Eggs of different breeds of chickens have their own characteristics and characteristics. White bird species can produce eggs with white shells. Such birds are especially common in large poultry farms, and in the store, eggs with a white shell color are in prevailing quantities. Egg-bearing meat, which is widespread among the population of the breed, carries brown eggs, hence the myth that these eggs are natural. They are just widespread on private farms.
The influence of the environment on the color of eggs
The color is influenced not only by the breed predisposition, the cause of the color of eggs can also be temperature, various stress factors, diseases. So on the shade of brown color affects such a pigment as protoporphyrin. A large amount of which is contained in vitamins and hemoglobin. From how long the egg moves through the oviduct, the shell will acquire a rich color. This is because the pigment acts on the shell for a longer amount of time. The color is affected by the egg-laying period. Eggs laid for the first time have a darker color than the following. The more pigment there is in the oviduct, the stronger the color of the shell. Consequently, the future color is associated with the genetic predisposition of the bird.
Is there any difference between white and brown eggs?
There are also many speculations around these shell colors. Some people think that brown is healthier and tastier, since they contain a large amount of nutritional components. Cooks choose the dark color of eggs, believing that they are more suitable for confectionery dishes. But this is only a misconception, the differences between the two products are only in the color of the shell. The composition of the egg is the same, it does not depend on the color of the shell. Even the thickness of the shell is equal. There are differences, but they are not associated with color, but with the age of the bird. Young chickens carry eggs in which a dense and strong shell, their bodies are still young. Adult chickens carry eggs with less dense shells, as the body wears out.
If there is no difference, why do eggs with brown shells cost more than eggs with white shells?
Most likely this is a manufacturer's trick, based on the conviction of people that brown eggs are healthier and tastier. But it is known that the bird giving eggs of brown shades consumes more feed, therefore, the production of eggs with brown shells is more expensive. Most eggs with brown shell are found in chickens with a dark color of plumage.
Why does it happen that eggs with different shell colors have different tastes?
The taste is again not related to the color of the shell, but directly depends on the diet that was given to the bird during the laying period.
Along with the shell, attention is paid to the color of the yolk, the richer it is, the egg is considered more useful. In fact, the color of the yolk is given by carotenoid pigments - vitamin A, which paints the yolk orange. Data pigment is in the feed of plant origin: herbal flour, corn, carrots. Using these feeds will allow you to get an egg with an orange yolk.
Are white eggs more fragile than brown?
The strength of the shell is influenced by two factors:
- the age of the chicken (the older the bird, the more fragile the eggs it lays),
- the amount of calcium in the feed (usually the eggs become more fragile in spring, this is due to the general weakening of the body of the chicken after the winter period).
The shell of eggs consists of 90% of calcium carbonate. Its thickness varies from 0.3 to 0.4 mm, and over the entire surface it is unequal. On the sharp end of the egg the shell is slightly thicker than on the dull.
Do brown eggs have brighter yolks?
The color of egg yolk does not depend on the color of the shell.
The color of the yolk is influenced by two factors:
chicken age (the older the bird, the brighter the yolk),
fodder (for chickens eating bright yellow varieties of corn, the yolk will be bright yellow. And the eggs of birds fed on yellow alfalfa will have a pale yellow yolk).
What does marking on chicken eggs mean?
Each egg produced at a poultry farm is marked (with a letter and a number).
The first sign in the marking (letter) means the shelf life, i.e. the “age” of the egg, the second (number) means the category, that is, its size.
- The letter "D" denotes a diet egg, such eggs are sold within 7 days.
The second mark in the marking means the category of the egg depending on its mass:
- The third category (3) - from 35 to 44.9 g.
- The second category (2) - from 45 to 54.9 g.
- The first category (1) - from 55 to 64.9 g.
- Selected egg (O) - from 65 to 74.9 g.
- The highest category (B) - 75 g or more.
Why do chicken eggs differ in color?
Before moving on to color issues, you should understand the structure of the egg. The shell, white and yolk are the three components of a ripe egg, which are in the ratio of 12:56:32 relative to each other. If you do not take into account the outer shell, the proportion of protein is 64%, and the yolk - 36%. Scientists have concluded that 90% of the shell is filled with calcium carbonate, and the remaining 10% are magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, potassium, silicon, molybdenum, sodium, manganese, copper, aluminum, iron, fluorine, sulfur and other elements of the Periodic Table .
