Cherry does not need good lighting, so when choosing a place for culture, you need to take this factor into account. The best option for planting trees will be the upper part of the southern slope or a sublime and flat area, protected from the wind.
The culture can be planted both in spring and autumn, in the so-called period of biological rest, when the plants have already stopped or have not yet begun their growth. In the fall, cherries are planted in the middle lane in the first decade of September. Planted at this time, it will take root well and survive winter frosts without any problems. Start planting crops in the spring should be in April, when the snow comes down from the site.
For planting experienced gardeners recommend choosing one and two year old cherry seedlings. It is believed that three- and four-year-olds take root longer and much later enter fruiting times.
Landing process technology
- Immediately before planting inspect saplings. Cut the damaged roots with a sharp and clean knife to a healthy tissue and sprinkle the slices with chiseled activated carbon. Broken branches are also pruned.
- Making a clay mash. To do this, mix the clay and water to a creamy consistency. We omit the root system in it for 30–60 minutes.
- We prepare a landing hole with a diameter of 0.6–0.8 m and a depth of about 0.4–0.5 m, while the upper part of the soil should be put aside, add humus (1–2 buckets) and superphosphate to this ground (1 cup ).
- The resulting nutrient substrate is poured at the bottom of the pit and form a small mound.
- Set the seedling on a mound and straighten the roots so that they move away in all directions from the trunk.
- We cover the roots with soil and shake the seedling a little so that the earth fills all the gaps between the roots.
- When the root system is completely sprinkled, slightly compacted soil and add more land. When planting cherries, we take into account that the place of transition of the roots to the stem of the tree (root neck) should rise 4–5 cm above the ground level, since at its depth the tree grows poorly and late in fruiting.
- Next to the seedling, we place a peg and tie a young cherry to it loosely with a string.
- We make a small roller around the tree and pour water into the resulting hole (2–3 buckets).
- We mulch near-stem circle with loose earth, peat or manure. This will help protect the soil from drying out.
Cherry care is all you can
The main advantage of zoned varieties of cherries is their resistance to the weather conditions of the middle lane and good winter hardiness, but still you should not count on a huge and permanent crop without proper care.
Watering, fertilizing and other nursing activities
Cherry does not require the same care as other fruit trees. The main procedures are loosening the soil under the crown of the crop, weeding, application of mineral and organic fertilizers.
In hot summer and during drought cherries must be watered at least 2–5 times per season. The first watering is necessary after flowering, the second - when a bone is formed in the fruit, the third - during the staining of the fruit. It also requires moisture recharge moisture in late autumn before the start of frosts, if, of course, the weather is dry at this time. The procedure is carried out after leaf fall, pouring 2–3 buckets of water under each tree. Due to the supply of moisture in the soil, its temperature will be several degrees higher and the plant will easily survive the winter cold.
For excellent growth cherry requires a large amount of nutrients. Approximate scheme of fertilizing such:
- The first - at the beginning of the growing season. During this period, apply nitrogen fertilizers in the form of ammonium nitrate or urea (1 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water).
- The second feeding after 2 weeks with the same fertilizer.
- In the autumn, add 10 kg of humus, 50 g of potassium salt and 80 g of superphosphate (per 1 sq. M.) For digging around the trunk circle.
Why cherry does not bear fruit
Many gardeners, not only for beginners, but also experienced gardeners, are familiar with the situation when the culture does not bear fruit, and sometimes it does not even bloom. The reasons for this may be different. Consider the most common.
Firstly, the amount of harvest depends on where the tree is planted. If you plant a cherry on a plot open to "all winds", then most likely there will be practically no ovaries on it, because flower buds will freeze. Berries can be formed only on the lower branches. To get a consistently high yield of juicy fruits, plant a cherry on an elevated and level plot, reliably protected from the winds by a wall at home or by a fence. If you have an open area, then choose undersized or dwarf varieties of cherries.
The second problem is the lack of a pollinator on the site. Many varieties are self-productive and even if the variety is claimed by originators, as self-fertile, the presence of neighbors who would pollinate cherries will only increase the yield. Gardeners can recommend to plant in the garden several trees that bloom at the same time (it is quite easy to find out by reading the description of the variety). Consider that planting cherry seedlings intended for mutual pollination costs no more than 60 m from each other.
Selection of seedlings
Pit for planting cherries (click to enlarge)
These conditions must be taken seriously, because the further fruiting, color and growth of cherry trees will depend on the quality of their performance. Landing conditions include:
- The choice of location. When choosing a place for planting cherries, keep in mind that you need to plant it in fertile soil, preferably on a hill, so that the place is constantly blown by the winds.
If planted in the lowlands, during the cold winter months, the trees can be affected by frost, and in summer there is stagnation of water, which can lead to a slow development and the appearance of a fungus affecting the seedling (for diseases of the cherry can be found here).
Another wish from gardeners is the "eastern sun", in other words, the place to land should be chosen taking into account the fact that at sunrise the rays of the Sun will fall on the cherry for a more productive process of photosynthesis.
Soil preparation. Note that the soil should not be too acidic. To reduce the acidity, you can use lime, which is simply scattered over the selected area at a rate of 0.4 kg per square.
Next, dig the soil on the bayonet, add organic fertilizer and mix thoroughly. Compost or manure can be used as organic fertilizer, if necessary, add minerals.
Although, if you have prepared saplings of self-pollinating varieties of cherries, then this moment ceases to play an important role. The pit itself in diameter should reach 0.8 m, and a depth of 0.6 m. It is recommended to mix the soil from the pit with minerals, organic fertilizers and wood ash.
Preparing a seedling in the fall (click to enlarge)
At the same time, the root neck should be 2-3 cm above the ground level. After this, perform filling the pit with soil with a slight compaction and follow the perpendicular of the trunk relative to the ground.
Around the trunk, make a small round mound and fill with water, about 2-3 buckets. Now you can tie the seedling trunk to a peg, and cover the soil with a thin layer of humus.
Care and pruning
Properly planted sapling
It is advisable to plant legumes, you can strawberries, as well as melons and alfalfa. Sunflower, maize and tobacco are not recommended; they can lead to soil depletion. As a result of the fact that cherries do not like frequent watering, moisture-loving crops such as carrots and cabbage do not need to be placed near cherries.
From mid-September, complete the period of periodic watering of cherry trees, begin its preparation for winter.
Pruning should be carried out in cases of occurrence and development of processes towards the inside of the crown. But after pruning, in order to exclude gum therapy, it is important to treat the “wound” with garden pitch.
Pruning is carried out in early spring at a time when the plant has already overwinter, but the spring awakening has not yet begun.
Cherry root system offspring
Subject to the basic requirements after some time (maybe a year or two), you will be able to collect quite good harvests of cherry in your garden. But remember that any fruit-bearing tree effectively performs its functions for 13-16 years, so do not forget about the reproduction of cherry trees, as well as their care.
How to plant a cherry, see in this video:
Also subjected to fruit rot cherry or moniliasis. It appears in the middle of summer, when the fruits begin to ripen. On each of them, affected by the disease, a gradually increasing spot is formed. Distribution is promoted by increased temperature and humidity. As a preventive measure can be sprayed with fungicides.
Very fond of cherry trees and insects. The main pests are:
- cherry weevil
- plum moth,
- leaf aphid
- cherry sawfly,
- caterpillar hawthorn.
All preventive work to get rid of insects are carried out in early spring. Thus, you can get rid of pests that have hibernated on the tree and in the soil. For this, the stem is treated with blue vitriol.
Proper planting cherries, care and pruning seedlings according to the scheme
Rarely meet a man who would not like a cherry. Planting, growing and caring for this garden crop does not present much difficulty with a competent approach. Some rules I want to share with you.
Cherry grows in almost all regions of Russia. It is an excellent honey plant, not capricious. It can grow even in adverse conditions. Well tolerated lace shadow. But the best place to grow will be sunny, windless areas, for example, along fences.
The roots of the plant are rather superficial. Therefore, in case of drought, the cherry requires watering, unless it is grafted on Mogaleb cherry seedlings that grow in the steppes, therefore it is drought-resistant. At the same time, groundwater should not be closer than 1.5-2 meters from the surface.
If the plant is damaged by frost, it will quickly recover.
Pruning cherry seedlings
In the spring, when the buds have not yet dissolved, they prune the plants. First of all, the broken and diseased shoots are removed. When the crown is thickened, it is discharged. Very large saw cuts close with brew, oil paint. Otherwise, it may lead to drying and death of the plant. The first five years is the increased growth of the tree. In this regard, thin out the crown annually.
A one-year-old sapling removes all shoots located below 60-80 cm. So we will form a shtamb. Above we leave 4-5 well developed branches, which will later become skeletal. In the second year, retreat 80 cm from the upper skeletal branch and cut off the center conductor. This will stop the growth of the tree in height, which is more convenient when harvesting.
Be sure to remove the root growth. It is often a breeding ground for pests, impairs the nutrition of the main tree. You need to delete along with the roots. If the shoots are simply mown or cut at the level of the soil, then it becomes only thicker.
Cherries fruit well for 10-15 years. Then it is better to replace it with new plants.
As you can see, the cultivation and care of cherries are not difficult. A little effort, and the tree will delight you for many years with its crops.
Cherry - planting and care, the main recommendations for a bountiful harvest
If you want a healthy, well-fruited cherry to grow in the garden, planting and caring for it should be done according to the rules. In favorable conditions, such a tree bears fruit for up to 15 years. Fragrant sweet and sour fruits are popular for compotes, juices, jams and pies, and are actively consumed fresh.
Cherry - planting and care in the open field
The cherry tree grows to a height of 10 meters, has round juicy fruits with a diameter of up to 2 cm. The cherry blossoms in April with white or pink corolla and turns into one of the most picturesque garden plants.
The tree likes to grow in lighted areas with drained, sandy or loamy substrate. Do not plant it near groundwater or in the lowlands with stagnant moisture. In order to obtain a high-quality rich harvest from a cherry, care and cultivation must be carried out correctly.
A tree is planted in spring or autumn, in each case there are recommendations for rooting.
Spring planting cherries
If the cherry takes root in the spring, the seedling has a time to get stronger and get into growth. Work is carried out if the earth is already heated, and the kidneys have not yet swelled. Favorable planting time in spring is mid-April. When buying, pick up two-year-old trees with a size of 60 cm. Cherry - spring planting and care:
- the roots of the plant are kept for three hours in water to fill them with moisture,
- landing pit digs with a diameter of 80 cm, 60 cm in depth,
- a 1 m high peg is driven into its center,
- at the bottom pours soil mixture with dressings, put a seedling so that the stem start remains 2-3 cm above the ground line,
- the roots of the plant are straightened out, the prepared soil is added to the pit and it is carefully tamped,
- after disembarking around the trunk a hole is formed at a distance of 30 cm., a bucket of water is poured into it,
- then the near-stem circle is sprinkled with peat, sawdust, the seedling is fixed to the peg,
- When planning a garden, the density of trees is important - they must receive all the required elements from the soil. Seedlings from each other are placed in the intervals of 2.5-3 m.
Planting cherries in the fall
Garden cherry after planting in the fall is unlikely to have time to get stronger before the cold weather. It can suffer from frost or die completely. Therefore, it is better to prepare and prikopat cherry seedlings, and planting and care in the open field to produce in the spring. How to save purchased tree:
- in a shady piece of the garden, where snow lasts the longest in the spring, they pull out an oblong hole 40 cm deep at a 45-degree angle,
- a sapling is laid in a trench - the roots and the third part of the trunk are covered with earth and watered abundantly,
- tree along the entire length covered with pine branches. After the snow falls, over a sapling throw a snowdrift 50 cm high,
- as in the winter, cherries bought in the fall are bred; planting and caring for it are made in the spring. Take out a sapling right before rooting in a stationary hole.
If the decision is made to root the tree for a permanent place of growth in the fall, then work is carried out in October. At this time, the seedling is already in a state of rest, and 3-4 weeks are left before the start of frosts.
You need to start planting with dipping the roots in a talker of clay and manure, then the tree can be rooted in a hole.
The seedling is attached to the peg, after watering the stem circle, it is necessary to mulch it - plentifully fill it with sawdust.
Fertilizer when planting cherry
For garden cherries, care and cultivation begin with planting in a substrate rich in nutrients. Soil for rooting is prepared in the fall - dolomite flour or lime is sprayed on the plot in an amount of 400 g per square meter and the substrate is dug up to the depth of the shovel bayonet.
In a week, oversized manure in the proportion of 15 kg is added to it. per sq.m. In spring, when planting, a fertile layer of soil is removed from above, combined with humus in the same concentration, and 1 kg. ash, 30-40 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium chloride.
This mixture is optimal for planting in a pit.
Cherry - pruning and crown formation
Garden cherry, planting and care for which were carried out correctly, gives a quick growth of shoots. From this, her crown thickens and many small twigs are born. If it is thinned, the fruits will be larger, the foliage is healthier, and fruitful branches will live longer. The tree needs pruning, if the growth of shoots becomes more than 50 cm. Rules for pruning a cherry:
- the first procedure takes place in March in the spring, until the kidneys swell,
- if the sap flow has already gone, pruning needs to be postponed, otherwise the branches will wither,
- autumn pruning is advisable at the end of the growing season,
- useful sanitary procedure for the removal of diseased branches, which can be carried out throughout the year.
Spring pruning cherry
The most important is the spring shaping of the tree, sometimes it alone is enough for the correct development of the crown. Spend it for three weeks before the swelling of the kidneys. Proper pruning in spring:
- if annual shoots are formed no more than 35 cm, they are not touched, then only thickening crown and competing branches are removed,
- the tree trunk is shortened, but it must remain 20 cm above the skeletal branches,
- cuts are immediately irrigated with blue vitriol.
Autumn Pruning Cherry
In the autumn the tree is pruned less often - they are afraid to damage the future harvest, because the wound inflicted before the frost makes the plant more sensitive. If, however, it is decided to hold it, then choose the time between the end of the growing season and the first cold weather. In the fall, sick and broken shoots are removed, which the trunk should not feed until spring to the detriment of healthy branches.
Pruning of cherries during planting is done to construct a comfortable crown. All branches on the trunk below 40 cm are removed. Above this level, strong 6 processes are left as skeletal. They should be placed evenly.
Нижний слой – три ветви, второй – две, вверху – еще одна. Ветви, торчащие внутрь кроны, срезают. Однолетнее растение осенью в обрезке не нуждается.
Еще стабильно производится удаление корневой поросли, ее целесообразно использовать для размножения.
Уход за вишней на даче
После посадки вишни нужно соблюдать рекомендации по уходу за деревом. Main events:
- Loosening the soil. Such care begins for cherries in early spring and continues throughout the growing season. This allows the earth to be saturated with oxygen, to retain moisture longer. Simultaneously, the radical circle is freed from weeds.
- Watering. The first time the tree is moistened after flowering immediately. The second - at the beginning of increasing the size of the fruit. Measure - 3-6 buckets under one root. The last podzimny irrigation is done in early October after leaf fall.
- Fertilizer. The procedure increases the yield, has a positive effect on plant growth. Held all year round, top dressing schemes differ in spring and autumn.
Spring cherry care
Spring is important in the care of trees, during this period it is necessary to make a series of unchanged operations that ensure the proper development of the plant and a bountiful harvest. In addition to pruning patients, dried branches and crown formation, the following activities are held in spring:
- Whitewashing the trunk. Lime destroys all fungi and pests under the bark. Sections and wounds are irrigated with blue vitriol and covered with paint.
- Rubbish and dry grass are removed around the tree, the soil is dug up.
- Top dressing is performed for the first time during flowering. To do this, use a bucket of manure + a kilogram of ash, diluted in 10 liters of water. The second similar top dressing is done a couple of weeks after the primary one.
- Caring for cherry in the spring involves spraying. It is aimed at combating pests that are activated after the winter. For this fit Azophos and Bordeaux mixture. These drugs should be alternated. For the first time (after the buds are opened in late March - early April), the tree is sprayed with azophos. After two weeks you need to re-spray, this time using the Bordeaux mixture.
Cherry care in the fall
After harvesting, the tree also needs to pay attention so that it endures the winter well. Cherry - autumn care and cultivation:
- Cut off sick, dry and damaged branches,
- All wounds are covered with blue vitriol, wrapped with rags,
- The stem circle is dug up to a depth of 15 cm.
- The tree must be fed, the optimal composition:
- organic: sawdust, rotted manure, diluted bird droppings,
- at the digging stage, potash and phosphorus feed are introduced,
- Pristvolny circle irrigated with 5% urea solution on the onset of the first frost, it will help get rid of most of the parasites.
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