When a small, dim butterfly, a scoop, appears in your garden, you should be alert, as its caterpillar, very voracious and omnivorous, can cause great damage to the crop. More than a hundred species of shovels harm various plants in our gardens and summer cottages: podzhryzayuschaya, gardening, winter, cabbage, marsh, etc. And despite the large number of existing methods of struggle against shovels as garden pests, they are very well distributed.
All scoops, their butterflies and larvae, are active only at night. According to the method of nutrition are divided into:
- leaf-eating (cabbage, alfalfa, garden) live on the ground,
- gnawing (winter, marsh, gnawing, wild) are underground.
It is not easy to get rid of the scoop, as it is unpredictable and harms various plants: tomatoes, beans, cabbage, turnips, turnips, corn, sunflower, rhubarb, onions, beets and even garlic, cereals, and especially winter - wheat and rye.
Scoop control methods
Gardeners in the fight against the scoop use different methods for each state of the scoop: butterflies, caterpillars and pupae.
How to get rid of butterfly scoops?
- hang pheromone traps or containers with roaming kvass or molasses at a height of 1 meter (then you should add a little water and fermenting liquid),
- destroy weeds especially flowering, which leads to the depletion of butterflies-scoop due to the lack of nectar for food.
How to get rid of caterpillars and pupae?
- to dig for the winter and loosen the aisles very effectively, as they overwinter in the soil at a depth of 8 cm,
- collect the larvae by hand,
- alternate planting plants (for example: potatoes with black steam),
- spray insecticides: in the spring - Decis, Karate, Proteus, Fury, and in the summer with organophosphates - Fufanon, Zolon, Dursban, Danadim. The rates of use depend on the form of release of drugs (granules, powder, emulsion concentrate). To use, observing the dosage specified in the instruction, to carry out processing in the evening, not later than a month before harvesting. In the year allowed no more than two treatments.
- to make granulated Basudin when planting potatoes (15–20 kg / ha) in moist soil is an effective measure of control against caterpillars of a scoop scoop,
- spray with biological preparations Agrovertin, Actofit, Fitoverm and organic insecticide Natur Gard.
How to destroy scoop folk methods?
- Application of decoction of wormwood: boil 1 kg of wormwood in three liters of water for 15 minutes, apply twice with an interval of a week.
- Use the infusion of burdock: put the chopped burdock in the bucket to half and pour water to the top, insist 3 days, drain and you can process the plants. In the same way, you can use the infusions of chamomile pharmacy, dope, potato tops, aconite, yarrow and milkweed. In all solutions it is recommended to add 40 g of household soap for better sticking to the plants.
- Releasing twice per season in the period of laying eggs of trichograms (very small hymenoptera insects laying their eggs inside the eggs of butterflies). This method is very effective in the fight against garden shovel.
- Simultaneous use with trichograms of a bracon parasitizing on non-young caterpillar pests. Brakon can apply once or twice.
- Using the same tools as in the fight against aphids.
From the timely start of the fight with scoops depends on its effectiveness. The most difficult is to determine the time of occurrence of pests to establish the correct dates for the start of treatment. If you are late with spraying for several days, then after the caterpillars penetrate the fruit, the treatment becomes practically useless. It is possible to predict the development of harmful insects with the help of pheromone traps, which help determine the duration of the mass arrival of moths of moths and the appearance of larvae.
We begin to consider who the scoops are, with such a representative as an exclamation scoop. Another name is the exclamation room.
Did you know?There are two groups of caterpillars: leaf-eating (eat and damage the leaves of plants directly, live on the ground), these include cabbage, vegetable garden, gnawing (live underground, crawling out for the night), the basis of nutrition is the roots, plant stalks near the ground, it is potato, exclamation, winter.
Insect pests such as the wireworm, the tick, the cockchafer, the nematode, the bear, the aphid, the mealybug, the cicadas, the whitefly and the ants can significantly damage the crop and ruin the plants.
How it looks and what harm
A small butterfly with wings of yellow-gray or brown-gray color. On the wings has a longitudinal black strip, similar to the exclamation point. This feature and gave the name of the butterfly. Wingspan 3.5–4.6 cm.
Caterpillar is yellow-brown, with a white line on the back and with dark stripes on the sides. The butterfly itself is harmless. But the caterpillar devours the fruits and plants on which it lives - potatoes, tomatoes, sunflower, all vegetable crops, especially carrots. Caterpillars spend most of their life in the ground and damage plant roots. One individual can damage 10 plants per night. The larvae, which appear in August-September, feed on winter crops.
How to fight
The basis of the struggle is to choose folk and traditional methods:
- weeding between rows and weed control,
- the use of pheromone traps and plosek with baits (jam, beer),
- in the fall, when digging - the collection and destruction of caterpillars moths,
- during the flight of butterflies, spraying with insecticides helps ("Decis", "Eurodim", "Akiba").
Important!Use insecticides with care and strictly follow the instructions. Almost all insecticides are poisonous and can harm not only scoops, but also people or pets.
The scoop is sometimes referred to as scoops. The first shovels were described at the beginning of the 19th century, and now about 35,000 species of these insects are known, but not all of them are garden pests.
The wingspan of a scoop usually reaches 45 mm, although there are also much larger specimens in the family. Painted scoop in low-key grayish color. She spends the winter in the pupal phase in the upper layer of the soil, and in the spring she flies out and lays eggs on the leaves of garden plants for 4-5 days. After about seven days, caterpillars appear from the eggs, and after three weeks they become adults. It is during these three weeks that the caterpillars cause serious damage to the tomato beds. They devour the leaves, stems and fruits of tomatoes, from which the bushes wither and die. But during the summer scoops produce more than one generation of caterpillars.
Agrotechnical ways to combat scoops
To get rid of the scoop in several ways. Can be used in the fight against pests environmentally friendly and non-toxic to the environment, and you can use potent chemicals, but they can give undesirable side effects. It should be remembered that it is easier to prevent the occurrence of a problem than to get rid of it later, which is why it is so important to carry out preventive measures and comply with agrotechnical requirements:
- regularly destroy weeds on the beds, especially quinoa, nettles and white mar, as these weeds serve as the initial food supply for shovels, and from these grasses they subsequently switch to tomatoes,
- plant plants such as calendula, basil or cilantro on the perimeter of tomato beds and between rows of tomatoes — usually no scoops approach such plants,
- after harvesting and removal of all plant residues, it is imperative to dig up the garden to a depth of at least 20 cm in order to extract the larvae hibernating in the soil: they will die during the first frost. At the beginning of the season, you should also dig deep the soil in the area,
- remove pests mechanically, while they have not yet spread throughout the site.
And if you place troughs for tits and sparrows around the site, then soon there will not be a single scoop larvae on your beds.
Industrial insecticides against noctuids are divided into 2 groups - bacterial and chemical. Bacterial preparations contain toxins of microorganisms, they are considered less dangerous for humans and animals.
Most effective biological preparations:
- Dendrobatsillin - a drug that can be used 2 times per season,
- Bitoxibacillin - a product of bacteria that disrupts the intestinal function in the scoop and adversely affects their reproductive function,
- Entobacterin - a microbiological preparation for leaf pests,
- Lepidocid - the drug against leaf-eating pests,
- Fitoderm - bacterial insecticide against many pests,
- Agravertine - safe for people and the environment, a product derived from fungi and having a long shelf life. It is effective against many pests, including the scoop,
- Actofit - a new strong drug derived from fungi (avermectin),
- Natur Gard - insecticide from Sophora, which has a neurotoxin action: causes paralysis of limbs in pests, from which they die.
Of chemical preparations most often used:
- Proteus - two-component tool, which includes oil that protects the insecticide from rinsing and evaporation,
- Zolon - highly toxic organophosphorus agent with selective action: it affects only harmful insects,
- Karate Zeon - pyrethroid drug that destroys both adults and caterpillars.
- Decis Profi - the insecticide destroying all scoop, including gnawing,
- Fury - contact-action pyrethroid,
- Basudin - granules for treating wet soil,
- Stefesin - synthetic pyrethroid enteric-contact action.
In addition to the described, Kinmiks, Fufanon, Dursban and Danadim preparations coped well with scoops. However, chemicals should be resorted to only when the occupation with scoops of tomato beds has become rampant. With a small number of caterpillars, try to do with plant insecticidal infusions and decoctions. If they are of little help, try using biological products that are not as toxic as potent chemicals.
Winter-scoop purple-gray: how to get rid of caterpillars
On photo Winter scoop
Scoop purple-gray early Orthosia incerta Hdn. (syn. Taeniocampa incerta Hfn.-button with wingspan of 35-37 mm. The front wings are purple-gray with a reddish-brown tinge, the back ones are yellowish-white, in gray pollen. On the front fenders are two large blurred spots with white edges and a wavy whitish line.
Pictured Caterpillar winter scoops
The caterpillar of a winter scoop is green, with a light pattern, has a white or yellow line on the back and light yellow on the sides.
Pupa red-brown color. The caterpillars feed on fruit and deciduous trees and shrubs during May - July.
See how the caterpillars look like shovels in the photo, where different stages of their development are represented:
Control measures or how to get rid of the caterpillars of the scoop, described below, offered the most relevant means.
Collection and destruction of single caterpillars. Preventive annual spraying of plants before flowering against the pest complex drugs: fufanon, kemifos, kinmiks, Aktellik, spark, Inta-Vir, reduce the number of scoops.
Caterpillars and butterflies scoops yellow-brown: methods of struggle
Pictured scoop yellow-brown
Scoop yellow-brown early Orthosia stabilis Schiff. (syn. Taeniocampaaa stabilis View-button with a wingspan of 35 mm. The front wings are brownish-red with a yellow tinge. There is a wavy whitish line and spots with bright edges. Near the transverse line visible a number of black small dots. Hind wings yellowish gray, with light fringe.
Unlike the butterfly moths, the caterpillar does not have such an attractive appearance.
In the photo caterpillar Scoops yellow-brown
It is green, with small yellowish dots and five yellowish longitudinal lines on the back.
On the last but one ring there is a yellow bar. Butterflies fly in April; after fertilization, females lay eggs on buds and leaves of shrubs and trees. The feeding and development of the caterpillars is observed at the end of May - June. Yellow-brown scoop early distributed on apple, oak and many deciduous trees. On strawberries is found constantly in view of the presence of green leaves on overwintered bushes.
Methods of struggle with caterpillars scoops are the same as against purple-gray scoops.
Caterpillars of scooped brown-gray
On the photo is brown-gray scoop
Scoop brown-gray early Orthosia gothica L. (syn. Taeniocampa gothica L.) - a butterfly with a wingspan of 35-37 mm, the front wings are brown-gray with a light wavy stripe and thin white transverse lines. Between the bud-shaped and black oblong spot there is a black space with ring-shaped spots, the hind wings are gray-brown.
In the photo caterpillar scoops brownish gray
The caterpillar gnawing a scoop is green, with a green head, three whitish-yellow lines run along its back, and there is a wide white stripe on the sides. The pupa is brown. Caterpillars feed on fruit trees, shrubs and many grassy plants in April-May.
Control measures the same as against the scoop of violet and early.
Fighting the caterpillar of a blue-headed scoop
On the photo is a blue-headed scoop
Blue-headed scoop, or blue-headed scoop Diloba coeruleocephala L. (syn. Episema coeruleocephala L.), - moth brownish-gray, with a wingspan of 40 mm. The front wings are purple-gray, with a large yellowish-white spot, consisting of three small, the base of the wings brownish, with a reddish spot. The same spot exists on the inner corner of the wing. The rear wings are light gray, with an obscure spot and a dark rear corner. The fight against the caterpillar of a blue-headed scoop should begin long before the departure of the butterflies.
In the photo, the caterpillar
Caterpillar bluish-white, 35-38 mm long, on the back and sides has yellowish lines and black tubercles along the body, covered with hairs. The pupa is of red-brown color, covered with bluish-gray pollen. Eggs overwinter on the branches near the buds. Caterpillars hatch in early spring and feed on buds, leaves and fruits, roughly eating them. On the damaged ovaries remain bites, which are later noticeable as brown healed damage to the fruit. After feeding, the caterpillars in June pupate in dense web-like white cocoons in the crevices of the crust. In September - early October, butterflies fly out and after fertilization the females lay eggs on the branches. For the year, one generation of the pest is developing.
Scoop damages all fruit crops, many berry bushes and forest species.
Control measures same as against a scoop of purple-gray early.
How to understand that a winter scoop started up on the plot
- Sharp and sudden wilting of plants.
- Stems nibbled right at the base.
- Near the damaged, weak and withering plants you can find the caterpillars themselves. But they do not have a certain color, they can be completely different shades, interspersed with stripes and without. Yet more often they have a gray color. Even close to the plants on the ground is visible the droppings of caterpillars.
- On continuous crops there are bald spots.
Habits are the same as those of a cotton moth: in the daytime the caterpillars hide. The ideal time to eat with them is night. The list of plants they prefer is huge, and in one night they are able to destroy plants in a large area. In root vegetables, caterpillars gnaw large areas of pulp, gnaw seedlings and even seeds.
You can fight with a scoop scoop without using any drugs, but you need to have time before they multiply. Having missed the moment, the invasion of the caterpillars will become a natural disaster, which will be too difficult to fight.
Winter scoop and measures to combat it
Winter scoops develop in 2 generations. Caterpillars of last age hibernate in the soil at a depth of 20 cm. In spring, they rise to the upper soil layers and pupate in such small earthen minks. In the second decade of May begins the flight of butterflies, which are also nocturnal.
Mechanical method of dealing with caterpillars gnawing scoops
Since the pest eats at night, it is necessary to collect the caterpillars at the same time. No matter how uncomfortable, and maybe even funny, but you need to go out in the dark with lighting fixtures and collect them. To kill the caterpillars you need to pour half a bucket of water, add soap, and send there all the collected individuals. To do this work will have the entire summer season, a couple of times a week.
Meet the enemy
All species of scoops are polyphages (polyphagous insects capable of feeding on numerous plant species). The scoop family includes butterflies of various sizes, mostly painted in gray, brown or dark tones. The front wings are longer than the back, mostly narrow, with a peculiar pattern called “scoop pattern”.
The basis of the figure is winding transverse lines and three spots: annular, reniform and wedge-shaped. The hind wings are most often light gray, red, or blue with black bands. In a calm state, the butterfly wings are folded in a roof-shaped manner.
Butterflies fly in the evening or at night, extremely rarely during the day. Гусеницы большую часть жизни проводят в почве, подгрызая у растений корни или объедая у них надземные части у самой поверхности почвы. Питаются листьями и корнеплодами, проделывая в них полости (дупла) неправильной формы, не повреждая кожуры.
Кроме картофеля, опасны для свеклы, моркови, лука, гороха, фасоли и многих других культурных и дикорастущих видов. On vegetable crops, four types of shovels are most common: winter, exclamation, garden, and cabbage.
Garden scoop (Polia oleracea) - a very common type of scoop, which develops in two generations.
Butterflies (front wings are reddish brown with transverse lines, rear ones are grayish) of the first generation fly out in May, the second in late July - August. Females lay yellow-green eggs on the lower side of the leaves in 40- 70 pcs. Caterpillars 30–32 mm long, with a variable color - from light green to dark brown.Caterpillar garden shovel. Photo: macroid.ru. Author: Biryukov A.
Caterpillars of younger ages resemble moths, moving, they arch the back. They are polymorphic, causing significant damage to vegetable crops - cabbage, radish, beans, turnip, pepper, tomatoes, not only in the open field, but also in spring film greenhouses. Younger caterpillars feed on leaves, skeletonizing them from the bottom. Adult caterpillars completely eat the leaves, and also feed on the pulp of the fruit, gnawing deep, large, irregularly shaped holes.
The cabbage scoop (Mamestra brassicae) is a dangerous, widespread and most harmful pest from the group of sheet-eating scoops.
Butterflies with a wingspan of up to 50 mm, front wings gray-brown with a yellowish-white wavy line and two dark spots at the front edge, as well as with double dark serrated stripes across the wing.Butterfly cabbage scoops. Photo: www.dorsetnature.co.uk
Cabbage scoop develops in two generations. The pupa winters (dark brown, with a pointed end) in the soil at a depth of 3-5 cm. Butterflies of the first generation fly from mid-May to late June, the second from the second half of July to first half of September.
Females lay hemispherical dark gray eggs in small groups (10–40 pcs.) On the lower side of sunflower leaves, peas, tobacco, lettuce, and beets. But their favorite food is cabbage.
After 5–12 days, the green caterpillars sprouted from eggs first “scrape” the leaf pulp in small areas, and when they grow up, they crawl and gnaw holes on the leaves of irregular shape.
Adult caterpillars are greyish-green, yellowish-brown, sometimes almost black, usually digging into the heading, making passages in it and contaminating it with liquid excrement.
The damaged head rots, emits an unpleasant smell, and over time becomes a source of phytopathogenic infection.
In cauliflower caterpillars scoops damage both the leaves and the head.
Control and prevention measures
To reduce the damage caused by scoops, you must use a set of preventive measures:
1. Destroy weeds in the areas separating borders and paths, especially flowering ones, on which butterflies constantly accumulate for additional nourishment.
2. During the laying of eggs and hatching caterpillars scoop regularly carry out deep loosening of the soil in between rows.
3. In the period of mass summer, to catch butterflies on crops, use bowls (containers, troughs) with water, adding jam or beer to them to smell. Content periodically needs to be changed.
4. Spray the planting of vegetable crops damaged by caterpillars, infusion of flowering wormwood (300 g of crushed raw materials, 1 cup of wood ash and 1 tbsp of liquid soap, pour 10 liters of boiling water, cover, infuse for 5-6 hours). Spray immediately after cooling.
5. To use an effective and harmless biological method to control scoops - a predator of trichogramma that destroys pest eggs. During the egg-laying period, conduct a three-time release of the trichogram (30–40 thousand individuals per 1 ha with each release) with an interval of 5–6 days.
6. Against the caterpillars of the younger age of each generation of scoops to use biological products: lepidocide concentrated, BA (biological activity) - 2000 EA / mg - 40–50 g per 10 liters of water (1.5–2 kg / ha), bitoxybacillin, BA - 1500 EA / mg - 50 g per 10 liters of water (2 kg / ha). If necessary, repeat treatment after 7–8 days. (The working solution should be prepared immediately before processing the plants. Biopreparations should be treated with plants at a temperature above +18 ° С and no precipitations in the form of rain or abundant dew. Spraying should be carried out in twilight hours).
7. Effective against caterpillars scoop chemical preparations: decis, 2.5% c. H. - 2 ml per 10 l of water, Arrivo, 25% c. E. 10 liters of water, Sherpa, 25% c. e. - 1.5 ml per 10 l of water. Modern insecticides apply strictly according to the instructions. When working with insecticides, try not to get to other areas and crops, strictly observe the waiting times (number of days from processing to harvest) specified in the instructions.
8. After harvesting the vegetable crops, carry out deep autumn soil digging, select and destroy pupae of the scoop.
Bird cherry infusion
It is often advised to put a bird cherry between rows, but in a large garden this is very inconvenient, since too many branches will be needed. To prepare the infusion will need branches, a hammer, a large container and water. The branches need to be thoroughly softened with a hammer, sent into a container and pour boiling water, it is best to insist on it for three days.
Tobacco dust, yarrow and wormwood do not like scoops either. The number of ingredients can be selected independently, the most important thing in the infusion is a strong smell. This infusion should be watered plants, pour directly on the stem, at a height of 10 cm above the ground. Periodically, you need to repeat the procedure, as the plant essential oils disappear quickly.
In order not to let the caterpillars, which are mainly engaged in that gnawing the stems of plants, you can put obstacles around the stems. Cartons are impregnated with a solution of tar soap and fastened with a paper clip around the plant with a rim. However, this is not very convenient, as it is necessary to put a “fence” almost around each stalk.
For treatment of scoops, a mixture of BTB and Lepidocide is also used as soon as signs of sprout damage appear. The main thing is to make the treatment on time, since the larvae of older ages are more resistant.
Predatory nematodes are very effective - Nemabakt or “Protection” soil. It is a composite of a predatory nematode and a bacteria symbiotic with it. They act amazingly: a roundworm penetrates the larva with food or, excuse me, through the anus, and the bacteria decompose the insides of the pest from the inside. It turns out a sort of broth from the viscera, which is then eaten by nematodes. After an empty shell remains, they leave it. Bacteria and useful nematodes take root well and live in open ground.
Site care and agrotechnical techniques
Once it was believed that reducing the number of pests can be deeply digging, to make it harder for the caterpillars to winter. But, first of all, nobody digs to such depth. And secondly, the damage from digging more. Therefore, in the practice of natural farming, other agrotechnical methods are used, namely:
- If there are too many damages in the current year, this bed for the winter and until the end of June is covered with black agrofibre to make it difficult for the larvae to get out. If you have to resort to this measure, fill the garden well with organic matter — for such a long time, organic matter will perepret well, and in the middle of summer you can plant beans, daikon, kale or any greens on it.
- The beds can also be sown with perennial siderats of the legume family (comfrey, alfalfa) and not used for a year. For the second winter, also sandwich it with organic matter and cover it with agrofiber so that the roots, tops and the upper layer process the earthworms.
- Annual flowers and / or siderats can be planted around the perimeter of the plot; female pests will lay eggs in them. Annuals bloom until autumn, here their natural enemies-entomophages multiply.
It will take a lot of time to fight the winter scoop, but rather everything depends on the desire to get rid of this pest. Only by constantly monitoring the site, you will first reduce the number of individuals, then protect yourself from the pest more reliably. As for chemistry, it is hardly possible to eat onions after treatment with pesticides. It is better to choose a biologically safe drug or folk remedies to combat the winter shovel.