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Israeli agriculture - man-made miracle

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The Embassy of the State of Israel announces the announcement of a competition for MASHAV scholarships for training in vocational training programs in Israel in the following areas: agriculture, rural development, community development, development of education systems, environmental management, and others.

Scholarships to study in Israel are provided on a competitive basis and fully cover the cost of accommodation, meals and training during the course. Shipping costs are not covered.

Mandatory condition for obtaining scholarships and training: free working language of the course (information about the language specified in the description of the relevant course).

Download detailed information about courses.

Reference: The MASHAV Center for the Development of International Cooperation of the State of Israel was established in 1958 under the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is responsible for developing, coordinating and implementing a state cooperation program with the aim of promoting global economic and social progress.

Sixty years ago in Israel, food was distributed on cards. The country received food aid. Today, Israel is almost completely self-sufficient, and its agricultural exports have reached one and a half billion dollars. Is this not a miracle?


On the pages of the Ministry of Health, I read a message about Andrei Malakhov’s television program “Let them talk” called “Israel Saves Russia”. It described the catastrophic situation in the Russian agriculture due to a strong drought. After hearing the farmers' stories about their troubles and misfortunes, Andrei Tumanov, editor-in-chief of the agricultural magazine “Your six acres,” said: “I, for example, drove to the supermarket before the transfer. This radish (shows a beautiful bag of radishes) was grown in Israel in the Negev desert. There is always a drought in the Negev Desert in Israel. But at the same time, farmers manage to grow radishes in the desert, and as you know, the culture is very moisture-loving, and bring planes to Russia and Russia to sell. "

I live in Israel for thirty years and three years. I saw and saw a lot of wonderful things in it.

Sixty years ago in Israel, food was distributed on cards. The country received food aid. Today, Israel is almost completely self-sufficient, and its agricultural exports have reached one and a half billion dollars. Is this not a miracle?

I wrote a lot about Israeli agriculture. I offer the readers of the weekly "We are here" conversation with my friend BORIS BORDMAN - State Assistant at the Ministry of Agriculture, an international professional, the author of dozens of scientific articles and publications, who came to Israel from Chisinau in 1989.

- To which countries and what agricultural products does Israel export?

- First of all, let me remind you that this is a country whose area is 22 thousand square kilometers (a little less than the Tula region - V.Kh.). Nearly half of its territory is desert, and a large part is mountains, hills and forests. At the same time, Israel’s agriculture is experiencing a constant shortage of fresh water. Each of the 80,000 thousand people employed in agriculture is able to feed 100 (!) Compatriots. For comparison, in the USA this indicator is 1:79, in Russia - 1: 14.7, in China - 1: 3.6.

Israel sells agricultural products to dozens of countries in Western and Eastern Europe, Asia (including Southeast), Africa, the USA and Canada. We export vegetables, potatoes, melons, ornamental plants, citrus fruits, seeds and seedlings, fish, and in addition, flowers, approximately one and a half billion pieces a year.

Much of the vegetables, fruits and flowers are grown in modern greenhouses. If the average yield of tomatoes on open ground is 60-80 tons per hectare, then in greenhouses with a computer controlled climate is 500 tons. We have learned to turn the disadvantages of our climate into advantages. For example, the tomato variety “Desert Sweet” is irrigated with salt water, which gives it a unique sweetish taste.

We have learned to grow strawberries in an artificial environment, raising it to a meter height and now - well ventilated, inaccessible for pests, our strawberries do not need toxic chemicals and can be bought without fear. Even very picky Englishmen recognized it as environmentally friendly and willingly buy it.

Today, Israel has no equal in exporting greens - we sell thirty-six items. The speed of supply of greenery is impressive. In the morning it is transported inside the greenhouse on specially cooled trolleys, and the next day our greens in special sealed packaging can be seen in the markets of European cities.

And the early grapes grown under special protective nets, the Israelis, overtaking other exporters, are the first to be thrown into foreign markets.

One of the most serious articles of Israeli exports is avocado. In Israel, there are about four dozen of its varieties. Thanks to high technology, we collect from 1000 sq. M (in a hectare of 10.000 sq. M) to three and a half tons. For comparison, the harvest of wild-growing avocado from the same area does not exceed 500 kg.