According to the degree of saturation of certain chemical elements, the eggshell is close to human teeth.
From the outside, the egg is shrouded in a nadkorlupnuyu film, which is a dried mucus. This protective layer prevents moisture from escaping and prevents exposure to harmful microbes. Inside is another “checkpoint”: a looped film that holds the protein and serves as an excellent filter for microbes. However, it is open to the air and life-giving moisture necessary for the formation of the egg. Completes the natural "block" soft protein film.
The shell thickness is 0.3-0.4 mm: at the sharp end of the egg it is more dense than the blunt end. The compactness of the egg shell also depends on the laying period: at the beginning of the process it is thicker, and towards its completion it is gradually thinned.
The decrease in calcium in the body of the chicken by the end of the laying period is the main cause of thinning of the shell
The color range of eggs, as well as the color of feathers, are laid at the genetic level. In chickens, like in other domesticated birds, the color of the shell is due to belonging to one breed or another.
The egg gets a brownish tint due to the pigment protoporphyrin
Brown color appears on the shell under the influence of protoporphyrin. Most often this coloring matter can be found in hemoglobin and vitamins. He takes part in the synthesis of uterine mucous membrane cells in the process of shell formation, so the shade is laid at the initial stage of this process. The more hours the egg travels through the oviduct, the more intense its color becomes.
Factors affecting the color of the shell
Partly for the color of eggs in one way or another shade is the diet of birds: the lack of certain types of amino acids can lead to a decrease in color saturation. Also its stage is affected by the egg-laying stage, since the shade of the first eggs is usually more saturated. However, the most important factor affecting the color of the shell is that chickens belong to a particular breed.
It is enough to trace the parallel between the color of the feathers and the color of the shell: females with white plumage give white production, and the hens-ryaba of other shades are carried by brown eggs.
Chickens with red, brown, fawn or black plumage are brown eggs
Any variety of chickens characterized by specific color characteristics. For example, the famous Leggorn or Russian White plumage is colored white, respectively, their eggs will be the same shade. Given that these breeds show excellent egg production, snow-colored eggs prevail on the shelves.
The hens of Leggorn were bred as egg cross with high productivity characteristics. In addition, they have excellent adaptive abilities, have a moderate appetite and do not require a lot of space in the chicken coop. AT our article We understand how to properly maintain and feed the "leggorn." And in the article "Leggorn B-33»Take a closer look at dwarf chickens.
In private farms, with the aim of increasing economic profitability, they prefer meat-and-egg breeds that have a predominantly fawn or brown color, like in the Rhode Island breeds, for example. Therefore, in the mind of the average man in the street fixed logical chain: brown eggs = home, which means a natural product. However, in practice, this formula does not work.
There is a test method that gives a 100% result: a white earlobe is a guarantee of white offspring. Owners of red ears give products shades of brown.
The color of the earlobe determines the color of the eggs.
The continent of South America is the proud owner of an exotic breed of chickens that carry blue eggs with a greenish tint. In addition to the original color of the shell, the layers themselves also look quite unusual: they have no tails. The absence of appendages on the back of the torso, apparently, is compensated by the mustache and beard. The name of the Araukan breed comes from the Indian tribe of the same name, widely breeding this species of birds. Several decades ago, this outlandish product gained unprecedented popularity due to the erroneous stereotype. It was believed that this product is much more nutrients than eggs in the usual colors, and cholesterol, by contrast, is much lower. However, recent research has disproved this consumer cliché.
Breeds of Araukan and Ameraukan chickens
Araukan chickens are known around the world for the unusual color of their eggs. However, many breeders believe that green eggs are not the only thing for which you can love this cross. Want to know what else is unusual about these chickens? Read our article about hens of Araucana. By the way, “Araukan” has a kindred cross Ameraukana chicken, which appeared by crossing Araukan with local American chickens.
Chicken of Araucan breed lays blue eggs
In addition to the breed, the color saturation is influenced by the environment, the tendency of layers to various diseases, and even stressful situations. These circumstances can significantly affect the intensity of color, giving the shell a pale cream, a bright brick shade.
What determines the color of the yolk?
