit growth stimulants. The most popular: "Epin-extra", "Zircon", sodium humate, "Heteroauxin". These drugs help plants from an early age to adapt to dry air, lack of lighting.
- Selection of the strongest seedlings: without crooked shoots, with large leaves and a stocky crown.
- Balanced diet. Regular fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in combination with microelements stimulate fruit formation.
- Nip the tips of the excess shoots saves the power of the plant and helps to form the crown with short branches-carcasses.
- Furrowing and banding - ancient techniques that allow the redistribution of nutrients to the crown and thereby accelerate the formation of fruit buds.
- Graft. Graft - a young tangerine stalk, cut in early spring, connected with seedling seedlings grown from the seed of any citrus. After 2-3 years, a single plant is formed, which begins to bloom and bear fruit.
How to self-instil Mandarin?
In addition to plant material, a sharp knife and a strong elastic polyethylene tape 0.5 cm wide will be needed for grafting mandarin. Several grafts can be made on one tree at once.
Common vaccination methods:
- over the top. The stock is cut at a height of 5-10 cm from the root collar and split 3-5 cm in the middle. At the bottom of the graft-cutting, oblique wedge-shaped cuts of the same length as the depth of the splitting are made. Then gently insert this wedge into the stock. The junction is secured by strapping.
- simple and improved copulation. Suitable for rootstock and scion of the same thickness. At their ends make oblique cuts and connect. Both parts must be tightly aligned when connecting. The junction is tied with a ribbon.
- budding. The cut kidney from the varietal cutting is inserted under the incised bark of the stock and secured with tape.
Why do flowers fall?
- If the plant does not have enough strength and energy to germinate all the fruits, then it will itself regulate flowering and get rid of excess ovaries.
- High indoor temperature adversely affects the formation of flowers. Because of the heat, the flowers and ovaries fall off or the flowering process is postponed to a later date.
- Mandarin can react to irregular watering by dropping flowers, for example, if the soil in the pot is over-dried and then watered with plenty of water.
- Excess nitrogen in the dressings leads to an increased build-up of green mass, few flowers are formed and soon they begin to fall.
Why do the leaves turn yellow and fall?
One of the reasons is lack of nitrogen and iron.
In the first case, yellowing begins with the lower leaves and spreads to the whole plant. When nitrogen deficiency mandarin sprayed with a solution of urea or boric acid - 1 g per 1 liter of water.
With chlorosis - a disease caused by a lack of iron, first the young leaves become light yellow, then change color and old leaves. From chlorosis mandarin is sprayed once a month with iron chelate.
In addition to the lack of nutrients, the leaves may turn yellow and fall due to:
- dry air in the room
- exceeding the dose of fertilizer
- place changes
Leaf fall can be caused by natural causes - the onset of dormant time in the autumn-winter period.
In dry air, the spider mite is the most sworn enemy. Its presence can be determined by the thin white web on the shoots and leaves.
At the beginning of the infection will help spraying plants with water. In advanced cases, do not do without chemical insecticides.
Small and fertile insect of yellow or green color. Able to give over the summer for more than 20 generations. The larvae winter in the ground, on the sprouts of mandarin. Adult individuals live on leaves, buds, flowers, feeding on their juices.
In the initial stages, the aphids can be completely washed off under a strong jet of hot shower. Water temperature should be between 50-60 ° C. Mass colonies are destroyed by insecticides.
With the shield more difficult to fight - pest protects waxy brown patina. The larvae are almost imperceptible. Adult insects, like small turtles, are easy to see along the veins on the back of the leaves. They are inactive and firmly stick to the leaves. With a strong infection, the leaves and stalks are covered with sticky secretions, and the plant may die.
Flushing normal water in the fight will not help. Лучшие средства от щитовки – препараты «Актара» и «Актеллик».
Помимо вредителей помешать развитию и погубить мандарин могут опасные болезни.
Это распространенное грибковое заболевание. Начинается с появления светлых пятен на листьях, затем они становятся коричневыми. The disease spreads to branches, shoots, flowers. On fruit dark spots are formed around the stalk.
It provokes the development of the disease increased humidity. Damaged parts must be trimmed, and healthy parts must be treated with fungicides.
For prevention, it is recommended to spray Mandarin with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid at the beginning of the season.
This is a fungal disease. Brown oily spots appear on the trunk.
The affected areas must be cleaned and treated with fungicides.
It affects the trunk and tangerine sprouts, brown spots appear on them. In diseased areas, the crust dies, and cracks appear, from which golden liquid (gum) is released. The main causes are a shortage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and mechanical damage. Another reason may be a strong burial of the plant during planting or lack of drainage.
Sick spots are cleaned, treated with blue sulphate and garden pitch.
At home, the mandarin is a miniature bush or tree 0.5–2 m high. For your care, he will thank you with fragrant and juicy fruits. But without the fruits, it looks beautiful and original.
How to grow tangerines yourself? Learn about this from the video.
When the mandarin is grown grown from the stone?
