Caring for garden trees, including apple trees, is very similar in its essence to child care. Requires constant care, attention and care. Trees should be watered in time, fertilized, cut and not to forget about their skin - the bark. It needs to be whitened properly and in a timely manner, which can protect the surface from ultraviolet radiation and pests. This is an uncomplicated process, however, requiring certain knowledge and skills. Let's find out what and when to whiten the apple tree.
When to produce whitewash
It is desirable to whitewash the apple trees should be carried out 2 times a year. At the same time, not only the trunk is whitened, but also the skeletal branches of the lower tier. Among gardeners there is a heated debate about the time frame of the procedure. Some of them are confident that it is rational to conduct it in the winter. And to give up the spring, as it is absolutely not beneficial, but is the usual decoration of the garden. What exactly spring whitewash for apple trees clogs the pores of the bark and interferes with the natural development of the tree and can lead to its death.
Supporters of spring painting argue their choice by the fact that it is early painting that is able to protect the bark from the action of sunlight, to save bark beetles from pests, in general, to save the tree from the effects of the environment.
So when to whitewash an apple tree in fact, so that it is scientifically true and brings only benefit, not harm?
Experts agree that by carrying out this procedure in the spring, you can save the tree from the destructive action of the sun. Judge for yourself, in the spring the weather has not yet settled and is very changeable. During the day, the ambient temperature will be above zero, while at night it may drop below zero. The trunk has a dark color, which will actively attract to itself the sun's rays. This will lead to the fact that the crust heats up during the day and cools sharply at night. As a result, it can crack. And if you whiten in white, it will contribute to the reflection of the rays. And in summer, especially hot days, the white color of the trunk will not allow the plant to overheat and save its covers from burns.
Spring whitewash protects against all sorts of pests that actively wake up after a long winter sleep. But in order to achieve maximum protection, whitewashing is necessary according to all the rules.
A quiet spring March day will be optimal for this procedure. The foliage has not yet begun to bloom, and the ground cover has not yet managed to warm up under the first sunshine and all sorts of pests are still sleeping. After all, the defenseless bark can be an excellent shelter for them in early spring. With the help of spring whitewashing you also get an excellent opportunity to get rid of wintering pests in the bark of an apple tree.
The important point is what the weather will be on your chosen day. It is desirable that it is cool and dry. Do not experiment with painting in the rain. He still wash off all the paint. Also, do not delay the process. Indeed, with the onset of tangible spring heat, this procedure is no longer feasible. You will miss the main thing - time. The bark of your trees will not be able to escape from the bright rays of the sun and suffer from burns.
Winter is also suitable for painting, especially if you live in a warm, southern climate zone or did not spend it in the fall. Only need to select suitable weather conditions. The main requirement is dry weather. After all, a layer of paint should be absorbed and dry thoroughly. Otherwise it will be washed away by rain.
The question “what to whiten the apple trees” most often we hear the answer - with lime. To get the paint, take quicklime dry lime and dilute it with water. But, of course, there are options and talk about them below. The composition of the solution depends on what goals you pursue when you whitewash: you want to get rid of pests or save the tree from exposure to sunlight.
A young seedling also needs to be harvested, just like an adult tree. But there is an assumption that young saplings should not be subjected to this procedure. After all, the paint is annoyingly acting on the young covers of the tree and interferes with the process of thickening the trunk. But this is a very controversial aspect. After all, if you significantly reduce the concentration of lime in water, then, of course, you will avoid such problems. In the solution for better grip, it is recommended to add clay. It will contribute to the viscosity of your composition. If you want to experiment, get water-based paint.
Making by hand or purchasing a ready-made solution, remember that its composition should not be very thick. It is also undesirable for the layer of paint to be thick - this adversely affects the condition of the apple tree. If after painting you notice that whitewashing is crumbling or quickly cracking - you will have to repeat everything all over again, taking into account previous mistakes.
In the event that the solution flows from the stem during the procedure, it is desirable to increase the concentration of lime and repeat painting.
If you start painting a young plant and want to rid it of pests and all sorts of pathogens, use chalk, not lime. After all, lime, as we have noted, can harm young saplings.
Know that the optimal thickness of the whitewash layer should be no more than 3 millimeters. And only thanks to the homogeneous and lump-free consistency of the solution you will achieve the desired result.
You can use ready-made solutions and alkyd paints. Such paints in their composition already contain antifungal components and antiseptic.
Popular and painting iron sulphate. It promotes the formation of chlorophyll and perfectly nourishes the whole tree. For the greatest effect, chalk or slaked lime is added to it.
But if desired, the paint can be prepared by yourself. The main thing is that the composition of the solution must be composed of glue ingredients. Without them, whitewash will not last long and will be washed away at the first precipitation. Do not forget about the color of the solution. Regardless of whether it was purchased or prepared on its own, the color should be strictly white. Otherwise, this paint will not be able to protect the bark from burns.
To whiten the trunk of the apple tree, you do not have to specifically study. This is a very simple and easy manipulation that even a child can handle. The process itself consists of two subsequent stages - preparation of the cortex and staining.
Preparation is to remove from the shtambov old, dry bark. Do this with a spatula or scraper. When all the old bark is removed, it is necessary to “polish” the tree with an iron brush. If the apple tree is young, it is enough to brush it once. Wounds received during the procedure, process garden pitch or solution of vitriol.
Next, using a wide brush or spray start painting. During the process, be careful, try to keep the solution on the tree trunk over the entire surface area and in an even layer.
Do not neglect the care of the bark of your apple trees - this is their “skin” and it requires gentle, careful attitude and care. After all, the environment affects her daily. Only regular whitewash will give positive results. Apple trees will delight you with a bountiful harvest and much less sick.
Why whiten trees
Whitewashing apple trees in the spring is the same mandatory procedure as in the fall. This operation is very important for the health of apples, because it is designed to perform one of the most important tasks - the protection of fruit trees:
- from sunburn,
- temperature difference
- various rodents,
- insect pests under the bark of an apple tree,
- fungal infections
- mosses and lichens,
- when peeling bark, with the appearance of cracks.
Important! An important point is the fact that the gloomy garden without foliage after whitewashing trees becomes very elegant.
It is very difficult to protect the tree from sudden changes in temperature during thaws, from scorching sun rays, and severe frosts. It is impossible to wrap mature trees in covering materials. Yes, and the harm from this thaw more than good. An excellent way out of this difficult situation is whitewashing apple trees.
White trunks of apple trees reflect the sun's rays, saving the bark from burns and tears during sudden temperature changes. The barrel before whitewashing is cleaned of the peeling bark, disinfect, close up wounds and whiten. These actions can significantly heal and treat the old bark.
The folds, cracks, roughness of the bark serve as an excellent winter haven for various insect larvae. Whitewashing itself is a protective composition. In addition, it blocks the access of oxygen, and the larvae die under the bark.
Fungal pathogens, overgrown mosses and lichens die under the influence of drugs that make up the whitewash.
When to whiten an apple tree
Whitewash is necessary before the onset of critical weather conditions. In winter, the trees are threatened by severe frosts, which leave cracks on the bark of the cold.
In the spring, hot rays heat the stems to zero temperature, and the roots are still sleeping in the frozen ground. In addition, the rays of the sun are reflected from the melting snow as from a mirror, leaving burns on the bark of a sleeping tree, not covered by thick foliage.
The dates of the autumn whitewash come from the end of October to the beginning of November, after the leaf fall.
This is the main and most important whitewash. For the winter, whitewashing protects the apple tree from severe frosts, ice formation and hungry rodents.
Sunburn occurs when a combination of several factors:
- thaw during the day and frost at night,
- reflection of sunlight from the surface of the crust,
- the strongest evaporation of moisture throughout the winter, draining the apple tree.
To prevent this from happening, spring painting of an apple tree is required. This is a renewed, repeated whitewash, which is carried out from February to the beginning of March. It is necessary to repeat the whitewashing in the spring, not because of frosts, but because of the hot spring sun. Temperature drops during this period can be 20 degrees.
Important! The main impact of the sun falls on the period from mid-January to April.
By this time, the autumn whitewash is usually washed off or faded from the last rains and snowfalls. The remaining paint can no longer effectively reflect the sun's rays from the bark of the apple tree, protect it from overheating and protect the apple tree from premature awakening.
What to whiten the apple
Nowadays, in garden shops, chalk and lime for whitewash are sold very inexpensively. In addition, many companies produce ready-made whitewash, packed in convenient buckets. Such compositions for whitewashing are much more expensive, but ease of use attracts many gardeners.
However, you must carefully read the composition of the finished whitewash. It is necessary to clarify which adhesive substance is included in its composition. To whitewash kept longer and not washed off, manufacturers often add too many adhesive substances. This clogs the vessels of the tree, which prevents him from breathing.
Some gardeners believe that trees can be whitened with water-based paint. But this is also not the best option for wood because of the durable film that paint forms.
It is better to use paint own cooking. There are many compositions: from very simple to fairly complex. Volumes in recipes are indicated for 10 liters of water:
- 3 kg of lime - fluff, 1.5 kg of clay,
- 2.5 kg of chalk, 10 tbsp. l flour paste or soap,
- 2 kg of freshly sour lime, 1 kg of clay (better than white), 300 g of copper sulphate, 100 g of soap shavings, 100 g of ground bitter pepper,
- half a bucket of lime - fluff, 0.7 l of milk, 100 g of wood glue, 100 g of vitriol,
- 2 kg of hydrated lime, 1.5 kg of oily clay, 200 g of copper sulfate, a shovel of cow manure.
Important! Whitewashing of any composition must be white.
Lime gives whitewash the desired whiteness and disinfects the surface, clay, soap, milk, glue are responsible for adhesion of the solution, copper sulfate or manure - disinfects the surface and destroys spores, bitter pepper dares rodents.
Cold water is used to extinguish lime in a 2: 1 ratio, the lime is poured into the water in small portions, the mixture should be left to stand for 24 hours. Copper sulfate for whitewashing is also separately bred in a small amount of hot water.
Important! When preparing to whiten an apple tree, be sure to protect your face with a respirator and goggles, hands with gloves and long-sleeved clothing.
Before you begin to paint, you must thoroughly clean the trunk of the old flaky bark. For processing trunks using metal brushes, spatulas or wooden scrapers. At the same time, besides peeling bark, mosses and lichens are removed. To make it easier to do, you can treat it with 5% of copper sulphate before cleaning the barrel.
When cleaning the bark around the apple tree spreads oilcloth. All crumbling bark is burned, because there are a lot of larvae and testicles of insects on it.
After scrapping old bark and lichen, the surface of the tree should be disinfected:
- 3-5% copper sulphate (300 g per 10 liters),
- 6–8% iron vitriol,
- ash-and-soap solution (250 g of ash and 10 g of soap for 10 l), infuse the mixture for 24 hours, then strain,
- ash lye (4 kg of ash pour a bucket of water, stir well and bring to a boil, cool and strain),
- drugs Hom, Oksihom, Abiga-Pik (composition based on copper).
Preparations are sprayed with a garden spray until the surface is wetted. Such treatments are carried out 1 time in 2 years with a strong defeat of the apple with fungi or pests.
After disinfection, it is worthwhile to give the apple tree a rest for three days and proceed to the next procedure.
After inspecting the trunk and skeletal branches, it is necessary to find all the wounds and fissures, hollows and gums, and clean it with a knife to healthy tissue. The peeled wounds which have dried up within several hours will cover up with suitable putty:
- purchased garden pitch,
- homemade garden pitch (150 g of rosin, 250 g of beeswax melt into a water bath and add 50 g of unsalted fat there),
- clay mash (mix in equal parts clay, manure, lime or copper sulfate),
- purchase garden paste, which consists of humates.
The whitening procedure begins from the bottom and moves upwards, painting the branches to the height of growth. Work should be done during the day, in dry weather. Ideal when the whitewash falls flat and does not flow. The bark is stained all over, painting over all the ledges and depressions.
Whitening should be in dry weather, so that the lime mortar can dry out and stick to the surface of the apple tree. If it immediately rains after whitewashing, the solution will simply be washed off.
Important! The paint is applied in a thin layer so that it does not interfere with the bark breathing.
If the mixture is thick, then it is very easy to dilute it with water. Lime or clay is added to a too thin solution.
Be sure to whiten shtamb and lower skeletal boughs on 1/3 of their length. Very often, apple trees begin to subside in the forks of thick skeletal branches, where a large amount of exfoliated old bark and water gather. Therefore, it is recommended to especially thoroughly clean such places with a brush. And whitewash applied on the trunk and branches, capturing the area as high as possible.
Apple seedlings under 5 years of age whitening is not recommended. The whitewash clogs the pores in the young bark, causing gas exchange to deteriorate. From this tree grow worse, thickening of the trunk slows down.
To protect seedlings from frost and rodents, they use wrapping of boils with heaters, paper, roofing felt, burlap, spruce branches. If, however, there is nothing to cover, then you can whitewash the stems, using chalk in the solution, instead of lime.
Whitening of adult apple trees is an obligatory procedure for the care of an apple tree of any kind. Even the most winter-hardy varieties need protection from temperature shocks and pests. And just the kind of whitewashed trees, their snow-white trunks, brings a joyful mood to the garden. As if white angels descended into the garden.
When is it better to whiten
To whiten the apple should be at least several times a year. This is due to the simple reason that most often the paint is washed off in a few months, and without it the tree is left without protection. When do you need to whiten the trees? In fact, to date, farmers have not reached a consensus. According to some results, early spring whitewashing can inhibit the growth of young trees, and also partially leads to their death. Also, such experts insist that it is not necessary to whiten a tree in the spring, because it has no effect.
On the other hand, counter-arguments are being advanced in favor of spring painting. So, it is necessary to hold spring whitewashing - with temperature drops that still accompany the woken up tree in the spring, the bark may become covered with cracks. Such violations sooner or later lead to infection by a wide range of pathogens.
To hold the first whitewash is better in March. The deadline is April. This is the most vulnerable time for trees, in which they need special protection. Pay special attention to the treatment of old trees and young apple trees. The former tend to disrupt the integrity of the cortex, the latter are often more susceptible to infections.
The dates of the second whitewash are within April - September. In fact, it is necessary to whiten when old paint is washed off from tree trunks. Обычно побелки смываются в течение двух-четырех месяцев, что зависит от их качества.
Состав побелки может различаться в зависимости от того, какую цель вы хотите ею достигнуть. Существуют составы защищающие деревья от возбудителей болезней и вредителей, другие рассчитаны на защиту от ожогов. Third mixtures affect the resistance of plants and can stimulate their immunity.
Doing this procedure with their own hands, people often use lime. She whitewashed apple trees to keep the bark from overheating. Lime also has a weak antibiotic effect. However, most often lime is washed off rather quickly, and attentive gardeners make up to four whitewash per season. In other formulations, the same lime is often used as a coloring matter. However, depending on the composition there are added impurities of certain active substances.
Currently, water-based paints are popular. They cover the tree trunk more densely. Also gardeners noted that this paint was not washed off even under the direct pressure of water.
Here are some good whitewash recipes for apples of different ages.
In this structure, you can add drops of rodents "Knockdown".
From burns, you can use another recipe:
Apple trees should be whitewashed with a layer of at least 3 millimeters.
Is it possible to paint the barrel without pre-treatment? Can. But this whitening efficiency will drop significantly. Before starting work, get rid of unnecessary growths on the bark, cut off too insensitive, cork areas. Treat the resulting wounds with a special antiseptic or copper sulfate.
Prepare the mother liquor. Carefully and carefully paint the tree, if necessary, make two or three repetitions. Whitewashing should rise to the so-called green cone - the vegetating parts of the green plant. Some paint the trunk just below, but this is considered a blunder. Paint both the root paws and the protruding parts of the roots above the ground.
How to whiten is a simple question. It is necessary to use a wide brush or even a special spray gun to evenly paint on the wood. What color should the painted part be in the end? Equally saturated white. Now you know when to whiten an apple tree and how to do it right.
Do I need to whiten an apple tree?
Fruit trees, including apple trees, need whitewash. Applying a light composition to the bark in the spring will protect against injury due to the bright sun. The trunks of the trees are dark in color, so during the day they heat up considerably. At night, in the spring time, the air temperature drops noticeably. Because of this differential crust cracks. The infection and insects that lead to diseases and death of the plant will quickly fall into these gaps. Bleached trunks will reflect light, heat up less and they will not crack. Such protection is needed for young and old plants.
Important! Painting with white trunks in the fall is a pest control measure. In the bark for wintering various insects are colonized. With the help of whitewash disinfect trees from adult insects, larvae, eggs, pupae.
Whitewash wood age
Not all apple trees are whitened. Very young such a procedure is not subjected. They are only wrapped for wintering, but without plastic film. Sometimes whitewashing is still carried out, but with a weak, sparing solution of chalk. Lime will burn tender bark, it can not be used for young. It is better to use woven materials, burlap. When the tree begins to bear fruit, it should be whitened. After this whitewashing is carried out annually.
How to prepare a tree for whitewashing?
In order for the treatment of apple trees to have an effect, it is important to properly prepare them for such a procedure. It includes three mandatory steps.
- Cleaning. Apple tree trunks rid of old bark, especially generously covered with lichens. Large segments are removed with a spatula or wooden spatula. The final cleaning is carried out with a metal brush. This procedure is best done after rain or at high humidity. Then the crust will be easier to remove. Remote parts must be burned to prevent the spread of infections and garden pests. For convenience, you can spread an oilcloth around the tree before cleaning.
- Disinfection. It is better to carry out this stage of preparation for whitewashing in dry weather, so that the rains do not wash the solution for disinfection. To conduct it is allowed in several ways. You can spray the apple tree with a sprayer with a solution of copper sulfate, paying particular attention to damaged areas. You can also wash the barrel with a solution of ash or ash with soap. The main thing is to work in gloves. For this, 2 kg of wood ash and a bar of laundry soap are dissolved in a bucket of water.
- Putting on wounds. After removing the old bark on the trunk of the apple may remain cracks, grooves, wounds. They should not be left open. To smear such notches should be clay mortar or special garden putty. A good protective agent is a mixture of manure and clay, diluted in water. Only after these three stages, you can start whitewashing apple trees.
Popular solutions and their preparation
For whitewashing apple trees, different compositions are used. But more often for this purpose apply lime. In the case when the treatment of young trees is required, experts recommend replacing it with chalk.
Reliable long-term result gives whitewash paint. Use water-based varieties or acrylic. Aqueous emulsion paint keeps well on the trunk and perfectly reflects the sun's rays, but does not have a pronounced disinfecting effect, more suitable for spring. Acrylic paint reliably protects the apple tree from pests, including fungal infections. No additional ingredients are required. The disadvantage of this procedure is its substantial cost.
This is one of the most popular tree care products. It is easy to use, it is inexpensive lime. To make it better fixed on the trunk, you can add a little clay. It will give viscosity to the solution.
To whiten the trees simply with “white water” with a low concentration of lime, it makes no sense, it will quickly wash off, it will be necessary to paint in the garden more than once.
The treatment solution is prepared with the following proportions:
- water - 4 liters,
- lime - 600 g,
- milk - 1 cup or instead glue white gel - 4 tbsp. spoons.
All components mix well until smooth. To enhance the disinfecting effect it is good to add another 2 tbsp to this mixture. spoons of blue vitriol. This will protect the apple from many diseases. You can replace copper sulfate with iron. But too often copper preparations should not be used, since it will accumulate in the soil, inhibit the growth of the tree.
In addition to paint and lime, you can use clay and mullein for whitewashing apple trees. The first option is an excellent thermal insulation material that protects the trunks from excessive heating or undercooling, as well as from the effects of strong wind. This natural material does not block the pores of the wood, it can breathe.
The solution of mullein due to its adhesive ability reliably fixes the mixture on the trunk. He also acts as a kind of fertilizer. To prepare the mixture, 2-3 kg of clay is mixed with 10 liters of water, then a mullein is added until the mixture reaches the required consistency.
How to whiten an apple tree?
The composition is applied using conventional brushes on previously prepared (peeled) apple trunks. The composition should evenly, completely cover the tree, without gaps. If the apple tree is adult, then the brush should be wide. If desired, you can use the spray gun, but in this case, the white consumption will be uneconomical.