In addition to the color features of the egg shell, housewives are interested in the color of the yolk, which varies from light yellow to golden and bright orange. If protoporphyrin “worked” well over the brown shell, then the yellow shade is in the safe hands of carotenoids. However, not all representatives of this group of pigments are given the power to paint the yolk in bright colors. For example, beta-carotene, making carrots so orange, has no effect on the yellow thick substance. But pigments with unusual names lutein and xanthophyll are directly involved in the color of the yolk.
The color of the yolk is determined by carotenoids.
The coloring is determined by the food system: when chickens feed on plants containing a large amount of yellow pigment, the yolk will become more saturated. Achieve a similar effect with the help of corn rich yellow varieties or grass meal. If light corn or alfalfa will prevail in the food scheme, the pallor of the color will be transmitted to the yolk. If the food is based on colorless feed, the yolk will turn out almost transparent, light yellow.
If a hen is fed alfalfa, the color of the yolk will be light yellow.
The color of the yolk, like the color of the egg shell, have absolutely no influence on the quality of the products. However, breeders engaged in breeding hens, try to give the yolk an intense color, so feed the hens with feed containing yellow pigment. In addition, the researchers came to the conclusion that the yolk contains protein in large quantities than the protein itself, therefore, its benefit does not in any way depend on the shade.
Much more protein is found in yolk than protein
Popular Chicken Egg Questions
With the help of the simplest chemical processes, it is possible to give explanations to many questions and riddles related to the germinal form of animals wrapped in a shell - an egg, if you speak in a familiar language. The following are the most common topics for discussion of hostesses who actively use this product for culinary purposes.
Chicken Egg Composition
Is the shell of white eggs more fragile than that of brown ones?
The strength of the shell is affected by 2 factors:
- the age of the hen
- the amount of calcium in food.
It was observed that with increasing age, the chicken begins to carry more brittle eggs. Seasonality also affects the quality of the shell: in spring, when the state of the body deteriorates after the winter period, the probability of accidentally breaking an egg increases significantly.
The strength of the egg shell does not depend on color
Egg labeling rules
Any factory-made egg is labeled. The factory "stamp" begins with a capital letter, which indicates the duration of storage. The number following it means the category responsible for the size. For example, “D” means a diet egg, which is desirable to be implemented within 1 week, and “C” - a table egg, usable up to 25 days. Depending on the categories, egg weight varies from 35 g to 75 g or more.
Egg marking pattern
Eggs with which color are more useful?
There is a widespread opinion, especially among housewives, that brown eggs are more natural. However, the quality of the product is influenced not by the color, but by the characteristics of the content and composition of the feed. It was noticed that among brown eggs, specimens with blood specks are more common.
As the shade of yolks is not related to the quality of eggs, so the color of the egg shell is not associated with taste or nutritional characteristics
Small blood spots are mainly caught in eggs with brown shells.
Are eggs with green yolks dangerous?
The greenish tint that forms on the yolk during cooking does not affect its taste. However, they should not be boiled for too long, because the quality of the protein may deteriorate: the optimal time for cooking is no more than 10 minutes. Recommend using only fresh eggs. Also prevent the greening of the yolks will help their instant cooling after boiling.
The yolk, which after a heat treatment has acquired a greenish tint, is suitable for use in cooking.
Which country can boast the largest consumption of eggs?
The country most interested in egg products is Mexico: each inhabitant of this sun-kissed region eats about 22 kg of eggs annually. Several decades ago, egg ratings were headed by Japan: each islander consumed at least 320 eggs a year.
Mexico has broken all records in consumption of chicken eggs
How the yolk does not stick to the shell?
The protein is formed from 3 layers: relatively strong central and watery layers surrounding it, external and internal. In the region adjacent to the yolk, the protein is a more concentrated form, in comparison with the zone located directly under the shell. In the layer in contact with the yolk, elastic cords form from two edges. It is they who fix the yolk in the central position, and due to their elasticity they do not interfere with its rotation around its axis.
How is an opaque protein formed?
The matt-white shade of protein is evidence that carbon dioxide is in large quantities in the egg. The hazy color is due to the fact that the egg is still fresh, and CO2 did not have time to evaporate. In eggs stored for a long time after egg-laying, carbon dioxide safely left the shell through the pores.
Lightly cloudy protein serves as a guarantor of egg quality.