Flowers on citrus - the main indicator that the care of the plant is carried out according to the rules. Flowers will appear on it 3-4 weeks after the first ovaries appear. If the cultivation of mandarin from seeds is delayed and the buds do not appear, the beginner will be able to accelerate their appearance using proven methods:
- tying up strong branches,
- water deprivation for 1-2 weeks
- refusal to transfer to fresh land, which is carried out 2 times a year.
Will the mandarin be grown from the seed?
Wait for the harvest in the first year after planting does not make sense.
There are cases when citrus began to bear fruit in the second year after grafting, but the fruit could not be eaten due to excessive use of fertilizers.
For those who want to understand how to grow decorative mandarin without eating fruits, this option is suitable. Gardeners who dream of a rich harvest will need at least 2-3 years before the appearance of suitable ovaries.
How to grow tangerine from the stalk?
Propagation of citrus from a fruitful tree is easier than seed germination. To grow a tangerine from a sprig, you need to find a healthy stem with 1-2 green leaves, and then proceed as follows:
- In the plastic pot with drainage holes, a cutting is planted from the bottom, and a glass jar is covered on top.
- On rooting, he spends at least 2-3 months, during which the plant can not be disturbed by transplants and sprays.
- When the mandarin begins to grow, and the trunk thickness in diameter is 1 cm, it can be transplanted into a large pot or box.
Mandarin - growing conditions
A comfortable tree atmosphere can be created without serious financial expenses and temporary investments. In the recommendations on how to grow tangerines at home, the basic guidelines are clearly defined:
- Lighting. The light day for a shooted growth should be increased to 12 hours. In the apartment in the winter period for this apply fitolampy.
- Watering. For him is suitable boiled water without impurities.
- Transfer. As soon as the level of fruiting decreases or the tree begins to ache, it is transplanted. February, March, September and October are considered the best in all respects.
Mandarin at home - care
When rooting and grafting will be a thing of the past, citrus will need some other plan of care. Those who know how to grow a mandarin in a pot, they say that the emphasis should be on the formation of a tree. A ball consisting of branches is adjusted as necessary:
- When the plant reaches 30-40 cm in height, it is pinched side shoots of the first order.
- If the citrus begins to branch uncontrollably, form the lower branches, removing all up to 4-5 leaves.
- Up to 3-4 years, weak shoots are removed from the indoor fruit tree during regrowth.
How to grow tangerine - watering
Room citrus, like its ancestors, negatively perceives dry periods, so you can not forget about its watering. Growing tangerine on the windowsill with a water deficit, but an abundance of sunlight, will lead to the dropping of leaves and wilted flowers. Excessive watering is dangerous by lowering immunity to fungal diseases. The following irrigation subtleties are considered optimal:
- Selection of water volume, based on the size of the pot, leaf area and growth of mandarin. The higher these indicators, the more water should be used to moisten the earth.
- Check the soil after watering. You can pierce the ground with a wooden stick for 5-6 cm. It should be slightly damp, and not soaked through with water.
- Watering should be carried out until 12 o'clock in the afternoon. Then the plant activates vital processes to the maximum.
- Observance of temperature. It would not want to grow a mandarin, you should follow its life cycle. If the plant falls into a "hibernation" due to a decrease in temperature outside the window, it is watered only slightly to maintain its vital activity.
How to grow a tangerine with fruit - feeding
The variants of citrus fertilizer are divided into two types: root and foliar. If fertilizers of the first type contribute to an increase in the immunity of the trunk, then additives of the second type accelerate the growth and maturation of glossy fruits.
Since it is possible to grow a tangerine in an apartment only in a pot or a box, the responsibility for the saturation of the soil with organic matter lies with the owner of the tree. Overfeeding it makes no sense - fertilizer is used no more than 1 time in 2-3 weeks.
It is possible to use for enrichment of water before watering and spraying:
Growing tangerines at home - diseases and pests
At home, citrus is little threatened, because it is resistant to most of the known phytoinfections. External defects of fruits caused by insufficient watering or lack of sunlight and trace elements are common.
Non-compliance with the rules of care is rarely displayed on the tree, but it is important for everyone to know its symptoms. Among them: dwarfism, yellowness of leaves, shrinking of the trunk, folds on the leaves and shedding the ovaries.
Before you grow a tangerine at home, you should familiarize yourself with the list of pests that provoke diseases in citrus crops:
- Spider mite The red mite hides on the leaf substrate and from there begins to wrap the entire sheet in thin cobwebs, causing discoloration and damage to flowers.
- Whitefly. A moth with wings of light color has a negative effect on everything related to the answer to the question of how to grow a tangerine. It gives the leaves a painful waxy tone, reduces the number of buds, and ruins the crop in the phase of active growth.
- Thrips. Black "lines" are almost imperceptible on the shoots, which makes them one of the most common pests that carry viruses from plant to plant.
- Mealybug. Parasite larvae emit toxic gluten, an irritating outer layer of leaves and fruits.
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