Israeli seeds are selling well in other countries. Moreover, their cost is quite high. For example, one kilogram of tomato seeds costs $ 25,000 (200 g is needed for sowing a hectare).

The traditional article of Israeli agricultural exports is citrus fruits: oranges, tangerines, grapefruits, pamela. At one time, their exports declined, but now they have risen sharply. New varieties of our orange and mandarin before harvesting purchased "in the bud." Especially in demand are varieties that can be stored for a long time and that tolerate transportation. For example, mandarins varieties "Or".

The crop of our persimmon, lecho is almost completely exported. In recent years, we began to export mangoes. The plantation area of ​​different varieties of pomegranate has increased four to five times. To taste, our grenades today are not inferior to the best in the world - Azerbaijani.

- Everyone who visited Israeli farms, noticed: there the legs of cows are decorated with bracelets.

- This bracelet is called a pedometer. In addition to identifying a cow, counting liters of milk and other data, he transmits to the main computer of the farm how many steps the cow took in a day.

- Why does it need to know?

- Any animal, if it is healthy, takes a certain number of steps per day. When you feel bad, you try to lie down and not walk. Exactly, forgive me, and the cow. If she stopped moving, then she was sick.

Livestock is the pride of our agriculture. Our cows, in our hot climate, when they don’t really want to eat, bypassed the famous Dutch women and give 11,400 liters of milk per year. One of the tricks - we came up with an artificial cooling system. The appetite of the cows increased even in the summer months, and consequently, the milk yield also increased.

I'll tell you a curious case. I conducted international courses in Israel for representatives of the CIS countries. One of the listeners, a tall man, at first did not hide his skepticism: "What can you teach me here, when I (he was the head of a large livestock complex in Ukraine), record-holder cows give 6.000-7.000 liters of milk per year!". At the end of the course, when our ambitious guest already knew about the milk yield of Israeli cows, he came to me and said: “Sorry, Boris, I couldn’t imagine that in Israel, cows with such yields as ours are sent to the slaughterhouse. I swear, if someone else tells me something bad about the Jews, I will tear his head off! "

Israel supplies entire livestock farms to other countries. They include automatic lines, processing shops and even pregnant cows. The same applies to intensive fish farming complexes in which multicolored carps, trout and even sturgeon fish are raised.

Israeli black and red caviar are highly valued in international markets. By the way, in order to learn how to grow sturgeon breeds, many years and large funds were spent. But everything paid off and gives a good profit.

The poultry industry is also developing well - we breed chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, ostriches. But I don’t know to which industry crocodiles belong.

- They talk about all the wonders of Israeli genetics and biotechnology. Is it true that Israeli scientists brought out square tomatoes?

- There are no square tomatoes. There are saucer-shaped zucchini, black watermelon, red banana, green and brown cotton. All this exotica sells well abroad. By the way, the same cotton, which in many countries continues to be harvested by hand, in Israel does not require human participation. And, since we started talking about cotton, I would add: in Israel this is the first crop that is completely watered with sewage water that has undergone several degrees of purification.

- When I visited various countries of the CIS, I came across Israeli specialists in agriculture there. What do they do in these countries?

- Israeli external relations in the field of agriculture include training in special courses, joint research projects and the exchange of experts. For example, I recently returned from a very interesting conference held in Russia, in Kurgan. Every year hundreds of foreign specialists come to courses in Israel. Courses are conducted in English, Spanish, French Arabic and Russian. Specialists from the CIS and Eastern Europe are trained in Russian. I give lectures on mechanization and technology of rural production in these courses.

- Do you cooperate with Arab countries?

- Yes, with Egypt, Jordan, Morocco. There are contacts with countries with which Israel does not have diplomatic relations. As early as 1995, over 600 graduates from Egyptian universities studied in Israel - they studied land reclamation methods in desert areas.

We are open for cooperation with everyone. Modern society to meet the very first, most important need of people - food can no longer be in constant dependence on the season, weather conditions, the invasion of pests of agriculture, animal diseases, etc. This is - yesterday. We live in the twenty-first century and modern food production, their processing becomes a reliable and profitable business, regardless of the "graces of nature."

Pre-school education system

The Israeli education system is different from many others in that children start learning almost from birth. It is possible to arrange a child in kindergarten when he is only 3 months old (although it will cost money - a free stay in the garden is provided for older children). The popularity of preschool education has led to the emergence of many forms of education, such as:

  • Maon (nursery) - municipal or private institutions, in which a group of 15-20 kids is formed under the supervision of 2-3 educators, while children can play on their own playground,
  • Mishpachton (day nursery at home) - cozy institutions located in the apartments of qualified teachers, where 5-8 pupils can receive education at the same time,
  • Gan Eladim (kindergartens) - private or public institutions, in which up to 35 children are simultaneously enrolled. As a rule, their age is 3 years and older,
  • Zaaron (extended day groups) - educational programs that involve children of working parents in kindergarten until 6 pm with the opportunity to have lunch and attend extra classes,
  • Kaytan (summer kindergartens) - quite expensive, but very convenient places where you can leave children until 18.00 during the holidays, when the usual gardens and nurseries are closed.

As a rule, the smallest are identified in kindergartens in the spring, after the Pesach holiday, and children older than 3 years old are enrolled in municipal institutions in the winter, and you can place your child in the older group of kindergarten for free. Of course, children will be happy to be taken to private institutions at any time of the year, but a significant amount will have to be paid for this.

So, if a “city” kindergarten costs only 75 shekels ($ 20) per month, then the extended day group will cost up to 1000 shekels ($ 277), and the summer camp will be twice as expensive. Naturally, there are kindergartens in Israel for Russians, but they also do not work for free.

Almost all institutions for kids are open from 7.30 to 18.00 from Sunday to Thursday (some also on Friday).

Groups in kindergartens are formed "by years", that is, for children from 1 year old one group, from 2 years old - another, etc.

If you often visit or already live in Israel, visit exhibitions on pre-school education, during which presentations of private nurseries and kindergartens take place.

School education

After graduating from kindergarten, Israeli children go to school. They have 12 years to master the general education program. At the same time, schooling is divided into three stages:

  • elementary school - grades 1-6 (children are taught from 6 to 12 years old),
  • high school - grades 7-9 (from 12 to 15 years),
  • high school, or tikhon - grades 10-12 (15-18 years).

It is not necessary to go to Tikhon - a teenager who is 16 years old can transfer from school to a technical school or even leave for free bread. At the same time, young people who decide to leave school can make a translation for free. Naturally, this applies only to state institutions, including those with a religious slant.

School classes each year begin on September 1 and end on June 20 or 30 (depending on the class). Schoolchildren study from 8.00 to 13.00 or 14.00 - again, depending on age. During the year, children rest on vacation four times:

  • in the spring - on the days of the celebration of Easter,
  • in the summer from the end of June to August
  • in the fall - in September or October (Sukkot week),
  • in winter - in December (the week of Hanukkah celebration).

Information for migrants from CIS countries

Visitor children, with the exception of high school students, are divided into classes by age, and not by language proficiency. At the same time, migrants and repatriates have the right to attend additional classes in Hebrew, English, literature and reading sacred texts (Tanakh). Adolescents aged 16–18 years can go to the “junior” class in order to have time to prepare for the examination for the certificate of maturity.

Coming from the CIS, in particular, from Russia or Ukraine, it is easier to get a good grade on a 100-point system if he is studying in a “Russian” school, such as:

  • School at PP (Embassy) of the Russian Federation in Israel (in everyday life - a school in Tel Aviv for Russians) - here they speak Russian and donate the familiar GIA and EGE, relax during the Russian public holidays, participate in numerous competitions and festivals,
  • Gordon School in Petah Tikva - almost all the teachers of this educational institution are native citizens of the USSR, so if a student does not understand something in Hebrew, it will be easy to ask again in his native language,
  • Russian-speaking schools in Israel in Rishon.

In addition, the Reali School in Haifa is very popular - an educational institution with a 100-year history. Here, teachers, alas, do not speak Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian, but the child can receive a very high-quality education - the certificate of this institution is even an advantage at the interviews. However, there are always few empty seats, and in order to enter, the student must pass an entrance test well.

Admission to the university and visa

In order for a person who has not yet moved abroad to be able to enter an Israeli university, he needs to submit documents in advance, and with particular attention one should approach the certificate of education already received. Thus, a school certificate or diploma of a university in the CIS should be translated into Hebrew by a qualified specialist and notarized. It should be borne in mind that in small towns it is quite difficult to find a translator.

When you do everything and collect the necessary documents, you can safely apply to the Israeli university. If the local administration approves the candidate, the prospective student will receive a personal invitation.

After that, you can be engaged in visa processing.

Required documents

Want to get a student visa valid for up to one year? Then you need to submit a package of documents to the embassy. Specify that you need a type A2 visa, and take with you:

  • visa application,
  • certificate of payment of the consular fee ($ 47),
  • two photos 5x5 cm
  • certificate of enrollment (invitation),
  • bank statement,
  • valid international passport.

Higher education

According to Israeli law, higher education here can be obtained exclusively on a fee basis. This applies to all - both citizens and migrants, and repatriates. And since the possibility of free education in Israel is not provided for, its value becomes much greater than in other developed countries. It is not by chance that a diploma from a university in this country opens the door for many large international companies to a graduate.

Education in universities takes place in three stages: this is the first, second and third degrees. Residents of the CIS countries should bear in mind that this is, in effect, their usual division into undergraduate / specialty, magistracy and doctoral studies. To prepare for admission, a prospective student can take advantage of special programs.

Учитывая то, что учёба в Израиле для русских бесплатно не проводится, можно сэкономить на курсах иврита. Это касается и выходцев из других стран СНГ.

To combine study and work, a student can enroll in a distance course or evening study program. Thus, in the University of Haifa, the first degree programs are envisaged even at a very complex department of social welfare and health care. Successful correspondence courses, as well as full-time, ends with the defense of the thesis.

Benefits for military personnel

However, there is a category of young people, which laid significant benefits. These are people who served in the army of Israel. First, such young men and women almost always receive scholarships, the size of which depends on the university, as well as on the military rank of a student (can reach up to 6,000 shekels or $ 1,675).

Secondly, those who return from the army receive a pre-emptive right to enter the institute, that is, with an equal number of points, a former soldier will receive a place in the university. Thirdly, if after the army a person wants to go to the institute where there is a military department, he will be able to enter there out of competition - unless, of course, he has a recommendation from the commander of the military unit.

schedule

The school year for Israeli students begins at the end of October and ends in June. The day of commencement of studies is determined by the religious calendar: students go to class after the holiday of Sukkot. You can find out when a particular university will open its doors for students on its official website.

The duration of the semester can reach 14 weeks, while the days of religious holidays are always small holidays.

Future bachelors and specialists attend university 3-4 days a week, and masters and doctors of science - 2-3 days.

Conditions of admission to an Israeli university

Entry requirements depend on what level of training they want to attend and whether their future specialty implies research. In general, in order for a migrant to have a chance to enter an Israeli university, he must submit an impressive package of documents. It includes:

  • a copy certified by a notary public of all pages of a passport or an identity card,
  • Photo 3x4 cm
  • certificate of repayment of the registration fee,
  • certified by a notary copy of the certificate or diploma,
  • psychometric test certificate
  • IELTS / TOEFL certificate (if available),
  • for those who wish to obtain a scientific degree - academic resume, letter of motivation and the certificate of passing the GRE test,
  • for applicants-researchers - the project and the accompanying letter of the supervisor.

It is these papers that need to be collected by anyone who is interested, for example, training for Ukrainians in Israel or receiving education by Russians, Belarusians, etc.

After submission of documents, the applicant must demonstrate knowledge of Hebrew, and, if necessary, pass additional internal exams.

As for the psychometric test, it can be taken in both English and Hebrew, and in Russian. The maximum score is 800, the average pass is 400.

This test is required to test a person for:

  • verbal thinking
  • quantitative thinking
  • knowledge of the English language (the language of the tasks, that is, instructions on what the student needs to do in each specific exercise, is written in the language chosen for delivery - for example, Russian, and the texts with which to work are in English).

University Ranking

Universities in Israel are famous for their quality education. Many universities in this country are in the world rankings. These are the universities of Jerusalem, Haifa, Tel Aviv. There are seven most popular areas of training for undergraduate and graduate students in Israel:

  • management,
  • engineering,
  • information Technology,
  • natural Sciences,
  • economy,
  • psychology,
  • the medicine.

If the visitor is not very good with languages ​​or objects that interest him, you can find intensive programs. For example, seminars on law in Russian are held in Israel (from 80 to 200 academic hours).

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