Growing sideratov in the garden - a highly effective way to improve soil fertility on the site. Red clover or meadow clover is a honey plant, fodder and lawn plant, high-quality green fertilizer, belongs to the legume family. Perennial culture with terry pink-red flowers is widespread throughout Europe, North Africa, Siberia, the Far East, Asia.
Like all legume representatives, clover has a powerful root system, on the roots of which nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria actively multiply, absorbing nitrogen from the air and accumulating it in the soil. When planting a siderat, the preceding plants do not play a role. It is believed that clover perfectly prepares the soil for the main berry and vegetable crops.
After plowing green mass and rotting the roots, the soil is saturated with readily available forms of nitrogen, which is necessary for the growing season of all plants. Studies conducted by experienced agrotechnics show that high doses of nitrogen (up to 150 kg per hectare) remain in the root system after mowing. Culture has high frost and winter hardiness.
Biochemical composition of red clover and its benefits for the soil in the area
The following valuable compounds for soil are present in the greenery of clover: nitrogen-free extractive substances, salts of phosphorus, potassium and calcium, a complex of trace elements, flavonoids and flavones, essential oils, tannins, glycosides, free amino and organic acids. Due to the siderata's ability to assimilate phosphorus from forms that are insoluble and inaccessible to other plants, clover is a highly productive phosphate fertilizer.
In addition to nitrogen and phosphorus, the clover biomass decomposing in the soil enriches the soil with organic matter and humus, creating an optimal mode for the vital activity of beneficial soil microorganisms. According to experienced gardeners, the best results in improving the fertility of the arable layer and the structuring of the soil are achieved by cultivating the legume siderat in one place for two years. Good look lawns of red clover, perfectly decorate the free areas of the problem.
Agronomist clover red
1. Clover prefers soils with subacid or neutral acidity, fertile, cultivated. It grows better on clayey, sandy and loamy lands. Perfect for lowlands, wet areas, flooded soils.
2. The plant makes a little shading, so it is successfully grown in the garden and on shady beds. It should be noted the high need of culture in moisture, so it is necessary to organize regular irrigation in dry weather. Green manure is planted from early spring to mid-autumn.
3. Under winter, the crop is sown when the soil temperature does not exceed + 15 ° C. When too early sowing, the plants develop rapidly and die in the conditions of winter, especially without snow. Before planting, deep plowing and removal of perennial weed roots are carried out. Responsive clover to pre-fertilize the soil with manure at the rate of 5 kg / sq. meter.
4. For convenience, small clover seeds are mixed with river sand in a 1: 3 ratio. Sowing is carried out to a depth of 2 cm in the spring and up to 3 cm under the winter in the grooves located at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Landing rules - 15-20 g / sq. meter. With a simplified method of sowing - randomly, the consumption of planting material is approximately doubled.
5. The soil for planting should be saturated with moisture. After sowing, it is desirable to roll the soil slightly. This agro-reception increases seed germination by 15%, due to improved contact with the ground.
6. The first green shoots of green manure are hatching already for 3-6 days. Planting care is reduced to loosening and organizing regular irrigation (in hot weather). For a more powerful increase in biomass and additional fertilizer of the soil, fertilize with liquid manure combined with irrigation: mullein is diluted 1: 2 with water, covered with polyethylene and fermented for about a week, and then the concentrate is diluted with pure water 1: 5.
7. The period of green mass from the appearance of seedlings to the moment of plowing is 8-10 weeks. Before embedding in the ground vegetative greens must be chopped. The event is more convenient to carry out using a flat cutter.
Prevent the formation of seed pods to prevent the plot from self-sowing for the next season.
The main advantages of growing clover as a sidereal plant include:
- profitability (the price of seeds is not high, and the consumption of planting material is minimal),
- environmental friendliness (avoiding the use of nitrates on the site increases the purity of the crop),
- improvement of mechanical (friability, moisture and air permeability) and biological (enrichment of valuable nutrients, organic matter and humus) soil indicators.
Planting clover goes well with other sideratami. For example, it is sown to early spring crops - phacelia or white mustard. Have a good harvest in the garden!
Every gardener understands the importance of fertilizing the soil when growing garden crops. The fertile layer is depleted over time, and vegetable crops produce low and poor quality crops. The most convenient and low-cost way to fertilize the soil is siderat - green fertilizer. For the manufacture of siderata planted plants that enrich the soil with nitrogen. These include legumes and other seedlings.
Important! Siderat not only saturates the fertile layer with nitrogen, but also prevents the spread of weeds.
Plants for green fertilizer are planted either before winter or in spring. Greens mow and close up in the soil. If you are planning the cultivation of garden crops in the spring, the siderat close up in the fall.
The value of green manure for agriculture:
- good fertilizer
- saturates the soil with nitrogen,
- prevents the spread of weeds,
- improves soil structure
- loosens the fertile layer.
Even the most unfavorable soil after several crops of siderata becomes fertile and allows to grow capricious vegetable crops on it.
