White podgruzdok is also sometimes called dry load. Consider what the representatives of this species look like, where they grow. With the help of a detailed description it will be possible to easily distinguish this mushroom from others. In addition, it is very important to be able to properly collect, process and deliver them.
You can see a lot of mushrooms in the forest. Each species has its own characteristics. Many of them are edible, many are poisonous, and some you just need to be able to cook properly so that it becomes a tasty and useful addition to the dish or its base.
They grow under the trees, and right on them. Some species prefer to settle on living, and some - on dead trees. White podgruzdok has an interesting feature. It does not grow on the surface, but practically under the ground. At the same time half of the fungus is located underground, and its upper part, as a rule, is covered with fallen leaves. Therefore, to find it is not so easy. But it is enough to see only one mushroom in the forest, as you will find many more around. The ability to grow in groups makes collecting very convenient.
The young mushroom has a convex cap, in the center of which it is slightly pressed inward. Its edges are somewhat tucked. Over time, it becomes funnel. Edge can be both smooth and wavy, also tucked. The diameter of the cap may be different: 6-14 cm. At first, the cap is completely white, and over time it becomes yellow. Brownish and rusty spots appear on it.
The plates are descending. As a rule, they are white, but can sometimes be greenish.
Leg white with brown spots. Pretty thick and short. Its thickness is about 2-3 cm, and height - 4-5. At the bottom of the leg a little bit already. The young mushroom has a solid leg, and then it becomes hollow.
The flesh of the podgruzdka is quite dense, but fragile. When cracked or cut, it retains the same color. The juice does not stand out. The taste of the pulp is sweetish, and the aroma is very pleasant.
This species is classified as edible. Sub-salt and pickle.
The period of fruiting is long. These mushrooms can be found during the summer and until the cold of autumn. They grow in any forest. Often they can be seen even in the mountain forests. Favorite place of mushrooms of this species is the river bank. As a rule, they grow by several pieces. You can rarely see them alone. Grow almost throughout the territory of Russia, but most of them in regions with a temperate climate.
If you carefully examine the appearance of these mushrooms, they will be very easy to distinguish from others that have an external similarity.
- Bulk ordinary, pepper, and other species that belong to the genus Lactarius, when breaking will produce a milky juice. Butter juice this will not allocate.
- There is another edible mushroom that is very similar to a dry mushroom. This is a greenish load. But it differs from the white podgruzdka in that its plates are arranged more frequently. And their faint tint of blue and green is expressed somewhat more intensively.
- The russula falcon is most often found under the oak. But on this basis it is impossible to accurately determine the type of fungus, because under this tree you can also see an excellent russula. But her hat has a yellow color.
How to collect
You can collect this mushroom from the beginning of summer to the end of autumn. You can find them under the foliage. The mushroom is half underground, so you will need to dig a little. But if you find at least one under the leaves, you can fill the basket with several more copies that usually grow nearby.
Mushroom pickers love podgruzdok for the fact that he rarely spoil. Worm mushrooms of this species are also extremely rare. They must be cut, leaving half the legs.
How to cook
This mushroom is best suited to pickle it. But sometimes he is marinated. Before cooking, it is usually soaked for several hours to better clean. After soaking the garbage is easily cleaned with a brush, and then the mushroom is boiled. It is enough to cook them for about 15 minutes. Once the mushrooms have cooled, they can be salted.
Experienced housewives use 2 basic ways of salting the load.
- This method is fast. At first podgruzdki boil 20 minutes. Spices and salt are added to the water. After that, vinegar is added. You can also use citric acid. Mushrooms shift in a bowl with cold water. After 15 minutes they can be served on the table.
These mushrooms can also be added to soup or to fry.
Dry milk mushrooms, although they have an unleavened taste, are a lot of fun for amateur mushroom pickers. After all, they are not so easy to see, it is necessary to rake the foliage near the trees. And with the proper preparation of brine this mushroom is quite possible to give a bright rich taste. Therefore, it is worth every mushroom picker to try to assemble and prepare them.
White mushroom (he is a dry sink) is the closest relative of the russula, but much larger. The cap in diameter can be from 5 to 20 cm, white, but sometimes it has light brown, yellowish or brown patches, dry and matte. The shape of the cap resembles a funnel, in young specimens only emerging in the center. At the break, the core is white, fleshy and dry, the plates are thin, also white, slightly bluish.
The leg is strong, low, in an adult specimen up to 5 cm in diameter. The smell of podruzhdok is the same as that of a crab, the taste is sharp.
Where to find them?
Look for podgruzdok, starting from late summer to mid-autumn. It is good in that it is found both in coniferous and deciduous or mixed forests, as well as in mountain forests, especially near water bodies, on sandy and soddy land, in the northern part of the temperate zone.
Trees that love sub-loads are usually deciduous - alder, oak, birch, aspen, beech, and evergreen - spruce and pine. Sometimes the white caps hide under the fallen leaves or dry grass, but on the whole it does not pose a big problem for the mushroom picker: the loadings grow in groups, and they are quite large, so if you hit the clearing, you will notice several instances without difficulty. looking around carefully, do not miss all the rest.
White podgruzdok has a fairly distinctive appearance. However, sometimes it can be confused with a russula, as well as with some types of wilderness, for example, with a real white wadding, felt (which is also called squeaky, squeegee, milk subscratus), bluish (dogman, violet, spruce mushroom), bluish, aspen, parchment . If we consider the white load and the white load on the photo, the differences are almost invisible. Although the mushroom encyclopedias mention the fringe of the first on the edges of the cap, this feature is rather difficult to notice.
It should always be remembered that the majority of mushroom poisoning is only the result of human carelessness. By exercising healthy caution, serious trouble can be avoided.
How to process and cook
If we talk about podgruzhdke white, no doubt about how to cook it, should not arise. Only salt!
There are proposals to use these mushrooms in marinated form, and some craftsmen manage to fry them or make soup from them. The point, of course, is master's, but, by golly, you should not translate the product! If you are lucky enough to get this miracle, manage to enjoy it to the fullest! So, salting is of two kinds - cold and hot, and among fans there are heated discussions as to which method is better.
I like the first one better: despite the fact that some people say that raw loading, unlike bulk mushrooms, in cold pickling quickly deteriorate and do not crackle, my experience suggests a direct inverse relationship.
We arm ourselves with a knife and a hard washcloth and very thoroughly clean each mushroom from dry leaves, earth, sand and other debris. On the outside of the cap, lumps of earth are almost always available (this is a characteristic feature of the white underload). We pay special attention to the inside of the cap, since especially a lot of dirt always accumulates between the plates. Get ready: cleaning the white load - a very long, tedious and, in general, the most unpleasant process in all of history.
Now, if you are afraid of cold pickling, boil the mushrooms for ten minutes, then immediately drop it in a colander and pour over with cold water, otherwise the mushrooms will turn a dark color and lose their attractiveness. When cold pickling skip this stage. Now the magic begins.
In the harvested dishes (of course, it's great if you have a wooden barrel, but ceramics or glass are also suitable) we start laying layers of mushrooms (whole!) And spices.
Over time, you will have the feeling of the right amount, but for the first time, weigh the mushrooms and measure the salt at the rate of 40 g per kilogram of loads. Try to distribute it evenly during the bookmark process. Then put the gauze on top, set the oppression on top and take it out in a cool place. After a few days we check the selected juice should cover the mushrooms (if necessary, press down a bit of pressure), and foam should form on the surface, it indicates the beginning of the fermentation process.
And now, the most difficult thing is waiting. Cold-salted salt loads can be eaten not earlier than forty days, with the hot method wait at least a couple of weeks.
I do not recommend canning such mushrooms, just keep them in the refrigerator. For a month or two, they will be perfectly preserved, and more - believe me, it is not necessary. This snack "flies" almost instantly.
First aid for poisoning
Perhaps the only poisonous fungus with which you can confuse a young white podgruzdok is a bleached govorushka containing muscarin (the same poison as in the mushroom, only in gossip more). Symptoms of poisoning you will feel within a quarter of an hour after the poison enters the body.
A fatal outcome can occur only with a large dose of poison and lack of medical care, therefore, when symptoms appear, the first thing to do is consult a doctor: a dose of ordinary atropine or another muscarin antagonist will help the body cope with poisoning.
Photo podgruzdka white
Two salting options
White loadings are conditionally edible mushrooms. Although they have excellent taste, they should only be used salted and pickled. Before you do salting, they are soaked in cold water. You should hold them for 4-5 hours under running water, then they will be easier to clean and there is practically no debris on them. Then you need to brush the mushrooms (you can use an old toothbrush) and boil for 10-15 minutes in slightly salty water. Now they need to give time to cool down (for this they can be put in cold water).
Salt the mushroom in two ways:
- The first option is fast food. Boiled podruzdki poured cooked cold brine (spices and citric acid are added to taste). Next, you need to let them stand for 1.5-2 hours. Now mushrooms can be used.
- The second option is long-term storage. Boiled and washed underloads are placed in layers in a pan or in a bucket (depending on the volume). Each layer is sprinkled with salt. Next, you need to pour a little water so as to close the mushrooms. Further the container with them is put in a warm place for 3 days for fermentation. Fermentation will be completed when the brine stops foaming. After that, they are again washed, laid out on the banks, and poured pre-cooked cold brine. Store preferably in a cold place.
From the beginning of summer to the end of autumn, dry milk mushrooms are found in all types of forests (deciduous, coniferous and mixed), even in mountainous ones, forming a mycorhiza with oak, birch, beech, pine, spruce, aspen and alder. Most often they can be found on the banks of rivers, on sod-sandy soils. Grow in small groups (rarely single). Distributed throughout Russia, but most often found in the north of the temperate zone.
How to collect
It is possible to collect white podgruzdok in any period of summer and autumn. Their groups are often hiding under fallen leaves, semi-excavated into the ground, from where they have to be dug up.
Dry milk mushrooms are rarely wormy or spoiled. When collecting, they are cut with a knife in the middle of the leg.
Primary processing and preparation
As already mentioned, white podgruzdok consumed in salted, less pickled form. Pre-mushrooms are soaked in cold water (4-5 hours, so it will be easier to clean up the litter). After that, you should clean the garbage with a brush and boil the drinks for a quarter of an hour in slightly salty water. When they cool down (to speed up the process, you can put them in cold water), you can proceed to marinovka or salting.
Salt dry milk mushrooms can be in two ways.
- At the first, fast, mushrooms boil with salt and spices for 20 minutes. After that, citric acid or vinegar is added (these ingredients will replace the natural lactic acid that is formed during fermentation), and the loadings are transferred to a container with cold water to cool them. After 10 minutes they will be ready to eat.
- The second method is used for long-term storage. Sub-loads are placed in a container in layers, each of which is sprinkled with salt, and flooded with water (the mushrooms must be completely under it). Putting them in a warm place under the oppression, you need to wait a few days until the water stops foaming (as a result of fermentation lactic acid is formed, thanks to which the mushrooms get their unique taste), then rinse the mushrooms again, put them in jars and pour them again same, pre-prepared brine. Always keep in a cold place, for example in the refrigerator.
Also from white podgruzdkov cook soups and fry like ordinary mushrooms.
In spite of the fact that a dry mushroom is a rather bland mushroom, it is worth collecting it, if only because tracking their underground shelters brings great pleasure. Yes, and the taste of it can be given a very different, if properly prepared brine.
The main signs of heavy seats
Milk mushrooms, like many other mushrooms, are symbiotes of higher plants. They make a kind of “union” with trees - exchange nutrients with them through the root system and provide better water absorption. The pundits of Mycology 1 came up with a scientific name for this alliance - “mycorrhiza”.
Photo 2. Old birch - a typical forest, where grow milk.
With which trees the milk mushrooms form mycorrhiza is a separate question, but it has long been noted that most species of these fungi have a particular passion for deciduous species, especially for birch. That is why birch forests and mixed with birch forests are the first landscape where Mildees grow. However, in purely coniferous forests, certain species of these fungi also come across, but they are a minority.
When searching for wetlands, it is necessary to take into account the age of the trees that make up the forest, because the mycelium needs a certain number of years to grow.
Simply put - in very young woodlands, where the height of the tree is comparable to the height of a person, there is no sense to look for mushrooms, here you will rather find oil and paper, but not milk mushrooms. But in older plantings, the chances of finding the coveted fungus are markedly increased. Finally, in the old forests, the Milkwinds will surely fall for you.
In addition to specific trees, for different types of wetlands, other conditions are also important - the type of soil, the amount of moisture in it, how it can preserve it, and how well the sun's rays warm up the place. For different types, these parameters differ, but it has been observed that most varieties avoid frankly dry or wetlands, preferring rather moist soils that are well warmed by the sun — with grass, moss cover, or a bed of rotted leaves. By the way, fruit bodies are often partially or completely hidden under a layer of soil, which should be taken into account for the mushroom picker in the first place (people usually arm themselves with a stick and pick all suspicious bumps with it, and some especially thoughtful ones use small rattle).
Perhaps now is the time to consider in detail the varieties of wetlands and the places where they grow.
Known to all ordinary gruzd, rightly considered the king of salted mushrooms. Forms mycorrhiza with birch. It is not particularly whimsical to the type of soil, so it can theoretically grow in any forests where the above mentioned tree is found - even in birch forests, even in mixed ones. In clean pine forests and spruce forests, where the birch is completely absent, Georgian trees can also be found, but very rarely in single specimens. However, it has long been noted that even in the forests with a birch, this mushroom comes across not somewhere else, but prefers special ones - to him only known places.
To determine and find them - you need some experience. Including the "scent" on gruzd. Предыдущее предложение не для красного словца вставлено, ибо у груздёвых мест в любом лесу имеется характерный запах, который источают плодовые тела и мицелий гриба. Его ни с чем не спутаешь.
Однако, это не единственный признак. Настоящие грузди любят в меру светлые, в меру сухие участки леса, обязательно с наличием некоторого количества травы и кустарникового подлеска. Их бесполезно искать в тёмных, сырых уголках, на заболоченных низинах. A kind of companion plant satellites of this species have been observed: bracken fern, strawberries, and carcass.
The real load starts to bear fruit closer to autumn, approximately when the average daily temperature on the soil surface is set at 8-10 ° C. In the middle latitude and a bit to the north, the first Georgians appear in July, in the southern regions - in August. The collection season ends by the end of September.
Swineer, he's nicky. It differs from the present one in a darker, olive color and high caustic pulp, however, in terms of taste, it is not particularly inferior (if properly cooked, respectively). However, in some areas a certain part of the mushroom pickers ignores the chernushka. And in vain, because the caustic juice of this fungus is perfectly neutralized by boiling or steeping. Everything else - the pig is very rich in vitamins and proteins.
Just like the real one, black mold forms mycorrhiza with birch, which means it can also be found in birch forests and mixed forests, preferring the brightest places like blanks, meadows - where there is moss, leaf litter or grass. She loves to grow along the edge of the glades and along the edges of the forest roads.
The time of fruiting Chernushka almost coincides with that of the present boxing - from July to September.
He is a mushroom mushroom. Characteristic signs are the yellow color of the cap and the legs, on the cut the flesh turns blue-lilac. The taste is very good, especially in salty form.
The blue bum forms mycorrhiza with spruce, less often with birch and willow. Most often found in spruce forests, where it is mainly collected. In the second place - mixed forests - all those where there is also spruce. Finally, in the deciduous forests, this stock is less common - according to the majority of literary sources.
However, neither me, nor my acquaintances, avid mushroom pickers, have ever been able to meet the fir moss mushroom in clean birch forests. Like his brother - almost a twin, which will be discussed in the next chapter. It is possible that this is a feature of our Ural places.
Fruit gruzd blue with the end of August to September.
What is interesting is that sometimes people also call this “elder mushroom” for its similarity with the previous one, and for its undisguised “love” for fir trees. But there are also very noticeable distinctive signs. First of all, the taste qualities: the yellow weight is not inferior to the real weight, and even slightly surpasses the weight of the blue. The second is a bonnet: usually it is colored a bit dimmer and almost smooth, but at the elfin mushroom it has a noticeably pubescent edge. Finally, the third sign immediately catches the eye when collecting mushrooms: the yellow weigh does not turn blue on the cut.
This mushroom grows mainly in spruce and spruce-fir forests. Loves calcareous soil. It is possible that this nuance is connected with the fact that most yellow yellow mushrooms are collected in mountain forests (in the Urals, for example, this is a clearly traceable trend).
Fruits from July to October, apparently - a little more cold-resistant than other milk mushrooms.
He is - oak oak. In our area, a little-known mushroom, but with all that - very good in its taste, although somewhat inferior to the real mushroom. In places of growth rather actively going mushroom pickers.
Forms mycorrhiza with oak, beech and hazel, and therefore grows only in deciduous forests of the middle belt and the south. Prefers clayey soil.
Fruits in mid-July to late September.
Named so for its exceptional causticity, pepper grub is collected much less frequently than other grudges, for it is very inferior in taste. Nevertheless, and there are amateurs on it (including when on the other - more tasty milk mushrooms, there is a crop failure). Another interesting fact - in the old days, this fungus was dried, ground into powder and used as a hot seasoning - a sort of analogue of pepper.
Pepper differs from the present one with a smooth cap - without downy edges.
Forms this gruzd mycorrhiza with deciduous trees (most willingly, apparently - with the same birch), therefore it is found in the corresponding forests - birch, aspen, mixed. In pine forests and spruce forests it can also be found, but rarely. Prefers clayey soil, but with all that - good moisture permeation.
Pepper juice is bearing fruit from July to August, there is also information that this mushroom was also found in early autumn.
This mushroom is very similar to the previous one both externally and according to its preferences. It actually grows in the same places as the pepper, however, the terms of fruiting are somewhat “moved” in the direction of autumn - from August to September.
According to taste, according to mushroom pickers, they regularly collect it is quite good, but it takes a long time to soak or boil it, because the causticity of the milky juice of a parchment load is barely inferior to this amount of pepper.
He is a mushroom podoreshnik. It is a very interesting kind of fun, for some reason not very popular in Russia, but abroad it is considered a delicacy. This mushroom looks quite attractive, and in taste, according to experienced mushroom pickers, it is quite good, although it has one funny feature — the smell of its fruit something resembles seafood, in particular, herring. Young fungi smell very nicely with fresh herring, prompting a person to bite off a piece of a hat, while the old fruit bodies smell sweet, respectively - with stale herring fat, or even rotten fat. It is possible that due to this circumstance, the reddish brown one is ignored by some of our mushroom pickers, while Western collectors advise to get rid of the unpleasant smell by soaking or boiling. Interestingly, the milky juice of this gruzdya is only a bit bitter, but by no means caustic, therefore young fruit bodies do not need preliminary preparation at all.
As a result, the opinions of the mushroom pickers were divided: someone likes this mushroom, there are even his zealous admirers, and someone fundamentally ignores it.
Mykorizu gruzd red-brown forms with oak, hazel and spruce, so it can be found in deciduous and coniferous forests. The mushroom loves damp places, also does not hesitate to climb mountains - up to a height of 1000 meters above sea level.
Fruits from mid-July to early October, in small groups.
He's a squeak, creak. It has a "velvet" hat, which can not be confused with anything. If you collect a full basket of these mushrooms, bring the ear to it and shake it methodically - you can hear the characteristic creak that the fruit bodies rubbing together about each other - for which this mass has received its name. Also, according to this sound, the mushroom pickers determine it by swiping around the edge of the cap with a fingernail, upper incisors, or another cap. Among other distinguishing features, the flesh is slightly green and yellow on the cut, and the milky sap changes its color from white to red when it dries.
The flesh of the violin is probably the same caustic as the peppery milk load, and everything else is firm. Therefore, this mushroom knowledgeable mushroom pickers is generally inedible. No, it can be salted after boiling or soaking, but this will be tantamount to salting paper or wood.
The crepedum grows in different forests, as it can form mycorrhiza with both deciduous and coniferous trees. But especially this mushroom reaches for a birch, as well as many other blueberries.
The first violins appear in July, the peak of fruiting falls in August. In late September, this fungus does not usually come across.
Something outwardly resembling a violin, a bluish grudge is noticeably better than her in taste, although the same caustic in fresh form requires a long soaking or boiling before cooking (up to 30 minutes, large mushrooms - twice).
Quite rare, found in deciduous forests. With the light, it is not particularly capricious - it can be found both in the forest thickets and in open places.
Fruits from July to September.
He is a poplar gum. Due to the similarity with the white whiteness, it is also sometimes referred to as a “moth”, which is not entirely true. From it the aspen wood differs in a much less pubescent edge of the cap and large fruit bodies.
In terms of taste, it is approximately in the same row with blackjack. It forms mycorrhiza with aspen, poplar and willow, therefore it mainly grows in aspen forests and poplar forests. It is quite heat-loving, distributed only in the southern latitudes of the temperate zone, in our country the main places of its collection are located in the Lower Volga region.
Fruits in mid-July to early October.
He is a mossy bum. Distinguished by the presence of a characteristic fringe on the bonnet, which sometimes reaches a length of 1 cm. It is often collected by our mushroom pickers, but in Europe it is considered inedible because of the very hot milky juice, which, again, is perfectly neutralized by prolonged soaking or boiling. Knowledgeable mushroom pickers recommend first soaking the fungus for three days - with periodic water changes, and then boil for about half an hour - in order to get rid of the caustic aftertaste. The only question is - what will remain from the taste qualities after such intensive processing, however, among the collectors of the shaggy ones there are hunters who prefer it in a salty form.
This mushroom forms mycorrhiza with birch, oak, beech, hornbeam, hazel, therefore grows in deciduous, deciduous and mixed forests.
Fruits from July to October.
Important: the nuances of making gruzdy
The vast majority of the above mushrooms contain in their pulp milky juice, often with a bitter, if not caustic, taste.
This juice not only affects the taste of the fungus for the better, but also when consumed inside can cause indigestion or allergic reaction.
That is why in Russia from time immemorial it is customary to process milk mushrooms in a special way before cooking. And there are two options:
- Maceration. From several hours to three days (depending on the causticity of the mushroom taste), with periodic change of water (the more often the better, because soaking time is reduced), necessarily in a cold place so that the mushrooms do not sour. The main advantage of this method of pre-treatment is that soaked milk mushrooms after the same salting turn out the most delicious. The disadvantage is long, plus some fuss.
- Boiling. The time that mushrooms hold in boiling water, again - depends on the causticity of their taste. The least stinging (according to some authors) is enough to scald, and the mushrooms will have to cook for 15-20 minutes. Finally, the most caustic milk mushrooms, especially those of large size, are boiled for half an hour, or two times for 10-15 minutes. The advantage of this method - speed, drawback - cooked mushrooms turn out to be slightly less tasty than soaking.
Each method of preprocessing has its own camp of admirers at the present time, and some lovers practice both, sometimes combining them. And my advice to you - before you decide what is best - soak or boil, try both options.