General information

How to grow teasel

The bristles of the pile bud are beautiful dried flowers, and many decorate their apartments with them. Even with the current abundance of cheap artificial flowers from China, napping cones are still snapping up quite smartly in the market. I quickly mastered all the wisdom of growing teasel.

My land is sunny, with light fertile loam. In September or in early spring I dig it and mark the grooves at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other. Quite large seeds (3-4 × 1.5 mm) I throw them one by one in 5-7 cm. It is not necessary to sow thicker, because germination of seeds is excellent, almost 100%.

In the first year, the plants form basal rosettes of large leaves. At the end of September I sit them more spaciously: I make a distance of 30-40 cm in the rows and 60-70 cm between rows. I mark the landing holes with a thick, sharply sharpened peg. If this operation is done on a cloudy rainy day, everything goes like clockwork.

In the second year, branched stems up to 2 m high grow from the rosettes, on which tops appear capula inflorescences at the end of summer. Small (12-14 mm) pale lilac flowers are arranged in them as in a honeycomb. The fruit trees in appearance resemble a cone.

So, for the formation of long tops of the stems and the correct form of large stems, I consciously limit the number of inflorescences to 7-10. on one plant. First, I pinch the extra side shoots on the main stem, and then on the left shoots of the first order. Quality goods always produce more profitable, and even despite the high price, it is bought up in the first place.

I cut this dry flowers (cones become whitish) in September-October in dry weather. Well-ripened pile buds specifically and no need to dry. Stand a week in the room - and are ready for painting. And this, I will tell you, is a special matter, determined by the taste and predilection of the manufacturer. Here, as they say, who in that much. Ink is used ink, mascara, gouache, watercolor and even spray paint. Once I managed to get even red ink for recording devices (based on eosin). The earthenware shoots painted by them were very effective and were in high demand in the market.

In my opinion, a nap cone among other dried flowers is like a rose among fresh flowers. She is so beautiful in a vase that she doesn’t need any "companions".

In winter, so pleasing to the eye are bouquets of dried plants that do not require any maintenance or watering!

Eryngium, veynik, kovyly, lunik, bodyak, mordovnik, tsmin, grivasty barley, miscanthus. And for a few years I have been growing a wonderful teasel in my plot. This biennial was once cultivated for napping flannels, velvet, wool fabrics, for which he received the name "fleece cone."

Teasel Sowing - a thorny plant, reaching a two-meter height. It has large lanceolate leaves that grow together in pairs, clasping dryish stems with many spines. The main feature of the plant is the capitate heads up to 10 cm long, crowning the branched tops of the stems. This, in fact, is the "pile buds."

The teasel is cold-resistant and drought-resistant, not demanding on the soil, but develops better in drained fertile open areas.

Propagated by its seeds, sowing them in the spring or winter. In the first year the rosette of leaves is formed, and flowering occurs in the second year.

"Cones" for dry bouquets are usually cut in early September in dry weather. Mittens are necessary for this. Stems are dried indoors or under a canopy. If desired, "bumps" can be painted, but this is a matter of taste.

Description of teasel

The plant is not safe; it has a thorny stem for protection from animals, and a special structure of inflorescence from insects where water accumulates. The teasel belongs to biennial plants, begins to bloom in the second year, in the first year it is gaining abundant green mass, rooting.

The root system is powerful, branched, so it requires plenty of space for growth. The plant is aggressive towards tender annuals, does not get along with annual dahlias and violets. Feels good in splendid isolation or with other succulents.

What does the teasel grass or nap pile look like?

The rosette of leaves is collected at the base, from the center of which a long stem with a perianth stands above in the form of an oblong cone. Stems can be several, up to 10 pieces. Some varieties give 20 different perianth perianths - cones. The growth of the flower, the size of the buds, the number of peduncles, due to the quality of the soil and its fertility.

Flowers appear by August and hold until mid-September. Small, tubular, they fill the depressions of the bract. The color range ranges from pink and white to purple. Nature dresses up a cone with her own style: uneven opening of the petals, encircling the rings. Miniature flowers go down the cone from the bottom up in a spiral. The combination of green background and pastel shades of flowers sets the playful mood of the flower.

In place of flowers, seeds are formed - large tetrahedral grains. Suitable for collecting dry sunny autumn weather. If you do not remove the cones with seeds in time, then you can get offspring in unwanted places by self-sowing.

Types of teasel with a description and photo

The most popular among gardeners and florists are 2 types: teasel and field teasel. In total, breeders bred about 300 species collected in 10 genera. With the development of floristics, the need appeared for new types and forms of dried flowers. Breeding enterprises produce new varieties that are resistant to disease and weather conditions, with a high decorative value.

Dipsacus sativus

It is a cultivated plant, the purpose of which was originally industrial in nature. It was grown as a device for napping fabrics. Europe supplied tufted cones around the world. At the end of the 18th century, it was brought by traders to Russia. Before the advent of metal fixtures and automated production, the cone was used to make fleecy cotton and woolen fabrics (flannel, drape).

Teaselatum sowing, nap cone, white Dipsacus sativus

The view is unpretentious, but loves the warm and humid climate. The best place to grow steel is the Crimean peninsula, the Caucasus, Central Asia. Bract, forming a cone, large, and scales elastic, strong, pointed downwards. Unlike the wild-growing species, it is distinguished by plasticity and does not break when used intensively. It reaches 1-2 meters in height, thanks to its high sturdy pedicels, it keeps well and does not deform after rain and wind. In total, a bush can have up to 20 cones of 10 cm in size. On one plant you can find small and large buds that are perfect for decorative art.

Seeds are large, fill the entire cone. Seed fatty acid content reaches 30%, so they are great for songbirds. This is another use of the plant. Ornithologists have noticed that the sound of the voice, the general well-being of the bird after the teasel is improving. So they began to plant a flower like food for birds.

Giving a beautiful perianth-cone, teasel became the darling of florists, interior designers. It is used to decorate the room both in its natural form and with the use of coloring and decorative elements.

Dipsacus forest or field Dipsacus Fullonum = dipsacus sylvestris

Teasel Forest photo Dipsacus Fullonum

Wild plant found in nature on the slopes of water bodies of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Asia. The popular name “brush” received a cone for its bract. In contrast to the cultural species, the field teasel has a relatively smaller size, simplicity of appearance. It blooms in July and early August with purple, white or pink flowers. Chaotic spread of seeds and uncontrolled growth can create impassable thickets of teasel, which impedes animal watering.

Wild teasel is used for the preparation of medicinal mixtures and decoctions that have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic properties. For preparing suitable one-year roots, leaves, perianth. Cones are sometimes used as a means of saturating the body with polyunsaturated acids (suitable for dietary nutrition).

Care and growing features

Teasel gmelina Dipsacus gmelinii photo

For teasel there are no special growing conditions. In order for the plant to please the eye, it is enough to comply with the standard conditions for watering and cleaning. Optimally chosen growth conditions will not make you wait long for a result. The second year after sowing will surely please with beautiful cones.

A place. For teasel sunshine, without excess of moisture, preferably open space. Neighbors pick similar care so that there is no conflict.

The soil. Before planting it is necessary to evaluate the soil on the site. It should not be black soil or with excess nutrients. Too fertile soil gives a lot of green mass, depriving the plant of flowering. It grows well on loamy, loose earth. In a dense soil to make a mulch, so that oxygen can flow freely to the roots.

How to grow teasel from seed

Growing teasel from seed photo

  • Seeds are sown in open ground in early spring or autumn under the snow.
  • Large seed is immersed in the ground by 2.5 cm, sprinkled on top.
  • For quick germination in the spring, the seeds are soaked for 2-5 hours, then the shoots will appear faster.
  • It is not necessary to soak in the autumn. Spring moisture will be enough for germination.
  • It is better to immediately determine the permanent place where the teasel will be alone or with other large succulents.

If the bushes have risen often, then they are seated at a distance of 40 to 60 cm. The green mass requires a large area so that growth is normal and the flowering is lush. Transplantation is carried out in the fall or early spring in the second year of growth. They dig up a bush together with a lump of earth, transfer it to a permanent place.

Like succulents, the plant does not require frequent watering. To determine when the bush requires moisture, will help the skewer. Drying the middle layer of soil - a signal to watering. In the rainy summer additional watering is not required. During the period of drought, you can leave a supply of water in an inverted bottle for drip irrigation.

It is not required, but for active growth of the bract you can pour organic universal fertilizers for the ovary of buds 1 time per season.

Weeding is obligatory. Weeds do not give sufficient nutrition to the roots, they tighten the soil, which threatens with suppuration of the root system, destruction of the bush.

Wintering: tolerates cold. Cover for the winter period begins after the temperature is set to -5-7ºС. When the soil freezes, the bush is covered with dry leaves and spruce branches. This method will avoid spring frost, and germination will be timely.

Cutting and storage

Dipsacus strigosus bristly teasel photo

Each master needs his own special lump, so when creating a blank, the nature of the composition and its purpose should be taken into account. Perianth ripen in September, having a clear shape and color. If you miss the sunny collection season, the rains will ruin the color, make it brown, dirty. Fans of green inflorescences begin to gather before flowering - in mid-July or early August, waiting for the right size.

Tools: pruner, thick gloves to protect your hands. The bush is protected by prickly strong thorns, located along the entire length of the stem and near the bract.

Method: cut off the cone at the base, leaving a small tail of the stem, hang down for 4-5 days until completely dry. Then clean the bract from the sepal and upper tuft.

Storage: boxes or boxes of cones are left in a dark, dry, ventilated room.

Using Teasel

The plant has received recognition from both designers and home healers. Its application is multifaceted. Use the entire plant as a whole, including roots, leaves and bracts.
Design:

  • composing single-component and group bouquets (need lumps on the pedicel),
  • bouquet baskets and gift boxes (need green young cones),
  • panel of dried flowers (mature bracts without flowers or with flowers),
  • interior decoration, holiday compositions, decorative raisins (cones of different sizes).

Ethnoscience:

Anti-inflammatory and diuretic decoctions for colds or ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, edema, metabolic disorders.
Cooking broth: 1 tsp. chopped roots and leaves of teasel pour 400 ml of water, boil for 20 minutes, insist about an hour. Take 1 tbsp. 6 times a day before meals. Juice has antioxidant properties.

  • Relieves inflammation, removes redness after bruises, boils.
  • Prevents rash, relieves itching after insect bites.
  • It is used as a painkiller for rheumatism and gout.

Preparation of ointment: teasel ash (burn the dried whole plant, grind into powder) combine with butter 82.5% (you can use homemade). Store in the refrigerator for 3 months.

Teasel in garden design

Plant teasel nap bump in landscape design photo

On a white background of a snow-covered garden, the cones do not fall off, but acquire a new color, decorating the territory even in winter. Planted on lawns or flowerpots so that you can easily get to the winter photo shoot.
Care gardener for teasel must bear fruit, and cones will delight all year round.

Botanical description

This herb is two years old or perennial, rising to the ground from one to two and a half meters with the help of stems covered with thorns or, depending on the species, a kind of bristles. Skin-like leaves are deeply incised and also have thorns. The teasel flowers are small but numerous and are colored with various shades from pale yellow to radically mauve.

Flowers, grouped into cone-shaped inflorescences, are placed on long peduncles, on which they bloom in waves, rising along a cone-spruce up and down. Flexible scales of bracts, equipped at the ends with hooks, and became the main tool for which textile workers in the past used them to impart hairiness to woolen fabrics.

Distribution and habitat

Growing up in its native places in Europe, Asia and North Africa, the teasel gradually reached both Americas, intermarried with Australia, New Zealand and even with South Africa.

Field species of teasel can now be found on arable land, wasteland, vegetable gardens, rivers and streams, forest edges, roadsides, meadows and glades. That is, it grows almost everywhere. The teasel, the sowing campaign, as the name suggests, grows where people sowed it.

Popular species of teasel

Although tireless breeders have already bred nearly three hundred species of this plant, today two main species of teasel are popular: sowing and field crops, which is also forest.

  1. Sowing, supplying bump to the person, was especially in demand at the time of the beginning of the active development of the production of woolen and cotton fabrics. With its help, hairiness was given, for example, the famous flannels and drapes. Then the technical revolution replaced the natural cones with their metal equivalent, and the cultivated plant quickly began to lose its place in the sun. However, in some cases, the manual production of high-value fabrics and today, pile cones with their more delicate and fabric-friendly hooks look more preferable than their metal counterpart. This type of plant, reaching a height of one to two meters, gives about twenty large, up to ten centimeters in length, cones, beloved by interior designers and florists. And the teasel seeds turned out to be very popular singing birds.
  2. Field, unlike its cultural congener, it is more clumsy in appearance and has a smaller size. In mid-summer, it blooms white, pink, purple and serves as a source for the preparation of some healing medicines in traditional medicine.

Medical applications

Although the teasel is not listed in the pharmacopy and its composition has not yet been thoroughly studied by medical specialists, some of its nutrients are still known. For example, it records the presence of iridoids, which explain the pronounced diuretic and diaphoretic properties of a plant, as well as its anti-inflammatory and disinfecting qualities. The ability to heal wounds and prevent inflammation of the grass is also obliged to flavonoids present in it.

Traditional healers use teasel when:

  • inflammatory processes
  • tuberculosis and other lung diseases,
  • rheumatism,
  • gout
  • diseases of the genitourinary system,
  • dermatosis
  • eczema,
  • psoriasis,
  • arthritis,
  • pain symptoms
  • cracks in the skin
  • itching after insect bites,
  • metabolic disorders,
  • cold
  • ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract,
  • swelling.

In landscape design

Не опадающие осенью янтарные шишки выглядят чрезвычайно живописно на фоне белого снега в зимнем саду, заметно оживляя ландшафт. Они прекрасно смотрятся зимой на тех же местах клумб и газонов, где росли летом и украшали собой участок белыми, светло-жёлтыми, фиолетовыми и лиловыми соцветиями. Очень стильно выглядят сухие букеты из ворсянки в садовых вазах на белом снежном фоне.

Во флористике

Cones of this plant are in great demand among florists who build picturesque dry bouquets of them and various elegant compositions that adorn the interiors of residential premises and offices.

The natural dark amber shade of the bracts of the teasel is complemented by all sorts of colors that are obtained when painting the cones:

  • mascara
  • watercolors
  • in ink
  • food coloring
  • bleach,
  • aniline dyes.
During the New Year holidays, the teasel bumps impregnated with saline solution look very impressive, as a result of which they begin to sparkle with salt crystals in the festive lights, as if covered with snow.

Conditions of detention

Comfortably, the teasel feels in open solar spaces, although it quite well tolerates light penumbra. It does not like excess moisture in the soil. Since this herb develops a powerful root system, it needs a lot of land. Therefore, if it is planted near weaker plants, they will be quickly replaced by a teasel. Optimally plant it near the bushes that will restrain the expansion of the teasel, without bringing her any harm.

Soil and fertilizer

Best of all, teasel grows on light, loamy soils with a slightly acidic reaction. Unlike most plants, it is not something that does not require fertile soil such as chernozem, but it is even contraindicated. An excess of nutrients stimulates the wild growth of green mass, which inhibits flowering. That is, in plant nutrition the plant practically does not need. Moreover, many experts believe that it feeds itself, picking up the slyly arranged bottom leaves of insects, which, dying, and fertilize the plant. In any case, even on poor sandy soil without dressings, the teasel feels fine.

Watering and moisture

This herb is completely without regular watering. In the dry season, it is enough drip irrigation, and in the rainy season in general it is not necessary to water the plant. Easily tolerates low humidity up to 40%, but feels more comfortable when air humidity is 50-60%.

Relation to temperature

The nap cone quite successfully copes with the cold. But it needs shelter when the sub-zero temperatures fall to 5-7 degrees. After freezing the soil should be insulated bushes with dry leaves, sawdust or nonwoven garden material. This will not only prevent the plant from freezing, but also prevent the threat of early, before thawing the roots of leaf development.

Reproduction and planting

The pile bud is propagated by seeds, which it gives in abundance. Sow seeds in early spring in early spring or autumn before the snow.

The whole process proceeds basically like this:

  1. Large seeds of this herb are presoaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or flower fertilizers.
  2. Choose a permanent place of growth of the future bush.
  3. Since the seeds have almost one hundred percent germination, they are sown individually at a distance of up to 7 cm from each other to a depth of 2.5 cm and sprinkled with earth.

Preparation of raw materials

Before you start collecting parts of the plant, you should decide what they will be needed for. Both the procurement process itself and its terms depend on it. If the cones are collected for later use in the creation of dry bouquets and other types of floristics, then the harvesting of inflorescences should begin in September before the onset of regular rains, which can seriously spoil their appearance. Those who want to collect green inflorescences, should start their harvesting from mid-July to early August.

Possible difficulties in growing

The unpretentiousness of this plant does not cause almost any difficulties in its cultivation. However, something needs to be considered when growing teasel. For example, the abundance of seeds produced by it and the tendency to self-seeding. That is, if you do not keep track of and miss the moment when the seeds ripen and begin to crumble on the ground, then you can get abundant and unwanted self-seeding on the site. It should be remembered that, being a very prickly and tall grass, the pile lump quickly grows in breadth. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant near garden paths, places where children play or adults walk.

Pests, diseases and prevention

This unpretentious to the growing conditions of the grass, in addition, is very resistant to diseases and pests. However, sometimes it is exposed to powdery mildew, which can be diagnosed by grayish-white spots on the leaves and stems and vybryvaniya stem stem.

The Vorpsink eel is attacking it, as a result of which the damaged cones are dried and voids are formed in them. Sometimes it is not averse to eat this grass mouse.

Since all this happens rarely, some special preventive measures are usually not taken, but a couple of times per season pollinate the grass with sulfur or spray it with preventative means against plant diseases.

There are not so few flowers that can please the human eye, not only in summer but also in winter. So the teasel does it to the full. But that dexterity with which this grass was re-trained as an indispensable assistant in weaving production as a favorite of florists and landscape designers deserves no less respect.