Clover is an excellent feed for livestock. This honey plant is popular in agriculture as the best green fertilizer, as it has all the necessary properties for this. Clover gives the soil nitrogen, like lupine, due to the special structure of the root system. On the roots are small nodules, within which the nitrogen-retaining microorganisms of Bacillus radicicola multiply. Therefore, the soil where the clover grows is always enriched with nitrogen.
- enriches the soil with nitrogen,
- great honey plant
- used as feed
- strengthens the slopes
- replaces manure.
However, not all varieties of plants enrich the soil with the necessary amount of nitrogen, but only the red look. After the decomposition of greenery, the soil gets excellent humus.
In addition to enriching the fertile layer with the necessary substances, clover transforms heavily absorbable phosphates into readily soluble ones. Rod root system of the plant loosens the soil, which provides air penetration. Also clover protects the soil from water and wind erosion.
Growing clover favorably affects the reproduction of microorganisms necessary for fertile soil, which produce humus in the process of vital activity.
Clover biochemical composition:
- salts of potassium, phosphorus, calcium,
- nitrogen-free extractives,
- important trace elements
- compounds of important acids
- essential oils.
Agronomists include clover as a highly efficient phosphate fertilizer.
Note! Clover does not like low places where water stagnates, but prefers low acid loamy soil.
Clover makes excellent honey, which turns into a white mass after crystallization. Honey has a delicate flavor and delicate aroma.
How and when to sow clover as siderats
Before sowing, seeds are soaked for 12 hours in cold water or soaked in a weak solution of manganese. After soaking the seeds are well dried - they should be easily separated from each other. Then the seeds are mixed with dry humus and dry sand and sown. Each ingredient should be equally divided.
Perennial varieties can grow in one area up to 15 years. The plant is planted on land for 2 years before the cultivation of horticultural crops. Also, the plant is planted between fruit trees, shade-loving varieties (with red flowers) are bred in shaded areas. Also, red clover is used for hay mowing - it gives 4 times more green mass than pink or white varieties.
Note! As a green manure, clover is used in the second year after disembarkation, since it produces more nitrogen than in the first year.
Red varieties should be sown in early spring, as young shoots love lower temperatures. Seeds are sown in a moist soil to a depth of 2 cm. Before and after sowing, the soil is lightly rolled in, which improves the adhesion of seeds to the ground. After 5 days, small shoots are already showing.
White varieties bred seedlings or seeds. These plants are well strengthened slopes. To get a uniform sowing of seeds, they are mixed in equal volumes with river sand. Sowing rate - 100/200 grams of seeds per hundred. To prevent lodging, clover is sown together with timothy grass or with phacelia.
Important! White clover is better to sow in spring, and red tolerates low temperatures well.
If you plan to plant clover for one season, well clean the soil from weeds - young shoots do not cope well with competing plants.
In dry areas, it is better to refuse to plant red meadow clover near fruit trees, as it will compete with them for moisture. The plant can be planted on free ground and well watered. Within a radius of 1-1.5 m around the trees should not be a lawn with clover.
It is impossible to sow clover on acidic soils, as it badly takes root on such a ground. Before planting the seeds, the fertile layer can be fertilized with manure (5 kg of fertilizer per 1 m2).
Autumn planting should be made in the cooled soil, the temperature of which is below +15. If you plant the seeds in warm soil, they quickly sprout and just as quickly die during frosts. The land is well plowed and cleaned from large weed roots.
Fertilizer for young clover
Juveniles can be fed with liquid manure for better growth. Necessary to do the following. The cow grass should be diluted with water (1: 2), covered with foil and left to ferment for several days. Then the finished substance is diluted for watering the beds (1: 5).
If the soil is characterized by high acidity, liming is carried out before sowing. Often, liming is subjected to medium acid soil. Liming is carried out using lime fertilizers. In addition to protecting the plant from excess acid, liming provides it with the necessary calcium for development. Clover, along with cabbage and alfalfa, has a high calcium intake.
In addition, liming improves the structure of the fertile layer, contributing to better air permeability and water balance. In agriculture, ground limestone is used, which is converted to calcium bicarbonate under the influence of water and carbon dioxide in the soil.
If the soil is poor in nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the rate of 40 kg / 1 ha. Molybdenum fertilizer application increases the yield of hay: granules are applied in rows or seed is treated.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers contribute to the rapid landscaping and the formation of lush foliage. Phosphorus provides rapid growth of clover and the formation of the root system, which is very important at the beginning of seed germination. Also, phosphorus provides plant resistance to frost and insufficient moisture of the fertile layer.
To create a green manure, the clover is removed before the formation of flowers - during the formation of buds. Usually the plant at this time reaches 10 cm in height. It is during this period that the clover is saturated with nitrogen. Microorganisms are set to work, enriching the soil with mineral forms of nitrogen. The cutting is carried out around July / August.
Important! In order for clover to bring beneficial properties, it must be kept on the site for at least 4 months.
If the seeds were sown in August, it is better to leave the plants until spring - there is no sense to do cutting for autumn. In June or late May, the plants mow under the root, and garden crops are grown on the site.
