Staphylococcus is transmitted from sick animals or carriers through
feces, urine, pus from abscess, nasal mucus, through populated
pathogen subjects. Bacteria enter the body through mucous membranes and
The likelihood of infection increases with poor sanitary
the condition of the premises for rabbits - crowding, inadequate care,
the absence or rare conduct of disinfection, the presence of wounds, bites,
Staphylococcosis can develop at any time, but is especially dangerous.
the period of an akrol, since. rabbits, unlike adult animals,
completely unable to resist infection.
Development and signs of staphylococcus
Having penetrated, staphylococci multiply, inflammation occurs.
Gradually, bacteria and lymph are spread through the tissues and organs.
Foci of infection the body tries to isolate the growth
connective tissue surrounding an abscess like a capsule. However, after 1 -
3 months abscess still opens into one of the cavities, rabbit
When staphylococci are distributed throughout the body, they become
cause and other diseases satellites. So, in a rabbit, if she
feeds, purulent mastitis can develop, in any rabbit -
Incubation of bacteria lasts from 3 to 5 days. Then one of
forms of the disease. It may be wandering pyemia - ulcers
size from pea to chicken eggs under the skin on the body, head,
lips, behind the eyeball, which causes his protrusion, in any
internal organs. Animals are oppressed, refuse food, quickly
Another form of staphylococcus - pyodermahitting baby rabbits in
age 1 - 3 days. On their body appear very small ulcers,
abscesses develop, and after a short rabbit die.
Septicemia - Another form of the disease in which
staphylococci are carried around the body by blood, causing the hardest
intoxication, then - death.
Treatment is reasonable if the animal is extremely valuable. Rabbit
make intravenous injections of antibiotics (penicillin every 5 -
6 hours), open abscesses and excise them together with the capsule. External
ulcers 2 times a day are treated with iodine, brilliant green, solution
carbolic acid. Treatment must be made by a veterinarian, animal
must be isolated and his visit must be accompanied
extreme personal safety measures.
Staphylococcal vaccination is used to prevent the disease.
toxoid. They are usually vaccinated with pregnant females. Obligatory
preventive measures are strict adherence to all sanitary
content standards. Regular cleaning and disinfection of premises
prevention of wounds, abrasions, animal bites.
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Hello Dmitry. Tell me whether staphylococcosis is transmitted from the ill male to his descendants
Staphylococcosis in rabbits symptoms treatment
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is spherical staphylococcus, 0.8-1 microns in diameter. The spore and capsules does not form, immobile, gram-positive. Aerobe, and facultative anaerobic, grows well on normal nutrient media. Staphylococcus is located in form of clusters.
Staphylococci are widespread in nature. Among them are non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains. In rabbits, the disease is mainly caused by the Staphylococcus aureus species, less commonly St. albus. The pathogen is highly resistant to desiccation, exposure to sunlight, high temperature, chemicals.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Epizootological data. Many animals and humans are susceptible to staphylococcosis. Rabbits are particularly sensitive. They are sick, regardless of age.
The source of the causative agent of infection are diseased rabbits, which emit an infectious onset with feces, nasal mucus, and pus from abscesses. Infection occurs through the upper respiratory tract, damaged skin and mucous membranes.
Contributing factors in the occurrence and spread of infection are inadequate feeding, overcrowding in unsanitary conditions, presence of abrasions on the body, wounds, scratches due to injuries of the skin and mucous membranes piercing objects in the cells, with a fight, milk deficiency in females and nibble nipples of the mammary gland.
Seasonality in this disease is not pronounced, it is observed at any time of the year, but more often it is associated with periods of ocroles and the presence of the most susceptible contingent — newborn rabbits (Piemia appears) and lactating females (mastitis).
Manifested a disease in the form of enzootia. A typical epizootological feature is stationarity, due to the accumulation of the pathogen in the household due to its high stability, extensive long-term carriage of the pathogen in rabbits.
Mortality in staphylococcus 50-70%.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Clinical signs. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The clinical manifestation of staphylococcus in rabbits is diverse, and depending on the course of the disease, the forms of the disease are called differently.
Septicopyemia of newborns of a rabbit was first described by S. V. Leontyuk in 1934. The author recommends calling it pyoderma, since this disease is characterized by the formation of numerous pustules the size of millet grain on the skin of a baby rabbit of 1-3 days of age. Rabbits, as a rule, die in a few days.
Wandering (stray) pyemia is accompanied by the formation in different parts of the body (usually under the skin of the lips, head, sides, back) abscesses the size of a pea to an egg, often resulting from damage to the skin and the introduction of staphylococci into the wound. Large abscesses sometimes spontaneously open, a large amount of pus flows from them. They can also be formed in the internal organs - in the liver, lungs, brain.
Sometimes abscesses are encapsulated, although more often the pathogen is hematogenously spread throughout the body and the infection takes the form of roving pyemia or septicemia.
Septicemia. In patients with increased body temperature to 41-42 ° C, rapid breathing, severe depression and rabbits die.
Mastitis. Initially, there is redness, swelling, and an increase in the local temperature of the affected lobe of the mammary gland. Then, under the skin or in its parenchyma, abscesses appear, which are often opened outside or inside the gland. When pressing down, milk is mixed with pus and blood. Sometimes there are extensive foci of inflammation of the breast.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Pathological changes correspond to the data of the clinical picture in different forms of staphylococcus (presence of abscesses under the skin, in organs and tissues). Pulmonary edema, enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes are sometimes recorded.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Diagnosis it is not difficult to establish on the basis of a characteristic clinical picture and results of an autopsy. To identify the pathogen isolated from abscess pus, pigment and hemolytic activity is determined.
According to the results of bacteriological research, the disease is differentiated from pasteurellosis and other septicemia, in which there are abscesses.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Treatment. In the initial stage, with pustules in the areas of lesions, the skin is cleaned, rubbed with alcohol, then the pustules are smeared daily with 3% phenol solution or 5% alcohol solution of brilliant green. With extensive lesions, tissue therapy and ultraviolet radiation are prescribed.
Clinical forms of staphylococcus, accompanied by abscesses, are treated after prior surgical intervention. With the advent of fluctuation, an abscess along with. the capsule is removed or an incision is made, the os. fvolol wound is given from the exudate by vymakivaniem cotton-gauze tampons, irrigated with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3%), ethacridine lactate (0.05%), furatsillina (0.03-0, 04%), antibiotics, sulfonamides, etc. When granulations appear, ointments and emulsions are used: penicillin, tetracycline, syntomycin, streptomycin, iodoformen, etc.
Intramuscular patients are given antibiotics: bicillin 50–100 thousand. IU once, penicillin with streptomycin, e dose of 15–20 thousand. IU per I kg of weight.
The skin of the affected lobes of the mammary gland with mastitis is smeared with camphor, potassium iodine, ichthyol ointments, or mastisan, masticur are used.
Staphylococcosis in rabbits. Prevention and control measures. In order to prevent staphylococcal disease, they protect the farms from being brought in by the pathogen, eliminate the factors that contribute to its occurrence, systematically carry out preventive disinfection, eliminate the causes that cause trauma to the skin and mucous membranes, regularly conduct clinical examinations with the aim of early detection of patients, especially the rabbit in the first days after birth, the cold season in order to avoid overcooling of the mammary gland when the content of the rabbits in the sheds provide an adequate amount of litter.
When a disease is established in a farm of sick animals, they are isolated and treated. The importation and exportation of rabbits is forbidden, and regrouping without the knowledge of veterinary specialists. Carcasses of rabbits affected by staphylococcus are destroyed.
The released cells are disinfected with a 4% formaldehyde solution, a 2% chloroamine solution, a 0.5% trichloroisocyanuric acid solution, and a 8% hot dump solution. Aerosol disinfection of the premises is carried out with a 25% formaldehyde solution at the rate of 20 ml per 1 m 3 at an exposure of 3 hours.
Epizootological data on staphylococcus
The disease is widespread, often causing a large waste of young rabbits. The pathogen is found in dirty, damp places, in feed, on human or animal skin. Staphylococcus is susceptible to all animals, while rabbits are considered the most sensitive to the disease. A disease occurs when the cells are in an unsanitary condition, which weakens the body's resistance to the animals, causes damage to the integrity of the skin, the presence of sharp objects in the cells (nails, wire ends, sharp, protruding metal parts), coarse bedding. Infection is introduced through wounds, abrasions on the skin and mucous membranes, through scratches and bites on the mammary glands, etc.
Treatment of rabbits for staphylococcus
Treatment for staphylococcal disease under the guidance of a veterinarian. In case of multiple pustular lesions, young animals are regularly injected subcutaneously with antibiotics and smeared with abscesses with a 5% alcohol solution of brilliant green. After that, after 10-15 minutes, it is useful to lubricate the affected areas with antibacterial ointment.
Large abscesses should be, without waiting for their spontaneous opening, open and clean from pus. It is better to husk them together with the capsule (the shell covering the abscess). However, this is not always possible. Ulcers on the paws are useful to treat with Vishnevsky ointment.
With the defeat of the mammary gland, it is necessary to regularly express milk in rabbits and inject intramuscular antibacterial drugs. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
What is this disease
Staphylococcus is an infectious disease in which the death for livestock can be 70%. For the disease is characterized by the development of inflammatory processes, accompanied by the occurrence of pustular lesions.
Factors affecting infection:
- non-observance of sanitary norms for keeping animals (lack of disinfection of rabbit animals and cages, high density of rabbits, poor ventilation of the room),
- lack of preventive vaccines against infectious diseases,
- non-compliance with quarantine measures for new animals.
The most susceptible to infection of the rabbit at the time of akrol, young and weakened individuals. A staphylococcus in the body begins to multiply, releasing toxins, as a result of which an inflammatory process occurs in the cocci area. Together with the bloodstream, microorganisms are spread through the internal organs, creating new foci of infection.
The causative agent and sources of infection of staphylococcus
Small microorganisms cause the disease - Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes albus, Staphylococcus tpidermidis. Cocci are distinguished by the degree of parasitization and activity, highlighting 19 species of these microorganisms. Staphylococci were first described by R. Koch in 1878, and in 1881 they were found in rabbits and described by another Dr. G. Zemmer. The source of infection can be a person or a sick animal. The microorganism is transmitted by airborne droplets, as well as along with mucus, pus and feces.
In the wild, staphylococci can be anywhere - in the dust, in the air. Infection of the rabbit occurs in violation of the integrity of the skin - wound, scratch, natoptysh, as well as the defeat of the mucous membranes.
Forms and symptoms of the disease
The term "staphylococcus" itself describes a group of diseases:
- septicopyemia - damage to the skin of newborns of rabbits,
- roaming pyemia - toxins poisoning the body,
- septicemia - blood sepsis,
- purulent mastitis.
Staphylococcosis can affect rabbits regardless of age. Both wild and domestic animals are equally affected. The clinical manifestations of the disease can be very different. But the basis for all diseases is the presence of ulcers.
Wandering (stray) pyemiaThe epithet “wandering” in the name of the disease characterizes the way the rabbit's body is damaged by cocci - the movement of microorganisms along with the blood flow to new, unaffected areas.
At the location of streptococci inflammation occurs. The immune system tries to block the lesion, as a result of which there is an accumulation of pus (abscess). After 1-3 months, the abscess opens, intoxication of the organism occurs and, possibly, death of the animal.
Rabbits with a small amount of milk or milk stagnation in the glands due to a small number of rabbits are prone to mastitis. Purulent mastitis is a lesion of the mammary gland of a rabbit with streptococci.
Purulent mastitis can develop in two ways:
- in a little dairy rabbit, due to the prokus of the mammary gland in the rabbit, the causative agent of the disease can enter the body,
- Staphylococcus enters the gland with a bloodstream from another infected organ.
Diagnosis of staphylococcosis
To diagnose staphylococcus disease, the presence of multiple ulcers on the skin or mucous membranes is sufficient.
Therefore, the diagnosis is considered in 2 ways:
- in live rabbits - with the help of an external examination and biochemical blood tests, urine, contents of ulcers,
- when opening the rabbit, multiple lesions of the internal organs are observed.
Diagnosis is difficult only if the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are affected. In this case, external ulcers are absent.
How to treat sick rabbits
Sick animal must be isolated from other pets. In the rabbit spend disinfection. A sick rabbit must be shown to a veterinarian. The prescribed course of treatment and dosage of drugs must be observed very precisely, because rabbits are sensitive to overdose of antibiotics. Drug treatment includes a mandatory course of antibiotics. The rabbit can be given penicillin every 4–6 hours intramuscularly. The dosage of the drug - 15000 IU per 1 kg of body weight. Abscesses visible on the skin are opened, pus is removed.
The wound is treated with carbolic acid 3% or iodine 2 times a day. A 5% solution of pioctanin is also applied to the wound. This drug is an antiseptic and is used for various skin lesions. If the rabbit has a lesion of the mammary gland, milk should be decanted regularly, the gland should be treated with penicillin or ichthyol ointment 3 times a day.