Is it advantageous to keep eggs without packaging?
Given that the egg shell is permeated with millions of pores, contributing to the penetration of various odors and all sorts of bacteria, it is recommended to put eggs in special trays. It is also desirable to avoid proximity to products that have a pronounced smell.
Eggs are preferable to place in the package
Is it better to place the eggs with the sharp or blunt side down?
It is preferable to put the eggs with the pointed end down. This is done to ensure that the yolks occupy a central position. This situation also contributes to good ventilation: the eggs breathe better in this position, since there are more pores at the blunt end than sharp ones.
Do not store eggs in the fridge too close to other foods.
What is the shelf life of eggs in the refrigerator?
Egg products can be stored in the refrigerator for about 5 weeks from the date of their production. После 6 недель охлажденного хранения такой продукт не рекомендуется употреблять в пищу. Дары кур-несушек не портятся достаточно длительный срок за счет того, что на поверхности скорлупы образовывается защитная пленка.
It is not advisable to store eggs outside the refrigerator.
And what does the size of a chicken egg depend on?
The weight and size of eggs is due to many factors. First of all, the age is affected by the age of the chicken: the younger the female, the more small eggs she carries. As they grow older, their size becomes larger. If at the initial stage the mass fluctuates within 50 g, then when a hen reaches one year old, it increases to approximately 65 g.
The size of the egg depends on the age of the hen.
Why are eggs with two yolks?
Eggs with two yolks are formed in the case when 2 eggs in the body of the hen mature at the same time. As a rule, a similar phenomenon occurs in very young females or one-year-old layers. The largest percentage of "twin eggs" falls on the first week of laying.
Eggs with two yolks can be used for culinary purposes.
Previously, such products were considered unsuitable for consumption, but given the large size of eggs, which weigh up to 80 g, zootechnicians are specially engaged in the development of chicken breeds that carry such eggs.
The color of chicken eggs depends mainly on the breed of the hens, and the intensity of the color of the shell is affected by the content of carotenoid pigments in the feed. However, the coloring in no way affects the taste and nutritional qualities.
Why do chicken eggs differ in color?
All egg shells are made of the same material, staining occurs with the help of chemicals that either cover the shell or penetrate it. Pigment is largely determined by genetics, so the chicken breed is the main determining factor. The brown color is the pigment that is superimposed on the shell, it is called protoporphyrin IX, it is similar to the hemoglobin in your blood. But hemoglobin has iron in your blood, so you get a red color, and there is no iron on the shell, so you get a brown color.
Protoporphyrin is superimposed in the form of a layer over calcium carbonate; therefore, the brown color of the shell is external, inside it remains white.
The situation is a little different with blue. Bilirubin produced by the spleen is responsible for the appearance of such a coloration. He begins his influence even at the moment of laying the egg, so it has a blue tint both outside and inside.
There are several types of chickens bearing such testicles. This is due to the fact that once their ancestors had been infected by a virus that inserts its genome into the genes of chickens. As a result, increased production of bilirubin begins, which settles on the shell. For humans, this has no consequences.
What determines the color and shade of chicken eggshell
There are many factors that affect the color of the shell.
Most often, white chickens lay white, and brown or reddish chickens - brown eggs. But there are several breeds of chickens that lay green or blue due to their genetic properties.
These include olive eggers, araucana, legbar and ameraukana. Pure white, without a beige shade, are Russian white, minor, Leningrad gray hens.
The rest of the breeds carry eggs with a shell from light beige to dark brown.
The color of the shell can be affected by such environmental factors:
- Stress. If the chicken has been subjected to stress, the amount of porphine secreted is significantly reduced and the color of the shell becomes lighter. This is a temporary occurrence.
- Air temperature and drinking water. It is proved that when the ambient temperature is above 25 ° C, chickens carry lighter eggs. Also occurs if the chickens are given water at a temperature of 50 ° C.
- Lighting in the hen house. The production of pigment depends on the length of the day. The longer it is, the brighter the egg scoop.
For the treatment of chickens often use drugs containing sulfonamides or nicarbazine. These substances can reduce the intensity of the color of the shell. To give a more intense brown shade, Bacillus subtilis spores are applied. They are added directly to the feed. Or adrenaline can reduce or completely depigment.
Duration of a chicken in the sun
It has been established that with a long stay of chickens in the sun, their eggshell becomes lighter in color. The same phenomenon occurs at high temperature in the chicken coop.
If the hens are free-range, they should be provided with a cool drink and the feeders placed in a shady place.
The first chicken egg is always much darker than the next ones. This is due to the fact that it is much longer in the oviduct. The older the chicken, the brighter the shell. Sometimes a whitish bloom appears on the shell.
This is due to the fact that the egg is retained in the uterus, because of which an additional layer of calcium is deposited on it.
Does feeding ration affect egg shell color?
Balanced nutrition is very important for the production of high-quality eggs. The chicken should receive a diet that provides the full range of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Since the egg shell is 90% calcium, its absence in the diet will adversely affect the appearance. Uneven pigmentation may appear or, in extreme cases, there will be a complete absence of the shell. If in the diet of chickens too much calcium in the shell can have a sandy texture.
White and brown: is there a difference
In addition to appearance, there is no difference between brown and white. As we found out earlier, the shell is initially white. Having stayed in the oviduct up to 26 hours, it is stained with secreted pigments.
Nutritional and palatability are more dependent on the diet of the layer than on the color of the shell.
What affects the color of the yolk
The color of the hen has a particular effect on the color of the yolk. Grass and other plants, such as clover, corn and alfalfa, are known to enhance the yellow color of the yolk.
Such pigments as protoporphyrin IX and coprotoporphyrin III are responsible for the color of the shell, and they are also responsible for the shade of the yolk. When using feeds with these pigments, the maximum yellow color can be achieved not earlier than the 10th day.
What determines the size of chicken eggs
The size, as well as the color, is primarily influenced by:
- Breed. The larger the layer in size, the larger it will carry eggs.
- Age of chicken. Young chickens carry smaller testicles, older ones carry larger ones.
- Diet. If the hen doesn’t eat balanced and plenty, the eggs will become smaller.
- Season. In the summer, chickens carry testicles smaller in size than in winter.
For the consumer, the color of the eggshell should not play a decisive role in the choice of eggs. It is important for poultry farmers, because for further incubation eggs are selected with typical pigmentation for this breed. This ensures a greater percentage of hatching and health of chicks.
The typical color indicates that the chicken was not subjected to stress, had a balanced diet and was not sick at the time of laying.
What determines the color of the shell
Depending on the breed of hens, the shell can take on any shade from white to dark brown. But most birds lay white eggs. Chickens laying brown eggs are less productive, and thus of less interest to poultry farms. Keep them appropriate only if the eggs can be sold for a higher price.
The color of the shell is associated with another particular problem. Before selling eggs translucent. Thereby trying to detect unappetizing inclusions, such as blood stains, which can cause rejection to the buyer. With a brown shell, blood inclusions are detected with more difficulty than with white, and it is easier for such products to safely pass the pre-sale control and be on the table set for breakfast.
The color of the shell does not determine the taste or quality features at all, and the question why chicken eggs are of different colors can be given 3 different answers. Color depends on:
- environmental conditions (air temperature, stressful situations, diseases of chickens),
- laying period.
What determines the color of the yolk
On the question of what the color of the yolk depends, the experts gave the following answer.
Earlier, when chickens were kept in conditions closer to nature, the yolk acquired a pale yellow in winter and a golden yellow color in summer. The color of the egg yolk depends on the presence of carotenoids in the feed. Carotenoids are represented by yellow and red hues, which are found in corn, carrots and red pepper. The color of the yolk will not depend on the carrot, provitamin A, beta-carotene, but the pigments lutein and xanthophyll give the yolk a bright yellow color.
- In winter, chickens get screenings, which is a mixture of weeds and waste, which are formed during the cleaning of grain after grinding. This feed contains little carotene, and the hens lay eggs with pale yolks.
- In the summer, they independently search for food on green meadows, and the yolks are colored golden yellow and red-brown in color, depending on whether it serves as food — greens or larvae of the May beetles.
The ideal village egg contains the light of the summer sun, although the color of the yolk is not an indicator of its naturalness, freshness or dietary value.
Currently, the color of the yolk is no longer dependent on the season.
Natural products have a significant drawback, namely: their components do not differ in constancy in quantity and quality. Because of this, synthetic carotenoids are mixed in to feed, which results in a consistent yolk color in summer and winter.
Last but not least for the formulation of feed need intuition. The fact is that the desired golden yellow color of the yolk is obtained from the composition of red and yellow dyes.
The color of the yolk is a thing in itself: in addition to pigments, its color is also determined by other feed components and factors:
- antioxidants added to stabilize,
- the proportion of grain in the feed,
- mold poisons,
- chicken diseases,
- medications used to treat chickens,
- conditions of detention (in daylight or in his absence).
All of the above is amenable to all sorts of influences. And when once again at breakfast you take an egg in your hands, marvel at this natural wonder and dexterity of its producers, and it will illuminate you with sunshine of yolk.
Eggs what color tastes better
At one of the agricultural exhibitions, a corresponding survey was carried out, and a third of the respondents preferred brown, a third - white, and those who remained in their preferences could not decide. The consumer is inclined to believe that foods with intense color have a more pronounced taste.
What does marking on chicken eggs mean?
According to Russian regulations, the following marking is applied on the shell or on the packaging:
- The first symbol is the red letter D (dietary) or the blue letter C (table). Dietary eggs are considered only 7 days after the demolition, then they go into the category of canteens.
- The next symbol is a category, denoted by a number from 1 to 3 or by the letters O (selective) or B (highest category).
In the category of eggs are divided exclusively by weight from the shell. Compliance is shown in the table below.
As an example, the C2 label designates table eggs of 2 categories, with an average weight of 50 g. If the recipe of a culinary dish or cosmetic mask indicates "egg", there are 2 categories in mind, although housewives sometimes refer to "average" 1 category.
If desired, the manufacturer can apply the following (optional) marks:
- your trademark
- poultry farm name
- expiration date with sorting date.
Interesting questions and answers
Are there two-colored egg yolks, and why are they possible?
Answer. There are, if the manufacturer in an effort to maintain the constancy of the color of the yolk in the summer and winter, mixes carotenoids to the chicken feed. With a sudden change in the composition of the dyes in the boiled egg, a two-color yolk is found.
Does eating eggs increase cholesterol levels and the risk of heart attack?
Answer. In a number of authoritative studies, no relationship was found between the number of eggs eaten, the level of cholesterol in the blood, and the level of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. There is a certain old man who ate 24 eggs daily for 15 years. The level of cholesterol in his blood lay below 5 mmol / l.
If the egg smells like fish, does this mean that fish meal was added to chicken feed?
Answer. Not necessary. The reason may be chicken diseases: a bacterial infection or the presence of parasites in the chicken oviduct. The taste and smell of fish is determined by trimethylamine, a substance formed during the breakdown of nitrogen-rich protein compounds.
Some breeds of chickens lay smelling eggs while feeding them with rape, and this applies to more chickens that carry brown eggs. Another undesirable taste is attached to a large number of acorns, larvae of May beetles, onion, garlic peel, rutabaga, cabbage, cotton seed, legumes, millet, and rye, which can be used as food in limited quantities, and with preliminary heat treatment.
Do fresh eggs taste better?
Answer. At one of the agricultural exhibitions 3000 visitors were offered boiled hard-boiled eggs, and they were asked to indicate the most delicious. Processing the answers revealed that for most visitors the eggs were considered the most delicious at the age of 14 days. The second place was taken by 3-day, and at the end of the list were 21-day.
How to determine whether a fresh egg or not?
Answer. The age of eggs is most reliably determined when they are broken: the yolk of a fresh egg is convex, limited by a dense shell, and in the protein two zones are clearly distinguished. In the old, the proteins spread widely, the zones do not differ in it, and the yolk is flat and soon burst.
Where is more protein (protein) in protein or yolk?
Answer. Protein is lower in protein than in yolk, the percentage is 11 and 16%, respectively, that is, one and a half times more. Why, then, bodybuilders prefer proteins yolks? Because there are no fats in proteins, and yolks also have 16%.
The color of the shell determines the breed of chicken, and the color of the yolk - used to feed them in the last 2 weeks of feed. The color of the shell does not affect the consumer quality, but by the color of the yolk and its consistency, you can determine the age of the egg, possible diseases of the hen and its conditions. The eggs of chickens kept in close to natural conditions, which received a complete feed, are the most valuable.
Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications