There are several ways to propagate dogwood: seed, layering, dividing the bush, root suckers, as well as grafting on dogwood.
How to grow dogwood from the boneThe technology of reproduction of dogwood seeds is rather long and laborious. It begins in the fall, after picking the fruit. To begin with, the stone should be carefully cleaned of pulp. Then it is placed in a humid environment (for example, in sawdust or in moss), where it is located for a whole year. All this time it is necessary to ensure that the moss does not dry out. Thus, there is an imitation of natural conditions in which the bone hibernates, which is necessary to increase the reliability and speed of its subsequent germination (the so-called stratification). You can land a bone immediately in the ground, in which case it will rise in the second year (it will not work to save time), but the germination rate will be much worse.
Immersion of prepared bones in the ground is carried out to a depth of about 3 cm. After the appearance of the first cornel shoots, they should be protected from direct sunlight, watered and fed as needed. In the fall of the second year after planting (sprouts at this point grow to 10-15 cm), the cornel is ready for planting in open ground, however, the first fruits of the shrub will give only a few years (from seven to ten). Thus, it takes a lot of time for the breeding of a dogwood from a stone: it can take 14 years from the start of preparing the stone to harvesting.
For reproduction of cornel from the stone, wild species of shrubs are used, after which breeding cornel is grafted onto the grown seedlings.
Propagation of dogwood with green cuttings should be carried out in the summer and only when the growth of young shoots ceases.
Cuttings must be taken from an adult (not less than 5 years old) of a healthy shrub. In the morning, a top 10–15 cm long is cut from any branch, with which shears remove all leaves except two or three upper ones and make a 5–10 mm oblique cut at the end of the shoot below the bud. The cutting prepared in this way is placed in a growth stimulator for several hours, washed with cold water and planted in a greenhouse prepared in advance, loosened soil is covered with a thick (up to 10 cm) layer of coarse sand, previously sifted and washed.
The cuttings are planted very thickly, at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. The distance to the top of the greenhouse from the top of the cutting should be 15-20 cm. Next, the cuttings are watered and covered with a film.
The air in the greenhouse should be humid and warm enough, but not above 25 ° C, if necessary, the greenhouse should be ventilated. The cuttings also need constant watering. The root system of the cuttings with proper care is formed in a half to two months (depending on whether they have previously been subjected to the growth stimulation procedure). At this time, you can begin to harden the cuttings: the film from the greenhouse is removed first for a short time, gradually increasing it in such a way that by the tenth day to remove the film completely.
Later, germinated cuttings are transplanted into a hotbed, allowed to settle down, and then fed with nitrogen fertilizers or organic matter (manure). The following year (spring or autumn) seedlings can be transplanted to a place designated for an adult bush.
The method of breeding dogwood cuttings is not very popular due to the low growth rate.
How to propagate dogwood with vaccination
Grafting, or planting a cornel is the most preferred way to propagate a plant. It can be carried out both in the spring, during the movement of the juice, and in the second half of summer, when the bark on the stock lags behind more easily.The grafting is made on two-year-old wild cornel saplings at a height of 10-15 cm, and for standard forms - 75-80 cm. The stock is cut horizontally with sharp shears, in the middle of the cut they make a deepening. The graft is prepared as follows: the upper oblique cut is made directly above the kidney and is processed by garden pitch, the lower one is cut off with a wedge — two cuts with a 4 cm edge. The total length of the graft cutting should be approximately 15 cm. Subsequently, the wedge is carefully inserted into the groove of the rootstock, so that part of the cut remained outside. The vaccination is wrapped with a transparent film, after which the bush to the vaccination site is covered with peat mixed with sand.
A grafted plant placed in a greenhouse gets accustomed more quickly (the graft and stock grow together the faster, the higher the ambient temperature). After fusion (it will be visible through the film - the open area of the scion will be covered with callus), the film can be removed, transplanted into open ground and subsequently cut off all shoots that will grow from the stock.
Cornel reproduction by layering
Vegetative breeding of dogwood is probably the easiest way to get a new plant. Layers can be made horizontal and arcuate. In the fall or very early spring, one-year shoots or two-year branches are chosen on a young bush, bend down to the ground (the ground in these places must be well digged and mixed with top dressings), wooden studs are fixed, sprinkled on top of the ground (the tops of the layers must be pinned, lifted and tied to vertical support) and regularly watered. After the emergence of seedlings from the buds of powdered otvodka they need twice, with an interval of two to three weeks, sprinkle with fertile soil. The following year (better in spring), young plants are separated from the bush and transplanted immediately to a permanent place.
Dogwood bush division
If the dogwood bush needs to be transplanted from one place to another, reproduction by division of the bush is used.
During the year, this method can be carried out twice: either in early spring, before the kidneys swell, or, conversely, in late autumn. The bush is removed from the ground and cleaned of old branches. The root is freed from the ground and cut into several parts (each must have both a root and an upper part). The root is trimmed, the old processes are removed, after which it is planted in a prepared place.
Propagation dogwood root offspring
There is also such a method for breeding dogwood, as planting root scions. For this, growth is used, which grows around a healthy adult bush. It is simply separated and planted separately. This can be done both in spring and in autumn. However, it should be borne in mind that if the plant was grafted, then this method does not apply, since the young growth is part of the stock - a wild cornel.
When applying any of the methods described above, the main problem is how to plant the cornel so that the plant will stick. If the technology at this moment will be observed, in the future the bush does not cause any special problems in the care.
Most of the unsuccessful experiments associated with growing dogwood in the country, due to the wrong selection of varieties. Cornel is characterized by an early onset of flowering, but a long vegetative period (up to 250 days). Therefore, in order for the plant to take root in middle latitudes, early dogwood varieties should be chosen. If the shrub is planned to be planted for harvest, and not to decorate the site, you should also pay attention to large-fruited varieties.
In the photo dogwood with red berries
Optimal for dacha cultivation are such:
Cornel Coral Brand
These varieties are suitable for both amateur and industrial cultivation.
Video - Kizil
The success of cultivation also depends on the type of seedlings. To receive saplings of a cornel it is possible in three ways:
- sowing seeds
- grafting varieties on the stock.
In the gardening markets you can find the first, and second, and third. Saplings obtained by the method of sowing are the cheapest, but also the least quality - they yield only 10-12 years after planting. Plants obtained by the method of green grafting are grown in greenhouses, and retain much more cultural traits compared to sowing. They bear fruit already for 3-4 year and are more resistant to diseases. Saplings obtained by grafting on a stock are considered elite - berries can be harvested as early as the second year after planting.
Organic dogwood seedlings
For planting should choose two-year seedlings, annuals on the soils of the middle zone will not take root. The ideal structure of the seedling is about 1.5 m high, the diameter of the main pillar is 1.8-2 cm, 4-5 skeletal branches.
In its natural habitat, dogwood is able to settle down on any soils, but when grown in the middle zone it feels best on loose soils with a high location of the aquifer. However, on the marshy soils, where the groundwater is almost at the surface, cornels will not grow. The best place to disembark is near tall shrubs or trees that will discard penumbra. In the open sun, the flower buds of the dogwood will be laid badly.
Planting pits for seedlings
Dimensions of planting pits for planting seedlings:
- depth - 0.6-0.8 m,
- diameter - 0.8 m,
- the distance between the holes is 3-5 m.
The landing is done in the fall, at the end of September and the beginning of October. A stake is driven in from the leeward side, and the seedling itself is placed in the ground on the other. The root system gently straighten, while ensuring that the neck was at 3-4 cm above the ground level.
When digging the hole, the upper and lower layers of the earth should be laid separately. This is necessary in order to subsequently combine the upper fertile layer with mineral and organic fertilizers (preferably humus). After placing the seedling in the hole, the upper enriched soil layer is first laid, and the ground from the lower layer is used for mulching.
How to plant a sapling
Planting dogwood seedling
With a shortage of space, it is possible to plant seedlings of different varieties in one hole. After placing in the soil both trunks are intertwined. Over time, these seedlings will grow into a single plant with a thick spiral stem, but with two types of fruit.
The formation of a plant depends on what you want to end up with - a bush or a tree. In order for the seedling to grow in a neat tree, the first 3-4 years are pruning the lower shoots. If the plant is not cut, a spreading dogwood bush will be formed. Some varieties are suitable for decorative design plot. To obtain a beautiful shape of the palmettes, the skeletal branches are bent down and fixed with a rope to the pegs, which are then replaced with trellis from the posts.
Experienced gardeners recommend shortening shoots by a third immediately after planting to balance the root and aboveground systems. During the first year, the growth of the seedling does not exceed 0.3-0.5 m, then the plant shows rapid growth, increasing annually by 1-1.2 m.
When to trim a cornel
How to trim a dogwood
Cornel does not require special care, needing only regular watering in the first year after planting. Moisten the soil 2 times a week, evenly distributing water around the post. It is not necessary to pour water under the pillar itself, the cornel root system is sufficiently developed to absorb moisture within a radius of 0.5 m. To prevent water from spreading on the ground, you need to dig a furrow around the seedling. If a drip irrigation system is installed on the site, then watering is greatly simplified. In the first growing year it is necessary to monitor the condition of the leaves: if they begin to shrink and curl, it means that the plant lacks moisture. Also, during the first 3 years after planting, until the sapling finally gets stronger, you need to monitor the cleanliness of the soil around it. All weeds that grow within a radius of 1 m from the seedling, you need to remove.
To improve the air exchange of the layer where the root system is located, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil to a depth of 10 cm. It is more convenient to loosen the next day after watering, with simultaneous uprooting of weeds.
Fertilizing dogwood is not required, but the plant responds very well to them, showing the best yield. Fertilization is done in spring (early spring fertilizing) and in autumn. In the spring, dogwood is fed twice. Organic fertilizers are applied for the first time. The best option - slurry, diluted with water in the ratio of 1/3. This dressing ensures the formation of the current crop and the simultaneous laying of nutrients for the next season. In the second spring dressing, nitrogen (40-50 g per one plant) and potash (20-30 g) fertilizers are applied to the soil.
In the fall, the bushes are fed with organic (8-10 kg per plant) and phosphate fertilizers.
Dogwood can be propagated in different ways:
- root suckers
- horizontal and arcuate layers.
When breeding seed method stratification of fruit bones. They are placed in wet sawdust and left in this state for 12 months. It is advisable to carry out stratification a year before disembarkation, i.e. in the fall. Stratified seeds are distinguished by good germination, as opposed to dry seeds, which germinate in a ratio of about 50/50. After the first growing season, the seedlings grow only 3-4 cm, but in the second year, while ensuring sufficient watering and feeding, reach a height of 10-15 cm and are ready to be transplanted into the nursery.
With reproduction by offspring root seedlings surrounding the adult plant are used as seedlings. It is separated from the main bush and transplanted to the nursery in the fall or spring.
With underwater breeding 2-year-old seedlings are grafted into the root neck or stambic. Grafted dogwood is added dropwise in a tank with a sand-peat mixture to the level of a stock connection with a graft. Then the container is placed in a cool greenhouse or on a stand in the greenhouse. After the joint has fully grown together, the plant is planted in open ground.
With reproduction by layering in the soil around the adult plant they dig shallow grooves. Young branches bend and pin to the grooves. After shoots of up to 12 cm in length are developed from the buds of the pinned shoots, they are sprinkled with earth mixed with humus. After 2-3 weeks, when the shoots will increase by another 10-15 cm, they are powdered again. When the pinned shoots take root, they are separated from the mother plant and transferred either to the nursery or to the open ground.
Cornel reproduction by layering
Reproduction dogwood cuttings
Some gardeners practice the reproduction of dogwoods, but this method shows a low percentage of rooting (4-6 out of every 10 planted plants).
The Legend of Dogwood
According to the legend, once a cornel attracted Shaitan for its early flowering. “If the tree blooms early, then it will give the fruits first,” he thought. However, he miscalculated: other fruits ripened, and on his tree still stood out green hard fruits. Then the devil got angry and threw the cornel from his garden.
In late autumn, gathering mushrooms in the forest, people saw a shrub all sprinkled with bright red berries sweet in taste. They took the shrubs into their garden. And long after that, they made fun of Shaitan, but he decided to take revenge. The following year, dogwood gave people a generous harvest, but in order for it to ripen, the sun spent all its strength. Therefore, the winter was harsh and frosty. Since then, the second name of the dogwood is Satan-berry, and in the people there is a sign: the rich harvest of dogwood promises a harsh winter.
Culture description and common varieties
Common cornel is a low sprawling shrub or tree 2-5 m high. In the garden, cornel usually grows in the form of a shrub to make it easier to harvest. Shoots easily form, forming the correct rounded pyramidal crown.
The flowering of shrubs comes early: in the middle lane, dogwood blooms from March 30 to April 20. A sudden cold snap or return spring frosts for dogwood flowers are not terrible. In the cold, the flowers shrivel and stay in this state until the onset of heat. Blooming at a cornel lasts 12-15 days, at the end of which the bush releases leaves.
Attention! When buying and planting dogwood seedlings, keep in mind that the crop is self-rearing, so you need to have two or more shrubs planted to get the crop.
The shape and color of the cornel fruit depends on the variety: breeders bred varieties with pear-shaped, oval-cylindrical, elliptical berries of red, maroon, yellow, pink or orange in sweet and sour taste and with a specific aroma.
The most common varieties of dogwood are the following:
- Kizil Vladimirsky It is known for its large black and red fruits, dense flesh, sweet taste and high yield (55-60 kg of crop is removed from a 20-year-old bush). One berry can reach a mass of more than 7 g. Fruiting occurs in early September. Over-grown fruits do not crumble from the branches,
- Kizil Vydubetsky stable in fruiting. Annually from one bush receive up to 60 kg of a crop. Fruits of a dark red shade, weighing up to 6,5 g, an expanded pear-shaped form and sour-sweet dense pulp. Созревший урожай снимают в 15-х числах сентября,
- Кизил Нежный. Отличительная черта этого сорта – плоды желтого цвета с нежной очень сладкой мякотью и сильным ароматом. Через кожуру зрелого плода обычно просвечивается косточка. Ягода в среднем весит 4,5-5,5 г. Плодоношение ежегодное, среднеобильное (с одного взрослого куста получается урожай не более 40 кг),
- Кизил Светлячок most large-fruited variety. The weight of its berries reaches 7.5 g. The color is also unique - red-black with dark burgundy sweet flesh. Crop harvested at the end of August, abundant fruiting (up to 60 kg) annual. Berries perfectly retain their taste when freezing or canning.
- Cornel Elegant distinguish the fruits of a beautiful regular bottle shape, weighing 5 g and early maturation (in early August). Ripe berry of cherry-black color with dark red sweet and gentle pulp, does not crumble when overripe. Productivity to 50 kg from a 15-year tree.
Dogwood is not picky about soil conditions: it grows equally well on stony or sandy soils and on soils with good nutrition. Liming of soil near a tree helps to accelerate growth and fruiting. In nature, dogwood grows more often on poor soils. In the garden, dogwood is planted in open sunny places, sometimes along the border, creating a kind of hedge. When planting, keep in mind that the cornel tree can expand to a width of 3-4 m.
For planting are suitable one- and two-year-old seedlings not less than 120 cm in height, on the trunk of which there are at least three lateral formed shoots. Landing pit is prepared in advance. Its minimum size is 80 x 100 cm and a depth of 70-80 cm. A week before planting a cornel, organic and mineral fertilizers are laid in a hole:
- humus 1-1.5 buckets
- 50-70 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 200 g of superphosphate,
- 250 grams of wood ash
- small amount of lime.
Planted shrubs watered very abundantly, at least 25-30 liters per bush.
Attention! For a good pollinating near plant varieties only the same timing of flowering.
Since the cornel root system dries out during planting, the shoots are also shortened by one third of the length. The transplant is also easily tolerated by an adult 5-12-year-old tree, if the cornel is strongly cut before digging. Fruiting begins again in a year.
Caring and feeding dogwood
Caring for a plant is quite simple and reduces, as a rule, to loosening the tree trunk, removing weeds, sanitary pruning and watering in a dry summer. The cornel root surface system will require mulching of the soil around the trunk with hay, sawdust, freshly mowed grass or straw. The crown of the shrub does not need forming pruning. Threaded bush only in the case of thickening or removal of dry and intertwining branches. Once in 10-15 years, the dogwood needs rejuvenation.
Cornel - drought-resistant culture. The surface bedding of the root system helps the shrub to use even extremely rare summer precipitation to its advantage. However, it is still desirable to moisturize the soil near it in dry summer. With a prolonged drought, the leaves of the cornel are rolled up in a boat. Due to this, the evaporating surface is reduced and most of the moisture remains in the plant.
Fertilizing of dogwood bushes is carried out annually in two stages: at the beginning and at the end of summer.
The first dressing for each bush includes the introduction of 10 liters of infusions:
- mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5,
- bird droppings diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10.
The second feed includes:
- 500 ml wood ash,
- 100 g of superphosphate (applied after harvesting).
Dogwood Diseases and Pests
Corian varietal is rarely affected by diseases or pests. Powdery mildew is rarely found on the leaves of young seedlings, which disappears after double treatment with any systemic fungicide. On not at the time of cut dry branches, disease-causing fungi can settle, which subsequently pass on to healthy shoots. For prophylaxis, regularly carry out sanitary pruning.