The height to which the white level should reach is not less than 1.5 meters; it is better to paint the apple trees by 2 meters. You can whiten the trunk to the first skeletal branch, as well as part of the branches to their third part or even half.
You should also clean the ground at the base of the tree and paint it down 4-5 cm. After the protective layer dries, return the soil to its place.
To the autumn whitewash is not washed away with rain at once, you should protect the tree by surrounding it with a polypropylene bag. It is important to choose their white color.
This material will reliably protect the barrel from moisture, but will not prevent the penetration of air. Wrap the trunk of an apple tree first with a thick rope, and then with a bag. So get an air gap. The product is fixed until spring. When the threat of severe frost has passed, it is removed.
Whitewashing will not bring the desired results if it is carried out incorrectly.
Here are the main mistakes that inexperienced gardeners make:
- Low whitewashing trees, at a distance of about half a meter. The minimum level of whitewashing should be 1.5 meters.
- Very young apple trees do not whiten at all and do not treat them from pests, because there are no cracks on their trunks. Alas, young saplings are very susceptible to diseases and attacks of pests. They are best treated with a solution of chalk.
- Treating young seedlings with the same solution as old trees. This is the wrong approach, since young plants have a very thin and tender bark; it will not withstand the aggressive effects of lime.
- Use too liquid consistency composition for whitewashing. In this case, the tool will be easily washed off by the first rain, or the bark will appear from under it. From this whitewash confused very little, so do not save.
- Whitewashing trees too thick composition. This is as bad as a very thin layer. When the coating thickness is more than 3 mm white, they will begin to crack.
- Conduct whitewashing trunks without prior cleaning. Such treatment will protect from temperature extremes, but not from pests. But it is important not to hurt the wood when cleaning, otherwise there will be more harm from this procedure than good.
- Use only spring whitewash. This is better than not whitening the trees. But their reliable protection against negative factors can be provided only by double whitewashing - in spring and autumn.
- Not meeting deadlines for work. In winter, apple trees should be whitened only when they have completely dropped the leaves before the start of frost. In the spring it is important to have time to whiten the trees before the appearance of young foliage.
- Gray color of the protective layer after drying. If it so happens that whitewashing is absorbed, it is necessary to apply another protective layer.
- Long storage of the prepared solution. It is necessary to mix components before work. If lime mortar lasts several days, it will lose its protective properties.
Whitewashing apple trees is a simple procedure. But it should be carried out regularly. This ensures that the trees in the garden will always be healthy and enjoy a bountiful harvest.
When should whitewash be done?
According to the rules, fruit growers should be whitened. at least once a year. But the ideal option would be to perform this procedure twice a year. Gardeners usually do this in the spring and autumn, and each of these procedures performs its specific functions. If the composition is prepared incorrectly, the paint will quickly wear off the wood and will have to whitewash.
Winter whitewashing apple trees
This procedure has a completely different mission. In the autumn it is carried out in order to destroy the pests that live in the bark. Often very such insects are arranged for wintering in the bark of trees. Whitewashing apple trees contributes destroy various bugs. The composition has the ability to burn eggs and pupae of insects.
It is especially important to carry out this procedure in the area where there may be winter thaws. For example, in the southern edges, the shtams are not warmed for winter, therefore it is recommended to whitewash the trees.
In winter, it is not customary to perform this procedure with trees. But if we are talking about an apple orchard located in the southern strip, then this manipulation can be carried out in the winter, moreover, if you forgot to do this in the fall.
Whitening plants preferably on a dry day in order that the composition had time to dry. If you do this on an overcast day, your composition may simply be washed away by the rain.
If you wish not to do this on your own, you can easily turn to specialists who will be happy to help you with this operation. In addition, in addition, they can perform other procedures aimed at caring for trees. In particular, pruning, spraying, planting, feeding trees and much more.
Popular recipes for whitewash
As noted above, whitewashing is a necessary and proper procedure for apple trees. But what components will be included in the composition, it already depends on what mission it will carry whitewash. It will be the destruction of harmful insects or it will be the prevention of sunburn. let's consider a few recipes whitening compounds for trees.
Very often gardening lovers choose to whitewash apple lime. And it is not surprising, because the cost of this material is very affordable. But as you know, lime does not have such features as adhesion and good viscosity, therefore, in order to conveniently apply a solution to wood, either clay or milk is added to it. This makes the composition more viscous. But not everyone believes that it is necessary. For example, workers of housing and communal services save money and paint the stumps of trees with a practically transparent liquid. But in this case, obtaining full protection is unlikely. Most likely, this procedure will have only an aesthetic function.
If you love your trees and want to properly care for them, then the composition must be more thick and viscous. This is necessary so that the bark of the trees is covered over a thick layer of composition, and accordingly it will be erased much slower. If you add milk in lime, then it is necessary to carry out staining at least twice. But the addition of clay in the composition will eliminate the need to apply whitewash several times and it will be quite enough to process the bark of the tree once. If the operation is carried out without additional additives, using only lime, then it will be necessary to whiten the apple tree trunks at least five times, and maybe more, until the desired layer thickness is reached.
Now we describe a couple of recipes. This composition will be relevant if you want to protect the trees from sunburn. For this you will need:
- lime - 250-300 grams,
- PVA glue - about two tablespoons. But if it is not at hand, then 0.5 tablespoon of milk will replace it,
- water - 2, 2.5 liters.
All of the above ingredients must be mixed until a homogeneous mass. If desired and possible, you can add 1 tablespoon of copper sulfate and 1 teaspoon of DDT powder. This will help protect your trees from various diseases.
If you need whitewash young treesit is better to use chalk instead of lime. In this case, the prerequisite will be the addition of fungicides - this is necessary to protect against pests and to prevent possible diseases. But lime is not recommended for use in the early years of the tree because of the possibility of injury.
And the composition for autumn application on apples is already prepared differently. The mission of this whitewash is the destruction of insects and protection from putrid diseases. For the preparation we need:
- Water - 2-2.5 liters, but the ideal amount would be the same amount of infusion of chamomile or tobacco,
- Copper sulphate or iron sulphate - 2 tablespoons,
- A thickener in the form of a mixture of PVA and PVA glue dispersions in a ratio of 1: 1 + 0.5-1 tablespoon,
- In order to provide protection from various rodents, you can add a small amount of creolin or a couple drops of "Knockdown."
How to carry out the whitewash procedure?
It is quite simple. In order to whiten a tree trunk, the process should be divided into two stages: preparation and coloring.
To prepare the tree for coloring, you need to clear the trunk from the old bark. For this you need use a spatula. After this stripping, the tree trunk must be “brushed out” a little with a brush.
Coloring is carried out with a brush. The main rule is that the composition is applied evenly over the surface of the barrel. Both children and adults can easily cope with this task. So you can add to this and your kids.
What is it for?
In order to understand the reason for whitening trees, it is worthwhile to tell a little about their bark. For a tree, the bark is like leather for humans. It encounters adverse and dangerous environmental conditions first and protects internal organs. There are a lot of such unfavorable conditions for wood: sudden temperature drops, piercing winds, severe frosts and sun-rays, pests and rodent teeth. The bark of a tree can get sunburns or frostbite; it hurts, exfoliates and cracks. As well as damage to human skin, bark injury leads to the penetration of infection and pests into the tree, its weakening, premature withering and death.
For this reason, it is necessary to protect the bark of trees.
To protect and need whitewash, it allows you to:
- protect the bark from burns - in winter and early spring, when there is no foliage that serves as a natural protection from the sun's rays,
- protect the apple tree from temperature fluctuations and prevent cracking of the bark,
- protect the apple tree from the action of insect pests, which lay the larvae in the bark.
Did you know?Limestone is formed on the seabed as a result of the accumulation of organic residues (mainly from shells). The most intensive limestone formation occurred in the Silurian and Jurassic periods.
It is a mistake to treat the whitewashing of apple trees as a decorative occupation. Experienced gardeners have noticed that whitewashing tree bark is an effective protective measure.
When should be whitewashed apple trees?
Садоводы утверждают, что наиболее полезно белить деревья два-три раза в год:
- основная и наиболее важная побелка деревьев проводится осенью в следующие сроки: с октября по ноябрь,
- обновляющая, повторная побелка деревьев весной проводится в такие сроки — с конца февраля по начало марта,
- the third whitewash is done in July.
If you want to plant an apple orchard, familiarize yourself with a variety of apple varieties: short, columnar, early and late ripening, winter-hardy.
Consider when whitewashing is done in the spring.
They do it in February - early March, at a time when a tree trunk can warm up to a temperature of 11ºC during the day, which contributes to early sap flow. At the same time, winter and the beginning of spring have very cold nights, when the temperature can drop to -10ºC, this will result in the juice freezing, tissue rupture and the formation of frost breeders.
White paint applied to the trunks of apple trees and skeletal branches, effectively repels the rays of the sun, helps protect the bark from overheating and protects the apple tree from early awakening.
Let's see when to whiten an apple in the fall. It is whitewash at this time of year is considered the most important. Fruits of apple trees without this procedure not only lose their decorative effect, but also die, since sharp fluctuations in temperature in autumn and winter lead to severe damage to the bark of the apple tree.
Whitewash is necessary in october-novemberbefore the frosts start. If you successfully hold whitewash, the garden will be precisely protected from severe frosts, from the formation of frost on the branches and trunks, as well as from hungry rodents that eat the bark of apple trees.
Learn more about what care measures your garden will need in the fall: cherries, pears, peaches, grapes, currants.
Is it necessary to whiten young saplings
Young seedlings with greenish bark and incompletely formed wood are advised. do not whiten. The main reason for the refusal of whitewashing is that whitewashing can burn the unformed bark of the tree and contribute to the air insulation of the bark of the tree and wood. Because of this, metabolic processes are disturbed in young seedlings.
Experienced gardeners are advised to whiten both adults and young apple trees. If young apple trees do not whiten at all, then freezers and sunburn can damage the seedling much more than whitewashing. In order not to damage the apple sapling when whitewashing, you need to adhere such recommendations:
- Halve the concentration of the prepared lime solution.
- Instead of a solution of lime, you can use a special water-based or acrylic paint for trees.
- You can also use a silver biomask.
Did you know?In the XVII-XVIII centuries, lime was the main astringent component in the construction of houses and temples. The common people could not afford to build a house of limestone, but whitewashing the house was available.
The most popular compositions whitewash
Young apple trees can be whitened with various mixtures. The main thing is that after painting the bark was white, it could breathe and was slowly washed off. Mixtures with such criteria include the following: lime mortar, water-based paint, water-dispersion paint.
In order for the bleaching mixture to stick better to the bark of a young apple tree, can add:
- laundry soap,
- PVA glue,
- casein glue.
Means for whitewashing can be prepared by yourself. Here are some simple recipes for whitewashing young apple trees, and we will answer the question: how to whiten an apple tree in the fall.
The composition of the mixture must include components of three types:
- Means which gives a whiteness (chalk or lime).
- The means by which the solution will adhere to the cortex.
- Means that disinfects (usually used copper sulfate).
Important!Whitewashing should be exclusively white. No other color will protect young saplings from sunburn and temperature changes. The whiter the better.
In order to prepare a whitewash solution, you need to mix all the ingredients according to the option chosen. All ingredients are stirred until smooth.
The prepared solution should not be too thick, otherwise a thick layer of whitewash will peel off. A too liquid mixture will drain on the apple tree. The correct variant of the prepared solution is when the thickness of the applied mixture is 2-3 mm. 1st option:
- 2.5 kg of lime,
- 1 bucket of water
- 0.5 kg of copper sulphate,
- 0.2 kg casein glue.
- 2.5 kg of slaked lime,
- 1 bucket of water
- 0.3 kg of copper sulphate,
- 1 kg of oily clay
- 1 spade of cow dung.
- 2.5 kg of chalk,
- 1 bucket of water
- 10 tablespoons flour paste.
- 2.5 kg of chalk,
- 1 bucket of water
- 10 tablespoons of soap.
- 2 kg of chalk,
- 10 liters of water
- 0.2 kg of clay.
Important!In order for hares and mice not to touch the bark of the trees, 20 g of carbolic acid should be added to the solution per bucket of the prepared solution.
Rules of the procedure
Consider how to whiten an apple in the fall and spring.
If whitewashing for the winter was not carried out, then in the spring, apart from whitening the apple tree, it is necessary to prepare the skeletal branches and the trunk of the trees. It is better to perform the following procedures on a damp, cloudy day.
To start an apple tree is necessary free from old dead barkTo do this, spread the fabric or oilcloth under the tree and remove with a wooden scraper pieces of bark that easily lag behind. It is necessary to process the entire stem and a third of the skeletal branches. For work, you can take the old gloves, and the exfoliated bark is better to burn. After cleaning the bark, it must be subjected to disinfectionFor this, on a sunny day, treat the shtamb and the base of the branches with special means: a 5% solution of blue vitriol or HOM, Abiga-Peak, and Oxyf.
Proper spraying is done with a spray (fine) from a very close distance, so that the liquid forms a mist, which smoothly settles on the bark, and does not flow along it. It is necessary to carry out spraying in the morning, so that by the evening the apple tree dries out.
It is undesirable to disinfect annually with preparations containing copper, since the metal accumulates in the tree and its concentration becomes toxic to the apple tree. In order to protect your garden from such a phenomenon, you need to alternate spraying a soap and ash solution that is harmless to the tree, but cleans the bark no worse, and fungicide treatment.
The fungicides such as “Delan”, “Strobe”, “Poliram”, “Albit”, “Skor” are fighting with apple diseases.
In order to heal injuries and cracks, which were formed during the processing of wood, use garden paste "RanNet", consisting of copper sulfate and humate. Since the paste is not moisture resistant, the procedure is carried out in dry weather.
Also recommend the use of paste "BlagoSad" Ukrainian production, which is well responded to experienced gardeners. It is made on a natural fat base and perfectly kept on the trunk.
After all the preparatory work is done, proceed with the procedure. The optimal height is calculated by the formula: the entire stem plus a third of the skeletal branches. Mature trees are whitewashed at a height of 1.5-1.8 meters, but in principle, every experienced gardener tries to whitewash them higher.
In general, the process of whitewashing in the fall and spring is almost the same.
After reading this article and following the simple tips, you can make your garden healthy and well-groomed, and he will pay you a solid harvest.
Whitewashing apple trees - when and how to whiten?
The health and integrity of the bark ensures the vital longevity of the fruit tree and, accordingly, obtaining an annual healthy crop.
If you do not take care of and care for the bark of the apple tree, then frequent breaks of stem tissues, peeling large areas of bark can lead to premature death of the tree.
Why whiten apple trees?
The answer to this question lies on the surface. The fact is that the white color is able to reflect the sun's rays, and the color of the bark of the apple trees is dark, so it attracts light rays, which leads to the formation of sunburn.
Sunburns come from the end of January, the intensity of their manifestation increases with increasing daylight hours and sun activity.
Therefore, if the bark of the tree is not whitewashed, then it will attract the sun's rays, as a result of heating of the apple tree trunk during the daytime, sap flow begins to occur inside it.
In the evening, when the sun is gone, the temperature drops sharply, which leads to crystallization of the juice, and, accordingly, to ruptures of stem tissues - this is called sunburn.
Exactly, like in summer, the dark color of the bark attracts the heat of the sun, which in turn leads to overheating of the stem of the fruit tree, excessive sap flow during fruit ripening, and sunburn.
And when the tree trunk has a white color, it reflects the sun's rays, thus avoiding the occurrence of burns. Whitewashing apple trees is their external protection against unpredictable weather conditions, as well as against various pests.
The most effective is the autumn whitewashing of apple trees, but if it was missed, it is recommended that with the onset of spring, as soon as the frost subsides, to make the staining of the trunks of fruit trees.
In standard situations, when spring whitewashing is a repeated event, it can be carried out at a later period, when the snow is almost thawing.
How to whiten and how to prepare a solution?
How to whiten and which substances are best used for whitewashing depends on what period the whitewash is made, and also for what purpose: to prevent the occurrence of sunburn, or to protect the tree from various pests. Consider several options for preparing solutions at home.
The most popular whitening method involves the use of lime. This is the most profitable way to process fruit trees, especially if there are a lot of them in the garden. To prepare the solution will need:
- clay, either casein or wood glue,
To extinguish the lime with water, add 50% by weight of lime to clay, or glue for viscosity and prepare a solution of consistency, like sour cream. The solution should be very thick, since during processing it will cover the tree trunk with a thick layer that will not be washed off as quickly as whitewash with liquid lime.
In order to protect your apple tree from the sun's rays and at the same time make the treatment of various insect pests, you can use the following composition:
- lime pushonka about three hundred grams,
- half a glass of milk, or liquid glue, which can be found in your home,
- two liters water,
- 5 grams of blue vitriol,
- 5 grams of powdered substance - DDT.
In cases when young saplings are processed, it is best to use chalk, since lime can slightly damage a young, not yet strong crust of a tree. Mel recommended for use throughout all treatments during the first years of the apple tree life.
For autumn processing of fruit crops The following solution is used:
- 2 liters of water, or you can apply chamomile extracts,
- 40 grams of copper sulphate, you can use iron sulphate, then the apple tree will receive an additional battery - iron, along with protection from insects,
- as a thickener, you can use glue or clay in the ratio of 50% of the total amount of the entire contents,
- it is also necessary to add creolin and "Knockdown" in order to protect the apple tree from various rodents who are not averse to eat the bark of the apple tree.
Among other things, adult fruit trees can be treated with water-based paint or acrylic. Their color should be necessarily white, and not with some sort of gray shades.
When processing such compounds, it is necessary to add antifungal preparations to the paint, which are capable of creating a protective film around the trunk of the fruit tree to prevent the occurrence of all kinds of tree diseases.
First stage - This is a manual cleansing of a tree trunk from an old and lagging bark. This procedure is best done after the rain.
It is necessary with hands, or with the help of a plastic spatula to remove from the trunk and skeletal branches all the existing lichens, mosses, exfoliated parts of the bark. To clean narrow openings in the trunk, it is best to use fine wood chips or a wooden knife.
Clearing the trunk of lichens and mosses - This is a kind of cleansing of various kinds of bacteria and harmful microorganisms, so all the cleaned content is best burned.
The third stage it is necessary to repair all the wounds on the trunk. This can be done with the help of clay talkers.
Cook it easy enough. You need to take two hundred grams of pure clay, one hundred grams of manure and a small amount of straw dust. Dilute all ingredients with water to the consistency of sour cream. With this solution, fluff all wounds and cracks on the trunk of a tree.
In addition, the stores have a huge selection of different putties for fruit trees.
If there is no desire to prepare a therapeutic substance on its own, then you can use the finished product, for example, a paste has a very good effect.RanNet", Which is also suitable for processing cut parts of branches after autumn pruning.
Well, the fourth stage is the immediate whitening of the fruit culture.
Whitewash "Bitumast TM".
Ready mix for whitewashing.
Whitewash to fight against: fungus, hares, rodents, ants
To protect the bark of the tree from fungus, hares, rodents and ants during the autumn whitewashing of the fruit tree, you must use whitening solution based on copper sulfate with the addition of creolin and "Knockdown".
Such a solution will allow to destroy the fungal spores, which are most often located in the microcracks of the tree bark deposited under the bark of the ants' eggs.
Also from this solution will emanate a frightening odor for hares and rodents, which in the winter season are not averse to feasting on apple bark.
Reasons for whitening an apple tree in autumn, spring and winter
Whitewashing apple trees in spring designed to protect the fruit tree from sunburn of varying intensity.
This is because spring is characterized by unpredictable weather conditions. If the spring day can be sunny and warm, then at night the air temperature may drop to a minus mark on the thermometer.
This temperature difference is the main cause of sunburn. Therefore, it is necessary at the end of March to hold spring whitewashing of apple tree trunks to protect your trees from such damage.
Whitewashing apple trees in the fall is also necessary, as in the spring. This is done to prepare the apple tree for winter, to destroy most of the insects - pests that love to spend the winter in the pores of the bark and under the bark.
And Autumn whitewash helps protect the apple tree from the onset of various fungal diseases. Since the copper sulphate contained in the solution, which is carried out processing of wood, can destroy all fungal spores that are in the bark.
Winter whitewashing, as a rule, is carried out only in the southern regions of the country, where winter is not distinguished by frosty severity.
Look at the video answers to the most common questions of gardeners about the whitewashing of fruit trees in spring and autumn: