More than three hundred varieties of potato are grown in Russia. They differ not only in the rate of maturation, but also in yield, purpose, and resistance to diseases. Among all existing groups, ultra-early potato varieties are particularly popular. Usually they are planted in early spring, as soon as the earth warms to a temperature of +10 degrees. After the first flowering, you can harvest the first harvest. It does not need to wait for the tops to become dry. For long-term storage, potatoes are harvested when the peel becomes strong.
All early and ultra early potato varieties quickly ripen. Usually these varieties can be removed on the 40-70th day of the emergence of shoots.
Summer residents grow all sorts of ultra early potatoes. Usually planted several varieties of the same group. This is done in order to always be with the harvest, because no one knows what the weather will be and whether there will be a harvest of a particular variety in a particular year.
Among all existing varieties of ultra-early potatoes, the best are:
- Red Scarlet.
- Early Zhukovsky.
- Impala and others
The main ultraearly potato varieties are represented by Dutch and domestic varieties. One of the achievements of breeders was the variety Red Scarlet. The first harvest can be obtained after 45 days.
The variety is characterized by large oval roots weighing about 150 grams. The rind of the fruit is red with a smooth surface. The flesh is yellow. Damage does not darken. When boiling potatoes do not boil soft, so it is not recommended to use for the preparation of mashed potatoes. This variety is more suitable for frying, cooking first courses, roasting. Root vegetables contain about 15% starch.
Red Scarlet tolerates drought and is practically free from disease. In any weather, the variety produces a good harvest - up to 400 centners per hectare.
For winter storage, potatoes are harvested no earlier than on the 70th day after germination. During the maturation the fruits do not deteriorate.
For Moscow region, ultra early potato varieties are better suited than average ones. They have time to ripen well. One of these varieties is Karatop. From planting to maturation takes about 50 days. Potato tubers are small, oval, weighing about 100 grams. The peel of a grade is yellow, with a smooth surface. On the cut potatoes are pale yellow. The grade possesses high flavoring qualities.
After cooking, the fruit does not boil soft, but the color becomes a pleasant yellow. This variety contains about 14% starch.
Karatop has a high resistance to various diseases. The yield of this variety is slightly higher than that of Red Scarlet - about 450 centners per hectare.
The variety is beautifully kept in winter. To do this, roots are harvested no earlier than 70 days after germination. By this time, the peel becomes durable.
Among the best varieties of ultra early potatoes is the Zhukovsky Early variety. He was brought out by domestic breeders. It matures about two months. On food, you can use roots before the specified period.
Potato tubers are oval, weighing about 150 grams. The surface is smooth, beige with pink eyes. On a cut the grade is white. Potatoes are not boiled soft during cooking, so they are not used to make mashed potatoes. It is more suitable for frying, roasting.
Zhukovsky Early contains about 15% of starch. Of particular value is the potato for those who want to grow potatoes that do not suffer from scab and nematode.
The Zhukovsky variety is drought tolerant and grows well at low temperatures. This feature allows you to grow it throughout the country.
Variety Anosta refers to table types of ultra early potatoes. Root crops are formed by the 60th day of the emergence of seedlings.
The variety has yellow tubers, oval. On the cut the flesh is yellow. Potato mass up to 150 grams. Starch content is about 13%. This variety has several disadvantages. It often affects phytophthora, scab, various viral diseases. However, it has high yields and excellent taste. When harvesting early, the tops may not have time to marvel at the disease.
When choosing ultra early potato varieties for the northwest, you should pay attention to the Ariel variety. This potato has time to quickly give the crop before the appearance of diseases, phytophtora.
Potatoes have a yellow peel, the flesh is also yellow. Tubers are oval.
When growing a variety, it should be remembered that it is not particularly resistant to late blight, nematode and various viral diseases. Therefore, so that the potatoes do not have time to be damaged by the disease, the roots are harvested as soon as they reach ripeness.
There are ultraearly potato varieties of Belarusian breeding, which grow well in almost the entire territory of Russia. One of these varieties is Dolphin. It gives a high yield - about 550 centners per hectare. It contains about 12% starch. Tubers are oval, with yellow skin and yellow flesh. Potatoes weigh about 100 grams.
The variety has high taste and early yield. Already on the 50th day, you can collect roots.
Dolphin is resistant to various diseases of potatoes and mechanical damage. Sredneustoyvit to phytophthora, scab. It tolerates drought perfectly, can be stored for a long time.
Among the most ripening varieties should be distinguished Timo's potatoes. It can be grown in all regions of Russia.
Potato variety is different from other crop stability. Even in the most lean year, Timo is capable of producing up to 400 centners per hectare of land. With good weather and good agricultural technology, the variety produces up to 650 centners per hectare.
Timo is well kept. This potato is resistant to the most common diseases. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that the variety does not lend itself to potato cancer.
Choosing ultra early potato varieties for Siberia, you should pay attention to the variety Timo. It is suitable for growing in conditions of extreme farming.
The description and photo of ultra early potato varieties help to determine the variety. Among the earliest species can be found Riviera potatoes. This is a high-yielding variety, for table use. It forms the fruits before the tops will be affected by blight or other diseases.
When growing Riviera in the southern regions can be harvested twice a year.
Potato roots are yellow inside and out. When ripening a variety, the variety can be stored for a long time.
The peculiarity of fast ripening allows you to get the first crop, which does not need to be stored for a long time, and the second crop, which will be stored in appropriate conditions all winter.
Among the ultra early varieties of potatoes for the middle band can be distinguished variety Gala. It forms the fruit by about the 70th day after planting.
Root varieties have an oval shape, yellowish peel with a smooth surface. The color of the pulp can be very different - from light yellow to dark yellow. The fruits have high taste, do not darken with mechanical damage.
The plant is prone to fungal rhizoctonia, so it must be processed in a timely manner. With proper agrotechnology, a variety can yield up to 600 centners per hectare. If the tubers are harvested after the skin has matured, they can be stored for a long time.
This variety is bred by German breeders. From planting harvesting takes 45 days. Potato tubers have a rounded shape, the surface is slightly rough. The flesh is yellow, the peel is pink. The taste of sweet potatoes. Bellarose contains about 16% of starch.
Root crops perfectly tolerate a variety of diseases, drought. When harvesting from the 70th day the fruits can be stored for a long time.
Observing the rules of agricultural engineering, you can get up to 400 centners from one hectare of land.
This variety is bred by German breeders. His maturity comes two months after landing.
Adretta root crops are rounded, with yellow skin and sparse eyes. Fruits are medium in size, weighing about 150 grams. The flesh varieties and peel pale yellow color. This variety is ideal for making mashed potatoes, as it tends to boil soft. It contains up to 16% starch.
Adretta is highly resistant to various diseases, rot. It tolerates low temperatures, so it can be grown throughout the country.
The average yield is about 400 centners per hectare.
This variety is especially valuable for its unpretentiousness to the type of soil. It can easily be grown in black earth areas, on sandy, clay and loamy soils. Potato tubers are oval, yellow flesh. When boiling potatoes are almost never boiled soft, so it is not recommended to use for the preparation of mashed potatoes.
Root crops of average size, weighing about 100 grams, ripen on the 50th day from planting. About 350 centners of potatoes can be produced per hectare. When planting on poor soils, the yield is reduced to 150 centners.
The variety can be removed on the 55th day from planting. Izora has a high yield. He has deep round eyes. Potato flesh is white, malokrahmalnaya. The variety has high taste qualities and can be stored for a long time.
The disadvantages of Isor are various diseases that are already evident on the 70th day of landing. Therefore, potatoes are harvested earlier, before the variety is damaged by blight or another disease.
In the West Siberian region, varieties are often grown that can be removed on the 50th day from planting. One of the varieties of such potatoes is Antonin. He is able to give up to 300 centners per hectare of land. Under the rules of storage, the variety does not deteriorate for a long time. About 94% of tubers are stored until the next planting year.