To the soil is not oxidized from a large number of mown greens, the mass is first dried in the sun. Deformed stems close up in the ground.
Note! Vegetable crops can be planted 18-20 days after cutting.
If you plant seeds during the summer period, be sure to regularly moisten the ground - the plant loves moisture.
Fertilizer from green mass
Some gardeners immediately plant greens in the soil, but a different way of using fertilizer is recommended. Greens need to mow under the root, the stems are dried in the sun, and only then put up in the soil.
Will clover roots prevent planting of vegetable crops? You should not worry - the root system of clover will not interfere with seedlings.
You can use bevelled green mass in the following way:
- to make compost with other mowed plants,
- to make compost from clover only
- mulching landings.
Mulch planting has a separate advantage - it keeps the soil moist, and during decomposition it accumulates nitrogen in the fertile layer. Gardeners do the mulching between the rows. Liquid green mass is used in the same way as nettle.
Scheme of green soil fertilizer
Consider a method of preparing the soil in the fall. To do this, do the following:
- after harvesting in August, pour ashes on the beds and dig up,
- sow seeds and water daily until sprouts appear,
- until November, we feed the plant with fertilizers - for example, liquid humates,
- spring clover do not touch,
- in June we make compost from mowed greens.
The mistake of novice gardeners is the belief that it is not necessary to feed a clover. But do not forget: the clover saturates the fertile layer with nitrogen and at the same time takes useful trace elements from it. Soil needs fertilizer, and most clover too. Therefore, the fertile layer is always fed with the missing micronutrients. Ash and agrochemicals deal well with this.
For compost, use a special wooden box or pit, which is covered with an easily removable lid. The walls of the pit are reinforced with slate sheets, leaving a gap between the ground for better ventilation. The bottom is lined with ready humus or sawdust. Last year's humus contains bacteria useful for compost. The pit / box should be in a shaded area.
Note! Excessive moistening is harmful to compost, as is drying. Humidity should be moderate. In winter, compost should be protected from freezing.
Raw materials are periodically mixed and watered. To make compost faster, the raw materials are crushed with a spade and sprinkled with earth from time to time. Compost in the pit lay mixed with the ground and sawdust - layers.
Properly made compost should have a brown color and smell like dry leaves. If the compost smells of rot / mold, dry it immediately. If drying does not help, fertilizer is thrown away - it is not suitable for enriching the soil with useful substances.
How long does quality compost prepare? The natural fermentation process takes from 4 months to two years. It depends on the temperature, humidity and other features of the production of humus. Is it possible to speed up the process? To do this, you should regularly moisten the raw materials and chop well. To increase the temperature of the raw material add chicken droppings.
If you chop the raw materials well, moisten regularly, maintain the optimum temperature and mix, you can get the finished substance after 5 months. How often should compost be mixed? Enough times a week.
Clover brings the same benefits to fertilize the fertile layer, as does lupine. However, unlike lupine, after clovering, there are no solid stems left. The plant can be cultivated on the site for several years in a row, which only improves the mechanical and biological properties of the fertile layer of the earth. During the cultivation of clover, you can make two mowing a year and collect greens for compost.
The use of clover for a fallow plot has the following advantages - the land is not covered by weeds. In addition, garden clover with an attractive look. This plant as a fertilizer is completely harmless, as it does not contain nitrates. In this respect, it is better than manure, whose composition is characterized by a large number of nitrate compounds.
Reviews and comments: 10
The lawn of clover looks no less beautiful than the grass. It is inexpensive in operating costs, ideal for poorly drained soils, hides all the irregularities. Very hardy plants adapt to regions with different types of weather conditions, tolerate frosts well.
The most common lawn species are pink clover (Trifolium hybridum) and white clover creeping (Trifolium repens) - more stunted, its variety “R-Wendel” - stunted (up to 10 cm), with brightly colored foliage and abundant flowering. Remember that clover flowers attract bees - this is a problem for young children with allergies who like to play on the lawn.
Так как клевер не очень устойчив к интенсивному движению по нему, сделайте тропинки в местах передвижения по газону. Clover is a short-lived perennial, it serves no more than 2-3 years, so the lawn is sown again after 3 years.
Mature clover is drought-resistant, but grows better if it is watered once a week. When growing clover, do not use any fertilizer, as it releases nitrogen. The use of herbicides can destroy the plant.
Surely everyone at the dacha has small plots of land that planting with something useful does not make sense, but you can not leave them empty, otherwise they will instantly become a victim of weeds, with which you will have to fight all summer. Often, summer residents, in order to solve such a problem, buy bags with seeds of various lawn herbs in gardening shops and then hope to see even green lawns in themselves. However, these dreams are often empty. And the thing is that the germination of purchased seeds leaves much to be desired (it has been verified by experience). Yes, and grass varieties are difficult to pick up so that they are combined with each other in height and density.
Tired of experimenting, I tried to sow pink clover. It turned out that it grows perfectly even, but requires very frequent mowing. Moreover, if you are late with this, the clover lies on the ground, becomes rude, and then it remains only to sing the Belarusian song “Kosila Yas stable”. And the place after harvesting beveled clover has a rather unsightly look.
The decision came by itself. In the area between the blind area of the country house and the concrete path there was a long piece of land just over a meter wide, on which we planted rose bushes. And, as usual, nettle, raspberry seed, brita and out of nowhere appeared between them whence came small bushes of wild forest strawberries, which we decided not to touch when weeding, let them grow. And this strawberry began to conquer living space for itself, completely taking all the land for itself within three or four years. Now among the bushes of roses, the whole earth is covered with a flat green carpet of wild strawberry, which does not require weeding, as it simply crushed all the weeds. In addition, it rewards us with a fairly decent yield of small but tasty berries, which is facilitated by regular watering.
Now, where it is necessary to sow a small piece of land with lawn grass, we first of all remember the strawberries. I would like to add that, probably, wild strawberries can be replaced with the same wild, but meadow. The only difference is that in the forest strawberry berry is easily separated from the sepals, in contrast to its meadow relative.
When the plot ceases to be used, the first thing that grows on it is the most malicious weeds: sow thistle, quinoa, creeper, wheatgrass, ragweed, mar, etc. Under these powerful plants, the earth does not rest, but is depleted. It is not for nothing that the fertility of a raised deposit is much lower than that of virgin meadows.
If for some reason you have to give up on gardening for a few years, you shouldn’t just leave the land without leaving - sow it with perennial herbs. The best choice is clover, especially low varieties of white and pink. In the 1st year, he will create a dense turf, which will suppress the growth of weeds. The ground covered with low clover looks tidy, and even flowery during the flowering period.
Like all legumes, clover has bacteria at its roots with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, therefore it does not deplete the ground. The above-ground part of the clover is rather soft, during the winter it decomposes well, fertilizing the soil.
Clover forms a dense turf, but the big difficulties with the re-development of the garden will not arise. It is enough to turn the turf from autumn and in the 1st year not to plant root crops on these beds, it is better - potatoes and pumpkin.
I want to sow clover in the spring - they say it drowns out well - weeds between the rows. But which one is better to choose: white or red? I heard that red grows high (up to 70 cm) and creeps up strongly. Is it so? When is it better to sow clover? Perhaps it is better to sow other grass between rows to damp weeds?
Your concerns about red clover are not in vain. From my experience I can say that this is far from the best option for weed control. You simply “donate” a plot to a red clover, because it really spreads strongly and quickly.
As for white clover, the situation is not much better. It reproduces on its own and is no less active than red, although only on acidic and low fertility soil. And on a normal, normal grows weakly, and weeds may well displace it from the site.
As for sowing other grass, I recommend sowing siderats between the rows - they will protect against weeds and fertilize the soil. For example, mustard (it perfectly suppresses the growth of many weeds, including bindweed), oats and wheat (most weeds are oppressed, but it is important to mow them before the formation of ears). And buckwheat, besides the ability to force out weeds, is also a good honey plant. Or as an option - dahlias, few people know that they are successfully fighting with wheatgrass.
Clover instead of manure
You can improve soil fertility by purchasing manure. But it is very fond of settling Medvedka, and such a fertilizer is expensive. I sow clover, because this siderta also enriches the earth very well.
On its roots are nodules that accumulate nitrogen. In addition, in large quantities it is contained in the green mass of clover.
Seeds are sown at the end of April, and if there is not enough time in the spring, then I transfer this job to June. By this time, already removed the greens, radishes. If a strawberry plantation is 4 years old or more, at the end of June I pick berries from it and plow them. I plant these vacated lands with clover seeds. I just scatter them around the dug-up area, then roll it in or dust it with soil 2 cm.
Clover is moisture-loving, therefore, it is mainly sown in early spring, when there is a lot of melt water in the soil. But even with summer crops, the result is not worse if you water the plantings additionally.
Mow clover before flowering. Throughout the summer I clean the green mass for composting, and dig this territory in October. Thanks to clover, the soil becomes more loose. After this siderata any vegetable crops grow well and bear fruit.
Once every 2 years I leave for a month in the summer to my parents in another city. I don’t plant anything in the “away” seasons at the dacha, but so that the plot doesn’t just stand idle, I sow it with clover. It restores fertility, improves the structure of the soil, is a good precursor for many crops, and also decorates the plot.
I usually choose varieties that are resistant to excess moisture, as my site is in a fairly low place. For example, sowing creeping clover. He, by the way, tolerates drought well. This species can grow in one place for 7-9 years and has low soil requirements. Sometimes relatives come to my country house with children. Kids love to play on the lawn, and this clover does not lose sight, no matter how much you trample on it.
Often I sow and hybrid clover. It is also undemanding to the soil, tolerant of drought, not afraid of cold weather. But I sow it only where there is no stagnation of water - it does not tolerate flooding.
Another plus of clover is that it is a great honey plant. When my site is planted with clover, the beekeeper's neighbor has a holiday. To me, as I return from my parents, from this holiday a jar or two of the most delicious, painful honey falls off!
I read that there is some special Far Eastern clover, which is planted in the garden. What is its value and what is the difference from the ordinary?
A long time ago, in old newspapers I read about an American farmer who sowed clover-cereal mixture under cabbage to reduce the number of pests that attack cabbage. Lit up with this idea, because in the clover carpet there are many natural enemies of caterpillars and flea beetles. I learned that it is preferable to use a low white clover that does not drown out the cabbage.
Last spring, I sowed white clover on 6 beds, and on the other 6 beds - lettuce. By the time of cabbage planting, seedlings had already appeared. Cabbage planted, making a small hole with a scoop. Shoots of lettuce and clover are almost not affected. The lettuce grew very quickly and soon covered the soil tightly, drowning out the weeds. Around the cabbage plants, I pulled out a salad and left it right there, covering the soil. The cabbage grew quickly, the clover lagged, we had to weed weeds in it, but soon it grew, covering all the soil. The ground under the lettuce and clover remained always moist and lumpy.
And that's what happened. The harvest was collected as usual, but the cruciferous flea did not damage the cabbage. There were a lot of caterpillars on the beds with lettuce, but I also found an equestrian rider on the leaves. There were few caterpillars on the beds with clover, although all the beds are located nearby.
Last year, the cabbage passed through a crop rotation to another plot, and I only sowed clover. The summer was droughty, but the clover-covered beds with cabbage required less watering.
To feed domestic grass with green grass, many grow forage plants on their plots. And how many grow on one weave?
I apply a proven method: I sow more than one feed crop, but several. At the same time I choose in such a way that they stimulate the growth of each other. For sowing I take sunflower, corn, sugar sorghum, Sudanese grass and soybeans. The green mass of such a mixture is very tender and juicy, however, subject to regular watering. I sow the mixture in late April - early May (in the northern areas you need to sow in mid-May). For one hundred parts I take 0.4 kg of seeds of Sudanese grass, 0.1 kg of sugar sorghum, 0.02 kg of sunflower, and 0.6 kg of corn and soybeans each. Seeds are sealed to a depth of 3-4 cm in rows. These are very different from each other.
friend on botanical and biological features of the plant, sown together, create a solid wall, as each of them tends to overtake in growth the other. I remove the green mass in late June - early July. For the first cut from one weave I get at least 700 kg of greens. The grass of Sudan grass and sorghum begins to grow first, which gives another 200 kg of green mass in August. And the third mowing occurs at the end of September, and this is more than 200 kg of excellent feed. Thus, from one hundred we get more than a ton of green mass per season.
It is advisable to sow the seeds in three periods with an interval of ten days. For this, I select three rows of one hundred square meters. Then the green mass is enough for the current feeding and harvesting for the winter.
Planting and care for clover (in short)
- Bloom: in late May or early June almost three months.
- Landing: sowing seeds in open ground - in early spring, as soon as the snow melts.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: black soil, loamy or sandy soil with a pH of 6.0-6.5.
- Watering: moderately, on average once a week, in the mornings or evenings. In drought watered more often.
- Top dressing: only liquid potash-phosphorus dressings: the plant itself assimilates nitrogen from the soil.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: nodule and clover weevils.
- Diseases: red clover affects anthracnose, askohitoz, cancer and rust.
- Properties: It is not only fodder, but also a demanded medicinal plant, which has a diuretic, diaphoretic, choleretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, hemostatic and astringent action.
Meadow clover - description
The meadow clover is a biennial or perennial herb, reaching a height of 15 to 55 cm. Its stems are branchy, ascending, trifoliate leaves, with finely toothed broadly ovate lobes. The leaves are whole, ciliate along the edges. Loose spherical capitate inflorescences sit in pairs and are often covered with upper leaves, their corolla can be pink, white or variegated. The fruit of the meadow clover is a single-seed egg-shaped bean with yellowish-red or purple seeds.
Planting clover meadow.
Clover is planted in early spring, right after the snow melts. It grows best in the sun or in partial shade on chernozem, loamy and sandy soil, where before it grew cereals, potatoes, corn or roots. A clover after clover can be sown only after five years. The pH value at the site should be in the range of pH 6.0-6.5, so the acidic soil will have to lime.
Before sowing, the land at the site is dug up to the depth of the spade bayonet, cleaned of weeds and leveled, and after a week they spread complex mineral fertilizer over the surface. After another two weeks, when the soil settles, it is loosened with a rake, moistened, after which, choosing a windless day, they start sowing. Pre-aged for an hour in water and dried two-year-old clover seeds are mixed with dry earth in a ratio of 1: 5 and evenly distributed over the area in rows, then sprinkled on top of a layer of soil. Large seeds are covered with a layer 4-5 cm thick, and small ones - 1-2 cm. The seeding rate is approximately 10 g of seeds per 1 m² plot. Watering after sowing is carried out with a watering can with a shower head in order not to wash the seeds from under a thin layer of soil. Clover seeds germinate in 5-10 days.
Care for meadow clover.
The most important point in the care of meadow clover is watering, as the protracted drought has a bad effect on both the decorative lawn and the quality of the medicinal raw material. Too frequent and abundant hydration also has a bad effect on the condition of the plant, although clover with white heads is more resistant in this respect than pink. Clover is watered moderately, on average, once a week, choosing early morning or evening hours.
Since meadow clover assimilates atmospheric nitrogen with the help of nodule bacteria, it needs only potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, which are applied in a liquid form. If clover grows in fertile soil, top dressing is not at all necessary.
Amazed red meadow clover diseases such as anthracnose, ascochitis, cancer and rust. To avoid the destruction of clover by these infections, it is necessary to choose disease-resistant varieties for growth, be sure to disinfect them before sowing and harvest or mow the crop at the very beginning of flowering. In addition, it is extremely important to observe crop rotation and in case of cancer damage to clover not to grow a crop in this area for at least 7 years. Against diseases such as askohitoz and rust, dusting of meadow clover crops with sulfur powder is effective, and anthracnose is fought with fungicides.
Meadow clover pests are best known for nodule and clover weevils. Clover weevils damage leaves, buds and flowers of clover: one insect larva can destroy up to 11 ovaries. To avoid a decrease in yield due to the harmful activity of clover weevils and their larvae, it is necessary to mow crops during the budding period. Spring nodule weevils damage a point of growth at sprouting, and later their larva eats indentations in roots and destroy clover nodules. Against these pests will have to use insecticides.
Picking meadow clover
Harvest clover for hay at the very beginning of flowering. If you are late with the harvest, the quality of the feed deteriorates as the plant decreases the protein content.
As a medicinal raw material, only red clover flowers are used, which are also removed at the beginning of flowering. After harvesting, the flowers are cut along the upper stem and arranged for drying in a shady area of the garden or in a semi-dark, well-ventilated room, the temperature in which should not rise above 35 ºC. Store medicinal raw materials in paper bags or cardboard boxes in a dry, dark and cool place.
Types and varieties of meadow clover
Two types of meadow clover are common in culture: late-ripening single-cut and early-ripening double-cut. The early ripe clover is distinguished by its rapid development, abundance of green mass, strong branching, dense foliage and the ability to form aftermath. Late clover differs morphologically from early clover: it has longer stipules and a greater number of internodes - from 7 to 12. Late varieties give a good harvest in the first crop, but their ability to form aftermath is much lower than that of the early ones. However, the winter hardiness of late clover is higher than that of early ripe.
Of the varieties of meadow clover, the most famous are:
- – Amber - mid-early, resistant to cancer and root rot variety that provides 2-3 vegetation for the growing season,
- – Long-standing - early ripe, high-yielding winter-hardy hybrid variety bred at the crossing of the Slutsky early ripe and Pre-Carpathian varieties when crossed. 33. During the growing season this clover forms three cuttings,
- – Resilient - an early ripe winter-hardy variety of Belarusian breeding, resistant to overmoistening and giving two cuttings for vegetation,
- – Ternopil 2 - high-yielding early ripe and winter-hardy variety of Ukrainian breeding, forming 2-3 mowings per season,
- – Maro - medium grade, resistant to cancer and root diseases, a variety of German selection,
- – Renova - drought-resistant high-yielding variety, giving two cuttings per season,
- – Pratzavnik - highly productive drought-resistant Belarusian variety, characterized by increased resistance to lodging and giving an average of two cuttings during the growing season.
Кроме описанных, в культуре часто выращивают такие сорта клевера красного, как Яскравы, Долина, Мерея, Витебчанин, Слуцкий, Минский, Демена, Цудовны, Ранний-2, Трио, Ветеран, Алтын, Амос, Грин, Витязь, Гефест и другие.
Лечебные свойства клевера лугового.
Клевер луговой является востребованным лекарственным растением, поскольку обладает большим количеством ценных веществ. Чем полезен клевер луговой? Its leaves and inflorescences contain minerals and vitamins, salicylic acid, carotene, flavonoids, tannins, phytoestrogens, essential and fatty oils, fiber and other substances necessary for the human body.
Clover has long been used in folk and official medicine, on its basis produced drugs, syrups and mixtures, dietary supplements. Clover is included in fees for the treatment of various diseases. At home, it is used to prepare decoctions, tinctures and tinctures, which, like fresh plant juice, are used for lotions, medicinal baths and gargles. Clover is added to powders, ointments, shampoos, lotions, cleansers and treatments for skin diseases.
Clover has a diuretic, diaphoretic, choleretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, hemostatic and astringent effect, so it is used to treat many ailments. For example, clover broths treat diseases of the kidneys, biliary tract, inflammation of the appendages and the bladder, urolithiasis, headaches and dizziness, asthenia and anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, rickets, poisoning, bleeding and hemorrhoids. Broths and infusions of clover inflorescences remove excess fluid from the body, and using them to rinse, they treat gingivitis, sore throat, stomatitis.
Since clover has anti-sclerotic effect, it is used in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Clover preparations help to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve the condition of the veins, lower the level of cholesterol in the blood, blood and intracranial pressure, increase hemoglobin. Clover flavonoids saturate tissues with oxygen, normalize metabolism, fat metabolism and protect the body from premature aging.
Red clover is effective in treating all types of cancers: it clears mucus and blood, suspends the growth of cancer cells.
Meadow clover - contraindications.
The use of meadow clover is contraindicated in such diseases and conditions as varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, extragen-dependent cancer, diarrhea, idiosyncrasy and pregnancy. Clover preparations are not recommended for those who have suffered a stroke or heart attack.
With long-term use of clover drugs, the potency in men can decrease and there is a delay in menstruation in women.
It is undesirable to use clover preparations to treat children under two years old, but if you think that this is necessary, first consult your pediatrician.
Proper growing of red clover
Red clover is a fast growing plant that can be harvested three times a year. The plant prefers a drainage soil, slightly acidic. Potassium and phosphorus should be moderately contained in the soil. Red clover loves sunny places, but grows well in partial shade. It is not recommended to sow the seeds too deep. After sowing, they must be poured abundantly. Clover beds, at least at the initial stage of its growth, are useful to weed regularly.
Proper collection of plants
Red clover refers to wild flowers. You need to collect the whole plant: roots, stems, flowers, leaves. It is advisable not to pick flowers of a brown shade. It is better to prefer red, pink or white flowers - they are young and fresh. If red clover is used as a food product, its flowers are more often collected. Clover has a pleasant taste and aroma. From the leaves of the plant you get delicious tea.
The main medicinal properties of red clover
* Improves menopause condition
The plant has a beneficial effect on female hormones, can reduce hot flashes, get rid of insomnia and mood swings. Red clover reduces unwanted side effects from taking certain medications, improves the condition of the hair and heals the scalp.
* Lowers blood cholesterol
With the help of red clover, you can normalize cholesterol levels in the blood, which leads to a decrease in the risk of developing heart attacks and strokes.
The red clover contains a sufficient amount of anti-inflammatory compounds that reduce any inflammation, improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Tea made from plants reduces tension in the blood vessels and arteries, which prevents the development of coronary disease.
* Prevents cancer
This medicinal plant is used to reduce the risk of developing any cancer, helps men avoid prostate cancer: suspends the growth and reproduction of cancer cells. Red clover helps fight breast cancer and endometrium.
The use of red clover reduces the risk of developing a common disease - osteoporosis, in which bone mass is lost. This is often due to a shortage of ovarian hormone in women during menopause.
* Treats liver disease
A vital organ - the liver - filters toxins and produces bile, which then digests fats. When abnormal liver function, toxins are not eliminated from the body, which leads to obesity. Red clover, as an excellent diaphoretic, removes toxins. The ability to stimulate sweating, in order to remove toxins through the pores of the skin, allows the use of red clover for the treatment of eczema, psoriasis, acne and other skin diseases. Grass stimulates the production of bile, which leads to weight loss.
* Used against respiratory infections
Respiratory infections, coughing, bronchitis, whooping cough, and asthma can be treated with red clover because the plant has an expectorant effect.
* Helps get rid of anxiety
Red clover has a calming effect, has a positive effect on nerve cells. It relieves stress, relieves menopausal women from anxiety. For this it is useful to drink tea from the flowers of the plant.
* Used to get rid of smoking cravings.
Using red clover helps to quit smoking. If you want to smoke, you need to chew clover flowers. Adding red clover to salads will also help.
This plant is more commonly known as meadow clover, and its botanical name in Latin is Trifolium pratеnse. It belongs to the genus of clover of the moth family of the legume family. This is usually a perennial grass (sometimes two years old), growing to a height of 15–55 centimeters.
Blossoms from June to September red-pink loose tubular flowers, collected in the head, having the shape of a ball. Inflorescences are sometimes in pairs and have a heterogeneous or whitish color. The stems of this plant branch, they grow leaves-shamrocks.
The fruits ripen in August and October and look like a small oval bean with one seed. These seeds can be used for plant reproduction. Clover can also grow vegetatively.
Clover contains these vitamins:
- C, ascorbic acid,
- B1, thiamine,
- B2, riboflavin,
- E, tocopherol,
- essential oils,
- fixed oils,
- amino acids
- organic acids
- flavonoids (including quercetin, maakaiin).
Medicinal properties of red clover
This rich composition gives red clover a number of healing properties:
On the female body receiving this herb affects as follows:
- increases libido,
- facilitates the flow of menopause,
- serves to prevent the onset of osteoporosis in women due to menopause,
- helps with painful periods, with inflammatory diseases of the female organs,
- is the prevention of cancer of the breast and female organs
- promotes the production of collagen, which allows to improve the appearance of the skin and smooth out wrinkles.
It is also useful for men to use red clover because it:
- increases libido, potency,
- helps with erection problems,
- carries out prostate cancer prevention,
- cleans blood vessels from cholesterol, which is most often elevated in men.
Indications for use
This plant is used in the treatment of the following list of diseases:
- cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, hypertension and others),
- colds and flu (also for their prevention),
- bronchitis and pneumonia,
- skin diseases, including rash in children,
- wounds and burns
- physical exhaustion after illness or stress,
- diarrhea and intestinal disorders,
- ovarian inflammation and other inflammatory processes in the female organs,
- diseases of the liver and gallbladder.
Harm and side effect
This bioactive plant should not be consumed continuously. Its long-term use due to the presence of phytohormones can disrupt the natural cycle or lead to impotence. It is best to apply a course of treatment.
Clover should not be consumed before planned operations and for some time after them, since this plant thins blood and can cause bleeding.
Infusion for external use
For external use, make a strong infusion using the following ingredients:
- three tablespoons of chopped raw materials,
- 250 ml of water.
After cooling down, the product is placed in a refrigerator: it can be stored there for no more than two days.
Infusion for internal use
Infusion for internal use is made from the following ingredients:
- three tablespoons of vegetable raw materials
- 1.5 glasses of pure water.
This infusion will be useful for migraines, tinnitus, atherosclerosis, increased pressure, insomnia, as well as for colds, coughs, bronchitis and pneumonia. It can be drunk with anemia, exhaustion, male and female problems, including menopause.
Tincture on vodka
For the preparation of therapeutic tinctures use the following ingredients:
- one glass of fresh clover heads,
- 0.5 liters of vodka (alcohol).
This tincture is effective for high cholesterol and atherosclerosis.
To lower cholesterol, it is taken once a day, 20 minutes before meals. To do this, dilute 15 ml of tincture in 50 ml of pure water. Such treatment should last no more than three months.
How to make tea
The simplest and most pleasant taste of this medicinal plant is the use of tea.
For its preparation you will need:
- one teaspoon dried clover heads,
- 250 ml of pure water.
One glass of such a healing drink at night will help you fall asleep for insomnia.
In this drink, you can add a little honey. Each time you should prepare a new tea, because it is most tasty and fragrant fresh.
In some areas, this meadow plant grows on its own, but you can grow it yourself. After all, red clover is a good sider, it perfectly enriches the soil with nitrogen, restores it, helps to get rid of weeds. This beautiful, besides medicinal, plant will not only improve the soil, but also give the site a decorative look.
Choice of location and lighting
The meadow clover is cold-resistant enough, but it does not tolerate severe frosts below -7 ° C. He also does not like high temperatures - the summer heat for him is destructive. The first year of life, he tolerates frost to -17 ° C, but in the second and third year - not below -12 ° C. The optimum temperature regime for the growth of meadow clover is in the range from + 17 ° C to + 20 ° C.
This plant likes good lighting, but it tolerates shade normally. For him, cereal crops, potatoes and other root vegetables are good precursors.
Soil preparation and fertilizers
Red clover loves moisture, but its excess can destroy it. This plant likes humus moderately moist, without the presence of stagnant water, soil with low acidity. Loamy soils with low acidity are also well suited to it. Does not like sand, sour soil containing a lot of salt.
Before sowing, it is recommended to dig the soil about 30 cm and thoroughly clean the area from weeds that will interfere with the growth of this crop. To speed up the process, you can use the cultivator.
It will not be superfluous to add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers to increase the yield. For this purpose, not only mineral fertilizers, but also Optim-Humus organic fertilizers, as well as preparations of effective soil microorganisms (for example, EM-preparations) are perfect. In the future, the fertilizing of clover is carried out in the fall and spring.
Sowing and reproduction
Clover seeds before planting, it is desirable to process using rhizotorphine or nitragin. This process contributes to a more rapid emergence and reproduction of nodule bacteria, which in turn has a positive effect on the growth of this plant. Red clover is sown in the prepared soil in early spring, when frost will pass.
His seeds are quite small, so they need to be sown to a depth of 1-2 cm. The sowing rate is 170 grams per one hundred square meters, but with manual and late sowing, this standard is increased by one and a half times.
Diseases and pests
Red clover is prone to diseases such as anthracnose, cancer, rust, ascochitis. To reduce the risk of these diseases, it is necessary to give preference to disease-resistant varieties, as well as to treat the seeds before sowing, to mow the grass at the beginning of flowering. To combat such diseases, special dusting with sulfur powder and fungicides is used.
Pests for this plant are weevils that infect flowers - one larva destroys about 10 ovaries. To control these pests, clover should also be mowed before flowering or insecticides should be used.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Red clover is harvested during its flowering, from June to September. Collect the heads-inflorescences together with the top leaves, which are usually intergrown with a flower.
Red clover will help to cope with many health problems. But the reception of this plant containing phytohormones, should not be long, as it can be harmful. This healing herb can be used as a pleasant enough to taste tea, which will be useful for colds, insomnia and menopause. It can be sown at the dacha not only as a medicinal plant, but also as a siderat.