For the cultivation of potatoes in the Central region, the Fortified variety is recommended. He has oval tubers. Peel and flesh beige shade. When storage conditions are observed, the roots can maintain their appearance for a long time without losing their taste.
Productivity varieties - up to 300 quintals per hectare of land.
To annually be with the harvest of potatoes, it is recommended to plant different varieties on the site. When choosing early ripening options, attention should be paid to those varieties that will be suitable for preparing different dishes and will be able to grow in different conditions. It is considered ideal to have at least three varieties. This will help in any weather to be with the harvest, be it hot summer, rainy spring, cold north or unpredictable weather of the Central District.
Culture can be classified and maturity. Maturation is considered a length of time. from the first shoots to the time of harvest.
The earliest ones alone have several divisions:
- ultra early 45-55 days,
- early 50-60 days,
- Medium early 60-85 days.
Grows well in the south early and ultra early potatoes that ripen before the onset of heat.
The same vegetable can be classified by the purpose of cultivation:
- table - used for cooking,
- technical - starch and alcohol are produced from it,
- feed - used for livestock feed,
- universal - a cross between technical and feed.
Ultra Early (Super Early) disease resistant, gives a good harvest and has a short growing season.
Sit early need late April-early Mayas soon as the soil warms up to a temperature of 8-10 degrees. To preserve the potatoes for a long time, you should wait until the peel becomes thicker.
Ultra Early ripens on average for 50 days. This potato variety is a real find for amateur farmers. Tubers contain a lot of nutrients, are smooth, tasty and have a good presentation for sale.
The most popular ultraearly: "Riviera", "Karatop", "Timo".
Early ripening can begin to dig already after 40-45 days. The variety is especially popular - Zhukovsky Early. Tubers are large, even, elongated, and creamy flesh.
The only thing that early ripening varieties have a small percentage of starch, they remain hard during cooking. Preparation for planting begin in early April for the month before planting in open ground. In early May, tubers with sprouts can already be planted in the soil.Zhukovsky early
The fruit has a beautiful appearance and possesses amazing taste properties. In the period of frost well tolerated wintering. In one season you can have time to get 2 crops.
Medium early table appointments are intended for eating and animal feed.
Fruits are ripening already on day 60. Potatoes of this classification are well resistant to many infections, except for phytophorosis. Suitable for sale due to aesthetic appearance. It has excellent taste.
For different geographical locations
The right climate, rich soils contribute to a rich harvest. Planting early ripening provides an opportunity to get the first harvest in early July. Early appear already after 50-60 days after landing.
For the middle band Russia approaches: "Druzhny", "Uralsky early", "Good luck", "Sosnovsky", "Belarusian", "Slav", "Vyatka".
For Moscow region must be resistant to disease, unpretentious to climate change. It is recommended to plant: "Spring", "Zhukovsky", "Timo", "Nevsky", "Lugovskoy".Lugovskoy
For Northwest regions It is necessary to plant varieties that are most adapted to the soil and climatic conditions: Amorosa, Zhukovsky Early, Impala, Karatop, Latona, Prigogine 2, Freske, Adretta, Rozhdestvensky, “Sante”, “Aurora”, “Romano”.
Features early varieties
More than 250 different potato varieties are grown on the territory of Russia, differing from each other in their properties (disease resistance, yield). Due to the rapid ripening, many gardeners grow early varieties.
Consider the best early potato varieties
As soon as the soil warms up to the required + 8-10 degrees, the early varieties will actively develop, and after the first flowering is over, you can start harvesting potatoes. During this period, the tubers have a thin peel, because of what the fruits of the potatoes quickly lose moisture and dry, so keep them for a long time is not recommended. As a rule, new potatoes are either sold on the markets in the summer, or used for food. The main crop is harvested only after the peel of the potatoes gets stronger and becomes harder.. In most cases, the harvest process begins at the end of August - beginning of September.
Early potato varieties have many advantages.
Depending on the amount of fertilizer in the soil, the time of planting and the quality of the seed used, the time of ripening of a particular variety may vary. Also an important role is played by weather conditions and the use of special preparations for diseases and parasites.
Important! Experienced gardeners when planting potatoes use several early varieties, because some of them can give a bad harvest.
Early varieties of potatoes, in turn, are divided into:
- ultra early (from the moment of emergence of shoots to full maturity it takes from 40 to 60 days),
- early maturing (you can start harvesting potatoes in 60-70 days),
- medium early (vegetable ripens no more than 80 days).
Now consider the most popular varieties that apply to each subspecies of the early potato.
Early potato varieties
Early ripe varieties
- Romano. Another potato variety from Holland with high consumer characteristics. Potato tubers are oval or round in shape and are colored red. The flesh is white. For one season the bush can give up to 800 g of potatoes. For the cultivation of this variety will suit different soils, because the plant copes with many ailments, and can also grow with an insufficient amount of moisture.
- Zhukovsky early. Table variety of potatoes with pink tubers. The average weight of one potato varies in the range of 100-130 g. The main advantages of this variety include excellent taste, high marketability and fast maturation.
- Spring. Very popular early potato variety, which can be found in almost every garden. The tubers of this high-yielding culture are pink, and they also have small red eyes. The plant is considered resistant to various diseases, including late blight.
- Sante. A fruitful variety that differs from its counterparts in a compact nest. The tubers are oval in shape and are colored bright yellow. The fruits have good taste, so they are often used to prepare various dishes, including fried potatoes. This variety is not terrible disease, so that when growing gardeners do not have to go shopping in search of effective drugs for the treatment of plants.
Romano potato variety
Some early ripe potato varieties
Cultivation of early potatoes
Как уже отмечалось ранее, выращивать картофель можно разными способами, но если вы хотите вырастить ранние сорта, то лучше всего подойдет технология под пленкой или агроволокном. С ее помощью можно добиться богатого урожая, а также пополнить свой карман с продажи ранней картошки. К тому же данная технология очень простая в использовании.
Особенности выращивания раннего картофеля
On a note! Agrofibre is the polymeric material used in truck farming. It is used to warm grown plants, but, unlike a cheaper film, agrofibre can pass moisture / air. The material is durable and well washable. In addition, the panels are quite wide, so about 2-3 beds are covered with one strip.
Physicomechanical indicators (FMP) of Polyx Agro material
Preparation of beds
Preparatory work on the site should be carried out in the fall. The soil is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm, after which fertilizers are applied. Often gardeners use fresh manure, which manages to perepret during the winter. As a result, the tubers will get enough nutrients. When applying organic matter in spring, only rotted manure is used.
Preparation of beds for planting potatoes
We also note that before planting the beds can be formed slightly raised (they are made in the fall), so that the snow on them will melt much faster. After the snow has completely melted on the beds, they must be covered with polyethylene until the very moment the potatoes are planted.
In the second half of March, take out the seed tubers of potatoes from the basement and place them in wooden boxes for germination. If there were no wooden boxes on the farm, even if they were fairly easy to get (in such boxes, various fruits and vegetables are sold), then as an alternative, you can simply spread the potatoes under the sun for a certain time. It is necessary to lay a maximum of 2 layers. The optimum temperature for the germination of tubers - +20 -25 ° C. After the first shoots appear on the potatoes, you can start planting. As a rule, this occurs after 3-4 weeks from the beginning of germination.
The use of agrofibre will help to protect new potatoes from sudden changes in temperature or frost. To do this, simply cover the beds with agrofibre stripes immediately after planting. The process of planting itself is not particularly difficult, because everyone can handle it. Of course, there are certain nuances that need to be taken into account.
Table. Instructions for planting potatoes under agrofibre.
The potato variety, which was bred by German agronomists in 2009. The variety is early because it ripens in only 70-75 days.
Bushes are beautiful, medium height, semi-upright, with beautiful red-purple bloom.
Tubers are formed oval-shaped, slightly elongated, with red-pink skin and shallow large eyes. The flesh of this potato variety is yellow, very tasty, its starch content does not exceed 14%.
One potato can weigh 70 - 150 g, and on one bush of such potatoes can grow 15 - 16 pieces.
This variety is considered one of the most productive, because with good care from a hectare of land you can get up to 70 tons of potatoes.
Outwardly, these fruits look very attractiveTherefore, the percentage of the crop that can be sold is 94 - 96%. In the matter of sustainability, this variety recommended itself well.
Immunity to drought, nematode, cancer, viruses and all types of mosaic allows you to grow this potato even in the most adverse regions.
As for the application, these fruits can be used to prepare a variety of dishes, including French fries.
This variety is unpretentious to the level of soil fertility and its composition. It is desirable to prepare this potato for planting, that is, to warm it in the sun before planting it in the ground.
The planting scheme is ordinary, 35x65 cm. The depth of occurrence should be no more than 10 cm. The soil for potatoes should be loose.
For this variety is characterized by "pulling" of moisture from the soil, so there is no need for additional watering bushes. You also need to fertilize the bushes to get a good harvest. To prevent the development of phytophthora bushes, approximately 2 weeks before harvest, you will need to remove all the tops.
The variety is very early, after 45 days after emergence of shoots it is possible to harvest the first crop.
Shrubs are sprawling, not very tall, with red-purple blooms. Tubers are oval-shaped, dense, with a red, smooth skin and small or medium eyes.
The flesh is white, the starch in it is not more than 17%, does not darken with mechanical action and cutting. The mass of each tuber reaches 90 - 140 g, 60 days after germination, the total yield is 200 centners per hectare. The number of products with the presentation is 97% of the total number of tubers.
This variety in general not affected by viruses, scab and rhizoctoniosis. Phytophthora and nematodes can slightly worsen the condition of potatoes.
Also, this potato is prone to cracking during growth.
And a variety resistant to various kinds of mechanical damage, heat and lack of moisture. From the root of this variety is obtained excellent crisp.
The landing pattern is normal. Planted need in late April - May.
Because of its simplicity, the variety does not require special care. Watering additional bushes is not necessary. Be sure to loosen the soil and make fertilizer.
It is also important to spray the bushes with drugs against various diseases.
Variety "Zhukovsky Early"
Early variety, which was bred from varieties "Berry" and "Hydra". The period of vegetative development lasts 70 - 80 days.
The potato bushes of this variety are half-decadent, of medium height, the shoots branch out strongly, the foliage is large, of a dark green color, the flowers are red-purple in color. Round tubers, pink-skinned, with a small number of small red eyes.
The flesh is milky white, with good taste, the percentage of starch - 10 - 12%. The weight of one tuber varies from 100 to 120 g. At the output you can get 400-500 centners of potatoes per hectare of land.
To be stored this variety can long, approximately 92 - 96% of the crop will remain. 90 - 92% of all tubers have an excellent trade dress, therefore this potato will be sold very well.
Diseases such as cancer, nematode, rhizoctoniosis, and scab will not harm the fruits of this variety. Also for this potato resistant to mechanical damage. Appointment table.
Growing is expected to begin in May. Landing is ordinary, that is, according to an ordinary pattern at a standard depth. To get or not to get potatoes in advance from the storage is up to you, but you need to remember that it is undesirable to break off small sprouts, since this variety germinates even at low temperatures.
Watering the bushes of this potato is not necessary. There will be enough rainwater. Sure to need to loosen the groundso that oxygen comes evenly. Feed and anti-disease treatments are also needed as preventive measures.
Very early variety potatoes, the tubers of which can be dug already on the 45th day after the germination of the planting material. Finally, the harvest can be harvested after 70 - 75 days after germination.
Bushes of medium height, semi-upright, type - intermediate. Leaves on plants of medium size, green. The flowers are white. Tubers are ovate-round, with smooth yellow skin and small eyes.
The flesh of this potato is white, contains 12% starch, very tasty. The weight of one tuber is 90 - 120 g, total yield - 207-248 centners per hectare. Commercial quality this variety very high, bushes very friendly give tubers.
Resistant to this variety only to cancer, nematode and late blight of tops and tubers can slightly spoil the condition of the plants.
Planting should be planned for May, not earlier, otherwise the planting material will “freeze”. The landing pattern is ordinary, the depth is also normal. It is better to choose a place for this early potato where perennial and annual herbs, as well as leguminous plants used to grow.
In the case of the care of these potatoes, it is imperative to carry out therapeutic and preventive treatments of the bushes, since diseases can deprive you of a part of the crop.
It is also important to loosen the soil and remove weeds that can parasitize on potato bushes. You can provide additional watering of plants, but it will be quite difficult to do with a large area of crops.
The Netherlands is a very early variety of potatoes, after 50-55 days the tubers gain enough weight to dig them up.
Although it is foreign selection fruitIt adapts perfectly for growing in fairly variable weather conditions. The shrubs of this potato grow up to 70 - 75 cm in height, form an upright main shoot and 4 - 5 lateral stems, the flowers of these plants are white.
The tubers are oval, the peel of yellow color is covered with small eyes. Pulp it is colored in a light yellow color, very much cousy, rather starchy (starch content - 15%). The weight of one potato can be 90 - 150 g, and 16 to 21 fruits per one bush.
Resistance to diseases is quite high, since cancer, various viruses and the potato nematode do not affect this variety. But phytophthora of tops and tubers and scab can have an impact on this potato.
Sometimes gardeners in the south harvest two times in a season, which characterizes this particular potato variety perfectly. Productivity is very high, from one hectare of the field you can harvest from 18 to 36 tons of potatoes.
The use of this variety is the most diverse, the advantage is the absence of blackness after cutting this potato. This variety is perfect for commercial purposes, since with such yields, this potato looks very attractive.
Potatoes of this variety will need to be prepared for planting, namely to give it warm and germinate a little. But if the planting material has already sprouted in the storage, you can immediately throw it into the ground.
Here the earth must be warm, otherwise the potatoes will not let sprouts. The landing pattern is normal. Also, dropping time and proper depth are maintained. It is in early May that it is desirable to prikopat this variety so that in a month and a half it would be possible to get the first crop.
The peculiarity of this potato variety is its susceptibility to nitrogen, so the amount of fertilizer that you will make during the preparation of the soil for the next season should include a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer.
Be sure to cultivate the soil, the first time it is desirable to do a week after planting. Hilling is necessary if the ground is dry and it is impossible to water the garden. The number of dressings should be reduced to 2 - 3.
Adding an article to a new collection
In the summer, many summer residents can’t wait to taste young potatoes grown by themselves. Therefore, the early varieties of this crop grow in almost every garden. Let's find out which varieties to choose in order to always be with excellent harvest.
Early potato varieties are divided into:
- ultra early (ripen 45-55 days after germination),
- early maturing (grow 60-70 days),
- medium early (harvest can be collected in 75-80 days).
Having planted potatoes of an early grade, you can dig up mature tubers already in the first half of summer. It's time to enjoy the fruits of the new crop, especially since the cellar with autumn reserves is already empty.
However, keep in mind that early and ultra early varieties are stored worse than late (no more than 5 months). Therefore, if you are not going to grow such potatoes for sale, plant them in small quantities.
It is best to plant several varieties of different ripening times on the plot: in the summer you will eat plenty of early potatoes, and in the fall you will harvest late varieties to preserve it until next season. After all, your own potatoes are always better than shoplifting. In addition, you have the opportunity to choose a variety that will appeal to everyone.
The tubers of this early ripe table variety of potatoes have an oval shape, light red skin and white flesh. It rarely affects dangerous bacterial and fungal diseases, so the variety does not require painstaking care and frequent fertilizing.